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Sequencing of cDNA Clones Expressed in Adipose Tissues of Korean Cattle

  • Bong, J.J.;Tong, K.;Cho, K.K.;Baik, M.G.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.483-489
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    • 2005
  • To understand the molecular mechanisms that regulate intramuscular fat deposition and its release, cDNA clones expressed in adipose tissues of Korean cattle were identified by differential screening from adipose tissue cDNA library. By partial nucleotide sequencing of 486 clones and a search for sequence similarity in NCBI nucleotide databases, 245 clones revealed unique clones. By a functional grouping of the clones, 14% of the clones were categorized to metabolism and enzyme-related group (stearoyl CoA desaturase, lactate dehydrogenase, fatty acid synthase, ATP citrate lyase, lipoprotein lipase, acetyl CoA synthetase, etc), and 6% to signal transduction/cell cycle-related group (C/EBP, cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein, calmodulin, cyclin G1, cyclin H, etc), and 4% to cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix components (vimentin, ankyrin 2, gelosin, syntenin, talin, prefoldin 5). The obtained 245 clones will be useful to study lipid metabolism and signal transduction pathway in adipose tissues and to study obesity in human. Some clones were subjected to full-sequencing containing open reading frame. The cDNA clone of bovine homolog of human prefoldin 5 gene had a total length of 959 nucleotides coding for 139 amino acids. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences of bovine prefoldin 5 with those of human and mouse showed over 95% identity. The cDNA clone of bovine homolog of human ubiquitin-like/S30 ribosomal fusion protein gene had a total length of 484 nucleotides coding for 133 amino acids. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences of bovine ubiquitin-like/S30 ribosomal fusion protein gene with those of human, rat and mouse showed over 97% identity. The cDNA clone of bovine homolog of human proteolipid protein 2 mRNA had a total length of 928 nucleotides coding for 152 amino acids. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences of bovine proteolipid protein 2 with those of human and mouse showed 87.5% similarity. The cDNA clone of bovine homolog of rat thymosin beta 4 had a total length of 602 nucleotides coding for 44 amino acids. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences of bovine thymosin beta 4 gene with those of human, mouse and rat showed 93.1% similarity. The cDNA clone of bovine homolog of human myotrophin mRNA had a total length of 790 nucleotides coding for 118 amino acids. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences of bovine myotrophin gene with those of human, mouse and rat showed 83.9% similarity. The functional role of these clones in adipose tissues needs to be established.

Metabolic Characteristic of the Liver of Dairy Cows during Ketosis Based on Comparative Proteomics

  • Xu, Chuang;Wang, Zhe;Liu, Guowen;Li, Xiaobing;Xie, Guanghong;Xia, Cheng;Zhang, Hong You
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.7
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    • pp.1003-1010
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    • 2008
  • The objective of the present study was to identify differences in the expression levels of liver proteins between healthy and ketotic cows, establish a liver metabolic interrelationship of ketosis and elucidate the metabolic characteristics of the liver during ketosis. Liver samples from 8 healthy multiparous Hostein cows and 8 ketotic cows were pooled by health status and the proteins were separated by two-dimensional-electrophoresis (2D-E). Statistical analysis of gels was performed using PDQuest software 8.0. The differences in the expression levels of liver proteins (p<0.05) between ketotic and healthy cows were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF-TOF) tandem mass spectrometry. Five enzymes/proteins were identified as being differentially expressed in the livers of ketotic cows: expression of 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase type-2 (HCDH), acetyl-coenzyme A acetyltransferase 2 (ACAT) and elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) were down-regulated, whereas that of alpha-enolase and creatine kinase were up-regulated. On the basis of this evidence, it could be presumed that the decreased expression of HCDH, which is caused by high concentrations of acetyl-CoA in hepatic cells, in the livers of ketotic cows, implies reduced fatty acid ??oxidation. The resultant high concentrations of acetyl-CoA and acetoacetyl CoA would depress the level of ACAT and generate more ??hydroxybutyric acid; high concentrations of acetyl-CoA would also accelerate the Krebs Cycle and produce more ATP, which is stored as phosphocreatine, as a consequence of increased expression of creatine kinase. The low expression level of elongation factor Tu in the livers of ketotic cows indicates decreased levels of protein synthesis due to the limited availability of amino acids, because the most glucogenic amino acids sustain the glyconeogenesis pathway; thus increasing the level of alpha-enolase. Decreased protein synthesis also promotes the conversion of amino acids to oxaloacetate, which drives the Krebs Cycle under conditions of high levels of acetyl-CoA. It is concluded that the livers of ketotic cows possess high concentrations of acetyl-CoA, which through negative feedback inhibited fatty acid oxidation; show decreased fatty acid oxidation, ketogenesis and protein synthesis; and increased gluconeogenesis and energy production.

