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The Acute Effect of Trimetazidine on the High Frequency Fatigue in the Isolated Rat Diaphragm Muscle

  • Emre, Mustafa;Karayaylali, Lbrahim;San, Mustafa;Demirkazik, Ayse;Kavak, Servet
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.27 no.6
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    • pp.646-652
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    • 2004
  • The objective of this study was to determine the acute effect of trimetazidine (TMZ) on the pre-fatigue, fatigue and post-fatigue contractile characteristics and tension-frequency relationships of isolated rat diaphragm muscle. Muscle strips were taken from the ventral-costal aspects of the diaphragm muscle of rats killed by decapitation. The muscle strips were suspended in organ baths containing Krebs solution, with a gas mixture of 95% $O_2$ and 5% $CO_2$ at $37^{\circ}C$ and pH 7.35-7.45. After determining the thermoregulation and optimum muscle length the muscles were subjected to direct supramaximal stimulation with 0.05 Hz frequency square pulses for periods of 0.5 msec to obtain control values. After adding $5{\times}10^{-6}{\;}and{\;}5{\times}10^{-5}$ M trimetazidine solution to the respective bath media, the contractile parameters of the muscles were recorded. The contractile parameters were also recorded for both the trimetazidine and tri-metazidine-free media after application of the high frequency fatigue protocols. Later, the tension-frequency relationship was determined by applying stimulating pulses of 10, 20, 50 and 100 Hz to the muscle strips. Whilst the twitch tension obtained from the $5{\times}10^{-6}{\;}and{\;}5{\times}10^{-5}$ M trimetazidine media showed numerical increases compared to that of the controls, these were not statistically significant (p>0.05). The contraction time exhibited a dose dependent increase (p<0.001), whilst the contraction and relaxation rates did not differ significantly. The isometric contraction forces obtained with the different stimulating frequencies showed a significant increase in the tetanic contraction only at 100 Hz (p<0.05). A comparison of the pre- and post-fatigue twitch tensions in the trimetazidine media showed the post- fatigue twitch tensions to be significantly higher than those of the pre-fatigue contraction forces (p<0.05). In the $5{\times}10^{-6}{\;}and{\;}5{\times}10^{-5}$ M trimetazidine media the increases in the post-fatigue contraction force were 22 and 30%, respectively. These results demonstrated that in isolated rat diaphragm muscle, TMZ significantly limited the mechanical performance decrease during fatigue. It is our opinion that trimetazidine contributed to the observed fatigue tolerance by eliminating the factors of fatigue, due to preservation of intracellular calcium homeostasis, provision of the ATP energy levels needed by ATPase dependent pumps and especially by keeping the intracellular pH within cer-tain limits.

Association of Current and Past Smoking with Metabolic Syndrome in Men (성인남성에서 현재 및 과거 흡연과 대사증후군의 관련성)

  • Hong, A-Rum;Lee, Kang-Sook;Lee, Seon-Young;Yu, Jae-Hee
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.160-164
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    • 2009
  • Objectives : The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between past smoking and the risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Methods : From January 2007 to December 2007, a total of 3,916 over thirty years old male health screen examinees were divided into the nonsmoking, smoking, ex-smoking groups. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was based on the criteria of the NCEP ATP III(Executive Summary of The Third Report of The National Cholesterol Education Program). Metabolic syndrome was defined as the presence of three or more of the following: a blood pressure $\geq$ 130/85 mmHg, a fasting glucose level $\geq$ 110 mg/dL, a HDL-C (High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol) level < 40 mg/dL, a triglyceride level $\geq$ 150 mg/dL and, a waist circumference men $\geq$ 102 cm, but a waist to hip ratio > 0.90 was used as a surrogate for the waist circumference. Results : After adjustment for age, alcohol consumption and, exercise in the smokers, for the ex-smokers compared with the nonsmokers, the odds ratio (OR) of a lower HDL cholesterol level (<40 mg/dL) was 1.29 (95% CI=1.03-1.61) in the smokers, the ORs of a higher triglyceride level were 1.35 (95% CI=1.09-1.66) in the ex-smokers and, 2.12 (95% CI=1.75-2.57) in the smokers, and the OR of a waist to hip ratio was 1.25 (95% CI=1.03-1.52) in the ex-smokers. When there were over three components of metabolic syndrome in the ex-smokers and smokers as compared with the nonsmokers, the odds ratio against the risk of metabolic syndrome were 2.39 (95% CI=1.00-6.63) and 2.37 (95% CI=1.02-6.46), respectively. Conclusions : The present study suggested that there is an association of smoking with metabolic syndrome in men.