Effects of Fattening Period on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Lipogenic Gene Expression in Hanwoo Steers

  • Kwon, Eung Gi;Park, Byung Ki;Kim, Hyeong Cheol;Cho, Young Moo;Kim, Tae Il;Chang, Sun Sik;Oh, Young Kyoon;Kim, Nam Kuk;Kim, Jun Ho;Kim, Young Jun;Kim, Eun-Jib;Im, Seok Ki;Choi, Nag-Jin
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.12
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    • pp.1654-1660
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    • 2009
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of different fattening periods i.e. 25, 27 and 29 months of age (25 mo, 27 mo and 29 mo), on feed consumption, body weight gain, carcass parameters, and lipogenic gene expression in 45 Korean native steers (Hanwoo). Daily DM intake was higher in steers on 29 mo compared with those on 25 mo or 27 mo. Daily body weight gain was higher in steers on 25 mo compared with those on 27 mo or 29 mo during fattening and overall experimental periods. Therefore, feed conversion ratio was lower in 25 mo compared with 27 mo or 29 mo during the fattening and whole experimental periods. As expected, slaughter and carcass weights were higher in the order of 29 mo>27 mo>25 mo. Carcass yield grade was relatively lower in 29 mo reflecting higher back fat thickness compared with other treatments, while carcass quality grade was not largely influenced by the treatments. By investigation with an ultra-sound scanning technique, the marbling score was significantly and numerically higher in 25 mo compared with 27 mo or 29 mo. The mRNA levels of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) gene were gradually increased in the late fattening stages (p<0.01) and mRNA of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), ATP citrate lyase (ACL) and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) gene were highly expressed in 29 mo compared with 25 mo and 27 mo (p<0.05). However, gene expressions of adipocyte fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) were not significantly different among the treatments. Thus the present results indicated that different fattening period has no major effect on carcass characteristics, although 25 mo had a lower carcass weight compared with 27 mo or 29 mo.

Effects of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids-enriched Diet Supplemented with Different Levels of α-Tocopherol on Lipid Metabolism in Laying Tsaiya Ducks

  • Chen, Tian-Fwu;Hsu, Jenn-Chung
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.11
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    • pp.1562-1569
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    • 2004
  • The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs)-enriched diet supplemented with different levels of $\alpha$-tocopherol on the activities of hepatic lipogenic-related enzymes and the contents of liver and plasma lipid fractions in laying Tsaiya ducks. A total of 180 30-wk-old laying Tsaiya ducks, at the beginning of peak production, were allotted into 6 treatments with 3 replicates each. Ducks were fed one of the 6 experimental diets, containing 4% tallow (control), and 4% fish oil supplemented with graded levels of $\alpha$-tocopheryl acetate ($\alpha$-tocopherol) at 0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg/kg, respectively, for 6 wks. Feed and water were supplied ad libitum throughout the experimental period. The results indicated that the n-3 PUFAsenriched diet supplemented with different levels of $\alpha$-tocopherol did not affect (p>0.05) egg weight, feed intake, body weight change or liver and abdominal fat weights. Egg production, egg mass and feed efficiency significantly (p<0.05) improved as dietary $\alpha$-tocopherol levels increased. The activities of hepatic lipogenic-related enzymes including acetyl-CoA carboxylase (EC 6. 2. 1. 3; ACC), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC 1. 1. 1. 49; G-6-PDH), ATP-citrate cleavage enzyme (EC 4. 1. 3. 8; CCE), NADP-malate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.40; NADP-MDH) and fatty acid synthetase (FAS) were higher (p<0.05) in birds fed with the tallow diet than in those fed with fish oil diets and increased with increasing dietary $\alpha$-tocopherol levels. None of the dietary treatments significantly affected the contents of triglyceride and total cholesterol in the liver, or total cholesterol, phospholipid and total lipid in the plasma. However, the contents of phospholipid and total lipid in the liver, and triglyceride in the plasma increased as dietary $\alpha$-tocopherol levels increased. Increasing dietary $\alpha$-tocopherol levels decreased the non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) content in the plasma and trended to decrease the cholesterol contents in the egg yolk. The lipid metabolism of laying Tsaiya ducks was influenced not only by the dietary fat but also by the supplementation levels of $\alpha$-tocopherol.

Effect of Genotype on Whole-body and Intestinal Metabolic Response to Monensin in Mice

  • Fan, Y.K.;Croom, W.J.;Daniel, Linda;McBride, B.W.;Koci, M.;Havenstein, G.B.;Eisen, E.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.554-562
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    • 2006
  • Two lines of mice, M16 selected for rapid growth and a randomly selected control ICR as well as their reciprocal crosses were used to study the effects of genotype on whole-body energetics and intestinal responses to monensin. Six mice, eight weeks of age, from each line or reciprocal cross were assigned to one of two treatments, 1) drinking water containing 20 mmol/L monensin dissolved in 0.5% V/V ethanol, and 2) drinking water containing 0.5% V/V ethanol (control) for two weeks. After 11 days (age of 9 weeks and 4 days), whole-body $O_2$ consumption was measured. At the end of two weeks, jejunal $O_2$ consumption, intestinal tissue composition and histomorphometrics as well as the rate and efficiency of glucose absorption were estimated. In comparison with the control, monensin administration in drinking water resulted in less daily water intake (13.4 vs. 15.5 ml/mouse, p<0.01), less protein to DNA ratio of jejunal mucosa (5.41 vs. 6.01 mg/mg, p<0.05), lower villus width (88 vs. $100{\mu}m$, p<0.05), and less jejunal tissue $O_2$ consumption enhancement by alcohol (7.2 vs. 10.5%, p<0.01) in mice. Other than those changes, monensin had little (p>0.05) effect on variables measured in either line of mice or their reciprocal cross. In contrast, the M16 line, selected for rapid growth, as compared to the ICR controls or the reciprocal crosses, had less initial (pre-monensin treatment) whole-body $O_2$ consumption per gram of body weight (1.68 vs. $2.11-2.34{\mu}mol/min{\cdot}g$ BW, p<0.01) as compared to the ICR and reciprocal crosses. In addition, the M16 mice exhibited greater growth (412 vs. 137-210 mg/d, p<0.05), better feed efficiency (41.7 vs. 19.9-29.3 mg gain/g feed, p<0.05), shorter small intestines adjusted for fasted body weight (1.00 vs. 1.22-1.44 cm/g FBW, p<0.05), wider villi (109 vs. $87-93{\mu}m$, p<0.05), more mature height of enterocytes (28.8 vs. $24.4-25.1{\mu}m$, p<0.05) and a lower rate (91 vs. $133-145{\eta}mol\;glucose/min{\cdot}g$ jejunum, p<0.05) and less energetic efficiency (95 vs. $59-72{\eta}mol$ ATP expended/${\eta}mol$ glucose uptake, p<0.05) of glucose absorption compared to the ICR line and the reciprocal cross. Monensin had little (p>0.05) effect on whole-body $O_2$ consumption and jejunal function, whilst selection for rapid growth resulted in an apparent down-regulation of intestinal function. These data suggest that genetic selection for increased growth does not result in concomitant changes in intestinal function. This asynchrony in the selection for production traits and intestinal function may hinder full phenotypic expression of genotypic growth potential.

Identification of Genes Modulated by High Extracellular Calcium in Coculture of Mouse Osteoblasts and Bone Marrow Cells by Oligo Chip Assay

  • Kim, Hyung-Keun;Song, Mi-Na;Jun, Ji-Hae;Woo, Kyung-Mi;Kim, Gwan-Shik;Baek, Jeong-Hwa
    • International Journal of Oral Biology
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.53-65
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    • 2006
  • Calcium concentration in the bone resorption lacunae is high and is in the mM concentration range. Both osteoblast and osteoclast have calcium sensing receptor in the cell surface, suggesting the regulatory role of high extracellular calcium in bone metabolism. In vitro, high extracellular calcium stimulated osteoclastogenesis in coculture of mouse osteoblasts and bone marrow cells. Therefore we examined the genes that were commonly regulated by both high extracellular calcium and $1,25(OH)_2vitaminD_3(VD3)$ by using mouse oligo 11 K gene chip. In the presence of 10 mM $[Ca^{2+}]e$ or 10 nM VD3, mouse calvarial osteoblasts and bone marrow cells were co-cultured for 4 days when tartrate resistant acid phosphatase-positive multinucleated cells start to appear. Of 11,000 genes examined, the genes commonly regulated both by high extracellular calcium and by VD3 were as follows; 1) the expression of genes which were osteoclast differentiation markers or were associated with osteoclastogenesis were up-regulated both by high extracellular calcium and by VD3; trap, mmp9, car2, ctsk, ckb, atp6b2, tm7sf4, rab7, 2) several chemokine and chemokine receptor genes such as sdf1, scya2, scyb5, scya6, scya8, scya9, and ccr1 were up-regulated both by high extracellular calcium and by VD3, 3) the genes such as mmp1b, mmp3 and c3 which possibly stimulate bone resorption by osteoclast, were commonly up-regulated, 4) the gene such as c1q and msr2 which were related with macrophage function, were commonly down-regulated, 5) the genes which possibly stimulate osteoblast differentiation and/or mineralization of extracellular matrix, were commonly down-regulated; slc8a1, admr, plod2, lox, fosb, 6) the genes which possibly suppress osteoblast differentiation and/or mineralization of extracellular matrix, were commonly up-regulated; s100a4, npr3, mme, 7) the genes such as calponin 1 and tgfbi which possibly suppress osteoblast differentiation and/or mineralization of extracellular matrix, were up-regulated by high extracellular calcium but were down-regulated by VD3. These results suggest that in coculture condition, both high extracellular calcium and VD3 commonly induce osteoclastogenesis but suppress osteoblast differentiation/mineralization by regulating the expression of related genes.