Pre-and Post-ishemic Changes of the Constituent Enzymes in Isolated Rabbit's Myocardium (허혈전후 적출 가토 심근내의 구성 효소의 변화)

  • 천수봉;전도환;이재성;김송명
    • Journal of Chest Surgery
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.117-124
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    • 2000
  • Background: Nucleoside transport inhibitor(NTI) Keeps AMP, ADP, ATP levels high in myocytes by inhibiting adenosine cataboilsm so that it may preserve the myocardial contractability during ischemia In this study we investigated the effects of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase inhibor(C-AMP PDSI) and S-P-nitrobenzyl-6 -thioniosine(NBT; a sort of NIT) on myocadial preservation and changes of constituent enzyme. Material and method: Twenty-six isolated rabbit hearts were perfused with Krebs-Henseleit buffer solution for 20 minutes arrested for 20 minutes and ten reperfused for 30 minutes. The following four groups were prepared and hemodynamic changes coronary effluent lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) a-hydroxybutylic accid(a-HBD) levels and myocardial LDH creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) adenosine deaminase(ADA) a-HBD levels and myocardial LDH creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) adenosine deaminase(ADA) a-HBD levels were analysed before and after cardiac arest ; Group I(control) ; the heart was only perfused with K-H ; Group II ; the heart was perfused with K-H including C-AMP PDSI(Amrinone 25mg/L); Group III ; the heart was perfused with K-H including NBT(4.19mg/L) ; Group IV ; the heart was perfused with K-H including C-AMP PDSI + NBT. Result : Left venticular developed pressure(LVDP) at 10 minutes of the equilibrium was significantly higher in group III(72.1$\pm$5.3 mmHg p<0.01) and group III(72$\pm$5.6 mmHg P<0.025) as compared with group I (40.8$\pm$4.7mmHg) and LVDP at 20 minutes of the reperfusion was significantly higher in group II(74$\pm$5.3mmHg p<0.01) and group III(72$\pm$5.6mmHg p<0.025) as compared with group I (44.2$\pm$4.6mmHg). Percentage recovery of LVDP at the reperfusion was the highest in group II(123.3%) Percentage recovery of coronary flow at the equilibrium reperfusion were higher in group II(310%, 270%) group III(230%, 290%) group IV(310%, 280%) as compared with group I (100%) respectively. Myocadial LDH level was significant lower in group IV(33495$\pm$1802 IU/gm p<0.04) as compared with group I(48767$\pm$1421 IU/gm) Myocadial CK-MB level was significant higher in group II(74820$\pm$1421 IU/gm) compared with group I (45450$\pm$1737 IU/gm) Myocadial ADA level was significant higher group IV(1215$\pm$8 IU/gm p<0.05) compared with group I(125$\pm$15 IU/gm) but there was no significant difference between group I and group II ,III, IV in changes of coronary effluent LDH, a-HBD levels. Conclusion: C-AMP PDSI solely appears to have a better effect on myocardial preservation after ischemia than NBT but with no synergistic effect and it could keep CK-MB leve high in myocardial tissues.