Inhibitory Effects of Naeso-san on Pacemaker Potentials in Interstitial Cells of Cajal of Murine Small Intestine (생쥐 소장 카할세포의 내향성 향도잡이 전압에 미치는 내소산의 억제효과에 관한 연구)

  • Hong, Noo Ri;Ahn, Tae Seok;Park, Hyun Soo;Chae, Han;Kwon, Young Kyu;Kim, Byung Joo
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.28 no.6
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    • pp.630-635
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    • 2014
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Naeso-san in interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) in murine small intestine. First, we isolated ICCs from murine small intestine. After that, we cultured these cells for 1 days. The patch-clamp technique was applied on ICCs that formed network-like structures in culture (1 days). Spontaneous rhythms were routinely recorded from cultured ICCs under current-clamp conditions, and the ICCs within networks displayed more robust electrical rhythms (pacemaker potentials). To understand the relationship between Naeso-san and pacemaker activity in ICCs, we examined the effects of Naeso-san on pacemaker potentials of ICCs. In current clamp mode (I = 0), the addition of Naeso-san (10 mg/ml - 50 mg/ml) decreased the amplitude and frequency of the pacemaker potentials of ICCs in a dose dependent manner. However, these effects were blocked by intracellular $GDP{\beta}S$, a G-protein inhibitor, and glibenclamide, a specific ATP-sensitive K+ channels blocker. Pretreatment with SQ-22536, an adenylate cyclase inhibitor, did not block the Naeso-san induced effects, whereas pretreatment with ODQ, a guanylate cyclase inhibitor, or L-NAME, an inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) synthase blocked the Naeso-san induced effects. Our findings provide insight into unraveling the modulation of Naeso-san in pacemaker potentials of ICCs and developing therapeutic agents against gastrointestinal motility disorders.

Effects of Selaginella Tamariscina on Apoptosis via the Activation of Caspase-3 in HL-60 (권백의 Caspase-3 활성화를 통한 HL-60 세포에서 세포사멸 유도효과)

  • Nam Hang Woo;Lee Sung Won;An Byung Sang;Chough Won Joon;Kim Yeong Mok;Mun Yean Ja;Ahn Seong Hun;Woo Won Hong
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.751-758
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    • 2003
  • In our previous studies, we reported that Selaginella Tamariscina(ST) induced apoptotic cell death in HL-60 cells selectively. The cell viability after treatment with extract of ST was quantified by MTT assay and trypan bleu exclusion method. The results showed that application with ST in HL-60 induced 40% cell death at the concentration of 400 ㎍/ml. The cancericidic effect of Selaginella Tamariscina was mediated by apoptosis. Thus, HL-60 cells exposed to Selaginella Tamariscina displayed the DNA fragmentation ladder and nucleus chromatin condensation characteristic for apoptosis. The enzyme activity of caspase-3 and actived caspase-3 protein were markedly increased in HL-60 cells treated with the extract of Selaginella Tamariscina. In addition, the extract of Selaginella Tamariscina induced cleavage of PARP, a known substrate for caspase-3. The expression of Bcl-2, anti-apoptotic protein, was decreased by treatment of the aqueous extract of Selaginella Tamariscina in a dose-dependent manner. And the expression of pro-apoptotic Bax protein was increased. In conclusion, our results suggest that the extract of Selaginella Tamariscina may induce the apoptotic death of HL-60 cells via activation of caspase-3, cleavage of PARP protein, depletion of cellular ATP levels and Bcl-2 degradation.