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Effect of Packaging Method on Physico-Chemical Properties of Chilled Plaice Muscle (포장 방법이 냉장 광어육의 물리$\cdot$화학적 변화에 미치는 영향)

  • Shin Wan-Chul;Song Jae-Chul;Choe Suck-Young
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.168-174
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    • 2005
  • Various changes of physico-chemical characteristics of chilled plaice muscle during storage at $4^{\circ}C$ in vacuum and aerobic packaging methods were examined. As a storaging period become longer, Hunter L, a, b value changes slightely. However, no differences were observed between vacuum and aerobic packaging method. The hardness of plaice muscle after death was $2,232\;dyne/cm^2$. The hardness of vacuum packaged plaice muscle storaged for 4 days was similar to that of aerobic packaged plaice muscle storaged fur 14 days. MFI(Myofibrillar Fragmentation Index) of aerobic and vacuum packaged plaice muscle showed maximum value at storage for 4days and 7 days, respectively. Mg-ATPase activities of mypofibril were increased gradually both of all during storage days. But that of MF from aerobic packaging plaice muscle was higher than that of vacuum packaging plaice muscle.

The Relationship Between Plasma Antioxidant Levels and Metabolic Syndrome Risk Factors in Male Workers (남성 근로자의 혈중 항산화 영양소 상태와 대사증후군 인자와의 관계)

  • Cho, Sang-Woon;Paek, Yun-Mi;Kang, Ji-Yeon;Park, Yoo-Kyoung;Choi, Tae-In
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.357-366
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    • 2009
  • The principal objective of this study was to evaluate the association between plasma antioxidant levels and metabolic syndrome in male workers, and to provide basic information regarding the control and prevention of metabolic syndrome. We analyzed 163 male workers who had participated in annual medical examinations from January to December 2007. The subjects were classified into normal and metabolic syndrome groups according to the NCEP-ATP III criteria and the Asia-Pacific criteria for waist circumference. Anthropometric parameters, lifestyles, blood lipid profiles, and antioxidant levels were evaluated. As compared to the normal group, the metabolic syndrome group evidenced significantly higher plasma levels of $\alpha$- tocopherol(p<0.05) and retinol(p<0.05), but significantly lower plasma levels of lycopene(p<0.05) and $\beta$-carotene(p<0.05). This tendency was found to be predominantly attributable to increases in the number of metabolic syndrome components. In our simple regression analysis, higher plasma levels of $\alpha$-tocopherol($\beta$=0.001, p<0.01) and retinol($\beta$=0.021, p<0.001) were associated with significantly higher risks of metabolic syndrome, but lycopene($\beta$=-1.499, p<0.01) and $\beta$-carotene($\beta$=-0.048, p<0.01) were associated with significantly lower risks of metabolic syndrome. Retinol($\beta$=0.013, p<0.05) and $\beta$-carotene($beta$=-0.044, p<0.01) were associated significantly with metabolic syndrome, when adjusted for age and BMI. These data indicate that the plasma levels of $\alpha$-tocopherol, retinol, lycopene, and $\beta$-carotene are associated with metabolic syndrome. Specifically, low lycopene and $\beta$-carotene levels in the plasma appear to increase the risk of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, proper nutritional education programs for male workers are required to increase dietary intakes of antioxidant vitamins. Further studies will be necessary to determine whether antioxidant levels can be utilized as a predictive or a preventive factor.

Identification, sequence characterization and expression analysis of the arginine kinase gene in response to laminarin challenge from the Oriental land snail, Nesiohelix samarangae (동양달팽이(Nesiohelix samarangae)의 arginine kinase 유전자 분석 및 발현 패턴에 관한 연구)

  • Jeong, Ji Eun;Lee, Yong Seok
    • The Korean Journal of Malacology
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.171-179
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    • 2013
  • Arginine kinase (ArK) is known to play an important role in most invertebrates the level of ATP by phosphorylation of phosphagens in cell and immuninty in living organisms. ArK has been identified in many kinds of organisms ranging from invertebrate to vertebrate. However, no ArK gene has been cloned and investigated from N. samarangae. This leads us to identify ArK cDNA (NsArK) from the expressed sequence tag (EST) sequencing of N. samarangae. Sequence analysis indicated that the coding region of 1,065 bp contains 355 amino acid residues. Molecular phylogenetic analysis shows that NsArK had very high similarities with mollusca and arthropoda. In an attempt to investigate a potential role of NsArK in the digestive gland of N. samarangae, expression patterns were analyzed. RT-PCR analsysis shows that NsArK mRNA is induced in the rane of 1.2 fold at 6 hr by laminarin when compared with the control. The immunnologial and physiological role of NsArK remains to be further investigated in N. samarangae.

Characteristics of hypoxia-induced ANP Secretion in Perfused Beating Atria (허혈성 자극에 의한 심방이뇨 호르몬 분비 반응의 특성)

  • Kim, Kong-Soo;Kim, Min-Ho;Kim, Chang-Gon;Kim, Suk-Kee;Cho, Kyung-Woo;Cui, Xun
    • Journal of Chest Surgery
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    • v.33 no.5
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    • pp.398-406
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    • 2000
  • Background: Cardiac atrium is an endocrine gland secreting a family of natriuretic peptides. The secretion of atrial natriuretic peptide(ANP) had been shown to be controlled by variable factors. The change in atrial dynamics have been considered as one of the most prominent stimuli for the stimulation of ANP secretion. Hypoxic stress has been shown to increase cardiac ANP secretion. However, the mechanism by which hypoxia increases ANP secretion cardiac ANP secretions. However, the mechanism by which hypoxia increases ANP secretion has not to be defined. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was tow-fold: to develop a protocol to defined the effect of hypoxia on ANP secretion in perfused beating rabbit atria and to clarify the mechanism responsible for the accentuation by hypoxia of ANP secretion. Material and Method: Experiments have been done in perfused beating rabbit atria. ANP was measured by radioimmunoassay. Result: Hypoxic stimulus with nitrogen decreased atrial stroke volume. The decrease in atrial stroke volume recovered basal level during the period of recovery with oxygen. ANP secretion and the concentration of perfusate ANP in terms of extracellular fluid(ECF) translocation which reflects the rate of myocytic release of ANP were increased by hypoxia and returned to basal levels during the recovery. Changes in ECF translocation paralleled by hypoxia and returned to basal levels during the recovery. Changes in ECF translocation paralleled to that of atrial stroke volume. At the start of recovery in atrial storke volume, ECF tranalocation incrased for several minutes. The above responses were stable and reproducible. Glibenclamide treatment prevented the recovery in atrial stroke volume. Increments by hypoxia of ANP secretion and ANP concentration were suppressed by glibenclamide. Conclusion: These results indicate that hypoxia incrased atrial myocytic ANP release and that the mechanism responsible for the accentuation is partially related to the change in K+ATP channel activity.

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A Effective Ant Colony Algorithm applied to the Graph Coloring Problem (그래프 착색 문제에 적용된 효과적인 Ant Colony Algorithm에 관한 연구)

  • Ahn, Sang-Huck;Lee, Seung-Gwan;Chung, Tae-Choong
    • The KIPS Transactions:PartB
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    • v.11B no.2
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    • pp.221-226
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    • 2004
  • Ant Colony System(ACS) Algorithm is new meta-heuristic for hard combinational optimization problem. It is a population-based approach that uses exploitation of positive feedback as well as greedy search. Recently, various methods and solutions are proposed to solve optimal solution of graph coloring problem that assign to color for adjacency node($v_i, v_j$) that they has not same color. In this paper introducing ANTCOL Algorithm that is method to solve solution by Ant Colony System algorithm that is not method that it is known well as solution of existent graph coloring problem. After introducing ACS algorithm and Assignment Type Problem, show the wav how to apply ACS to solve ATP And compare graph coloring result and execution time when use existent generating functions(ANT_Random, ANT_LF, ANT_SL, ANT_DSATUR, ANT_RLF method) with ANT_XRLF method that use XRLF that apply Randomize to RLF to solve ANTCOL. Also compare graph coloring result and execution time when use method to add re-search to ANT_XRLF(ANT_XRLF_R) with existent generating functions.