Mechanism of Relaxation of Rat Aorta by Scopoletin; an Active Constituent of Artemisia Capillaris

  • Kwon Eui Kwang;Jin Sang Sik;oChoi Min H;Hwang Kyung Taek;Shim Jin Chan;Hwang Il Taek;Han Jong Hyun
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.389-396
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    • 2002
  • In the present work, we examined the mechanism of vasorelaxant effect of scopoletin, an active constituent of Artemisia capillaris on rat thoracic descending aortic rings. Scopoletin induced a concentration-dependent relaxation in rat thoracic descending aortic rings pre-contracted with phenylephrine (EC/sub 50/ = 238.94±37.4 μM), while it was less effective in rat thoracic descending aortic rings precontracted with high potassium solution (KCI 30 mM). Vasorelaxation by scopoletin was significantly inhibited after endothelial removal, but recovered at high concentration. Pretreatment of rat thoracic descending aortic rings with N/sup G/-nitro-L-arginine (100 μM), a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, and atropine (1 μM), a muscarinic receptor antagonist, significantly inhibited scopoletin-induced relaxation of rat thoracic descending aortic rings. Neither indomethacin (3 μM), an inhibitor of cydooxygenase, nor propranolol (1 μM), a β -adrenoceptor antagonist, modified the effect of scopoletin. The combination of N/sup G/ -nitro-L-arginine (100 μ M) and miconazole (10 μ M), an inhibitor of cytochrome P 450, did not modify the effect of scopoletin, when compared with pretreatment with N/sup G/-nitro-L-arginine(100 μM) alone. Vasorelaxant effect of scopoletin was inverted by pretreatment with diltiazem (10 μM), a Ca/sup 2+/-channel blocker, at low concentration, while restored at high concentration. Apamin (K/sub ca/-channel blocker, 1 μM), 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, K/sub v/-channel blocker, 1 mM), and tetrodotoxin (TTX, Na/sup +/-channel blocker 1 μM) potentiated the vasorelaxant effect of scopoledn, but glibendamide (K/sub ATP/-channel blocker, 10 μM), tetraetylammonium(TEA, non-selective K-channel blocker, 10 mM) did not affect the relaxation of scopoletin. Free radical scavengers (TEMPO, catalase, mannitol) did not modify vascular tone. These results suggest that nitric oxide, Ca/sup 2+/ -channels play a role in endothelium-dependent relaxations to scopoletin in rat aortas, that apamin, 4-AP, TTX but not glibenclamide, TEA potentiated relaxation to scopoletin mediated by these channels, and that free radicals do not concern to the vasorelaxant effect of scopoletin.

Incidence and Related Factors of the Metabolic Syndrome in a Korean Medicine Hospital (한방병원 건강검진 수진자의 대사증후군 발생과 관련요인 연구)

  • Choi, Seong-Hwan;Ahn, Jung-Jo;Jo, Hyun-Kyung;Yoo, Ho-Ryong;Seol, In-Chan;Kim, Yoon-Sik
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.563-572
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    • 2011
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate incidence and related factors of the metabolic syndrome in a Korean medicine hospital. The 716 subjects were analyzed using biochemical data and survey who took medical examination in Daejeon Korean Medicine Hospital for general health check-up. This investigation was conducted from February in 2008 to July in 2010. The metabolic syndrome was diagnosed according to the definition by the NCEP ATP III. The abdominal obesity guidelines for waist circumference applied by the WHO Western Pacific Region, IASO and IOTF: The Asia-Pacific Perspective in 2000. Incidence of metabolic syndrome was 12% (14.6% in men, 8.2% in women). The groups that have two metabolic risk factors were 21.9% in men and 7.5% in women. The incidence increased with ageing. The mean of metabolic syndrome`s triglyceride was in hypertriglyceridemia, and that of their BMI in men was in primary obese and that of their AST, ALT, ${\gamma}$-GTP means were in abnormal liver function. Smokers in men have metabolic syndrome 10 times more than non-smokers in men. Exercisers that do the exercise once or twice a week in women have metabolic syndrome 0.2 times more than non-exerciser in women. Women that have family history of stroke, were associated with metabolic syndrome by $x^2$-test. Men that have family history of hypertension, have metabolic syndrome 4 times more than otherwise men. Men that have family history of diabetes mellitus, have metabolic syndrome 3 times more than otherwise men.