A Clinical Study on Relevance between Classified Dampness-Phlegm Pattern of Metabolic Syndrome and Heart Rate Variability (대사증후군의 습담 변증군과 심박변이도의 관련성에 관한 고찰)

  • Lee, Jae-Wook;Shin, Yoon-Ri;Bae, Su-Hyun;Park, Seon-Young;Choi, Sang-Ok;Kim, Kyoung-Min;Kim, Young-Kyun
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.284-297
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    • 2012
  • Objectives : This study was performed to investigate characteristic indice of heart rate variability (HRV) according to presence of metabolic syndrome (MS), pattern identification. Methods : We analyzed 167 subjects who participated in a stroke check-up. We classified the subjects into two groups as MS (n=48) and non-MS (n=119) based on NCEP ATP III. First, we investigated pattern identification of all subjects based on Korean Standard Pattern Identifications for Stroke-III. Second, we surveyed significance of HRV indices between MS and non-MS groups. Third, we investigated significance of HRV indices between classified DP of MS and classified DP of non-MS. Fourth, we investigated significance of HRV indices between classified DP of MS and non-MS. Fifth, we investigated significance between components of MS and HRV indices. Results : 1. SDNN, RMS-SD, HF, Ln(HF), and HF (NORM) were significantly lower in the MS than non-MS group. LN (TP), LF/HF were significantly higher in the MS than non-MS. 2. Ln (HF), Ln (TP), and LF/HF were statistically significant in the classified DP of MS group. 3. RMS-SD, and Ln (HF) were significantly lower in the abdominal obesity group than in the non-abdominal obesity group. SDNN, RMS-SD, TP, Ln (TP), VLF, Ln (VLF), and Ln (LF) were significantly lower in the hypertension group than in the non-hypertension group. RMS-SD was significantly lower in the diabetes group than in the non-diabetes group. Mean HRT,LF/HF were significantly higher in the hypertriglyceridemia than non-hypertriglyceridemia group, but Ln (HF), RMS-SD, and HF (NORM) were significantly lower in the hypertriglyceridemia than non-hypertriglyceridemia group. Conclusions : We found a few significant relationships between classified DP of MS and HRV indices. The resluts demonstrate that MS has potentially negative effects on the cardiovascular system, and these effects could be detected by HRV.

Correlation between Metabolic Syndrome and Plasma Homocysteine Level in Patients with Silent Lacunar Infarction (무증상성 열공성 뇌경색 환자에서 호모시스테인과 대사증후군의 상관관계에 대한 연구)

  • Shin, Yoon-Ri;Lee, Jae-Wook;Lee, Seung-Yeon;Yun, Yong-Jae;Jeong, Hyun-Yun;Kim, Kyoung-Min;Kim, Young-Kyun
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.243-256
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    • 2012
  • Objectives : This clinical study was done to examine metabolic syndrome (MS) and plasma homocysteine (HCY) level in patients with silent lacunar infarction (SLI) and in normal controls. Methods : A total of 154 patients, who were over 20 years of age and visited the stroke prevention check-up center of a university hospital from December 2006 to December 2010, were examined by brain CT or brain MRI, and classified into two groups. We compared the components of MS and HCY levels between patients with SLI (n=74) and normal controls (n=80). Modified ATP III definition was used for diagnosis of MS while Korean standard for waist circumference was used. Results : Prevalence of MS was significantly higher in the SLI group than the normal group. HCY was also significantly higher in the SLI group than the noraml, and the odds ratio (OR) for SLI, comparing high HCY level (${\geq}10{\mu}mol/L$) with low HCY level ($<10{\mu}mol/L$), was 3.64 (95% confidence interval (CI); 1.81-7.29, p<.0001). However, there was no correlation between MS and HCY in the SLI group. Prevalence of diabetes and hypertension (HT) was higher in the SLI group than the normal group, but there was no significant difference in blood lipids level between the SLI and normal groups. Of note, HT itself was enough to be an independent risk factor for SLI (OR; 4.58, 95% CI; 1.91-11.01, p=0.001). Body mass index, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio and visceral fat area were significantly higher in the SLI than normal group, and visceral fat area was enough to be an independent risk factor for SLI (OR; 2.41, 95% CI; 1.04-5.59, p=0.040). Conclusions : SLI is shown to have significant correlation with HCY and prevalence of MS, however there is no relationship between HCY and prevalence of MS in patients with SLI.