• Title, Summary, Keyword: ATP

Search Result 1,654, Processing Time 0.043 seconds

Characteristics of Food Components in Granular Ark and Ark Shell (고막 및 새고막의 부위별 식품성분 특성)

  • Kim Kui Shik;Kim Jeung Hoon;Bae Tae Jin;Park Choon-Kyu;Kim Myung-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
    • /
    • v.35 no.5
    • /
    • pp.512-518
    • /
    • 2002
  • In order to effectively utilize of granular ark and ark shell, lipid and fatty acid compositions, free amino acids, nucleotides and their related compounds and minerals in the muscle and viscera of raw and cooked specimens were analyzed. The major constituents of non-polar lipids in the granular ark and ark shell were triglycerides, which showed higher content in viscera than the muscle. The polar lipids in the granular ark and ark shell were mainly consisted of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. The major fatty acids of total lipid were 16:0, 20:5n-3, 18:1n-9, 16:1n-7, 18:0 and 22:6n-3 both the granular ark and ark shell. The major nucleotides and the related compounds were adenosine monophosphate and adenosine diphosphate and they had higher content in the muscle than in viscera both samples, free amino acids such as taurine, glycine, alanine, glutamic acid, phenyl alanine and aspartic acid were abundant both the granular ark and ark shell. In the raw muscle of granular ark, glycine, alanine and $\alpha$-amino-iso-butyric acid were high level, but glutamic acid, aspartic acid and phenyl alanine were low level compared with those of cooking muscle. In the raw muscle of ark shell, taurine and $\alpha$-amino-iso-butyric acid were high content, but the glutamic acid and aspartic acid were low level compared with those of cooking muscle. Minerals in the granular ark and ark shell were chiefly consisted of potassium, sodium, magnesium, iron and calcium.

Effects of Low Level of Levan Feeding on Serum Lipids, Adiposity and UCP Expression in Rats (저농도 레반 공급이 혈중 지질 및 체지방 형성과 UCP 발현에 미치는 영향)

  • 강순아;홍경희;장기효;김소혜;조여원
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
    • /
    • v.31 no.5
    • /
    • pp.788-795
    • /
    • 2002
  • This study described the effect of levan (9-2,6-linked fructose polymer) feeding on serum lipids, adiposity and uncoupling protein (UCP) expression in growing rats. Levan was synthesized from sucrose using bacterial levansucrase. UCP is a mitochondrial protein that uncouples the respiratory chain from oxidative Phosphorylation and generates heat instead of ATP, thereby increase energy expenditure. We observed that 3% or 5% levan containing diet reduced serum triglyceride levels, visceral and peritoneal fat mass and induced the UCP expression in rats fed high fat diet in previous study. To determine whether the intake of low level of levan may have the hypolipidemic and anti-obesity effect, 4 wk old Sprague Dawley male rats were fed AIN-76A diet for 6 wk, and sub-sequently fed 1% or 2% levan solution for further 5 wk. Intake of 1% levan in liquid form reduced serum triglyceride and serum total cholesterol levels to 50% and 66% of control group, respectively. Although epididymal and peritoneal fat masses were not affected by levan feeding, visceral fat mass was lower in 1% levan group compared to control group. The expression of UCP2 mRNA in brown adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and hypothalamus and UCP3 mRNA in skeletal muscle were not changed by levan feeding, while the UCP2 mRNA in white adipose tissue was up-regulated by levan feeding. In conclusions, intake of low level of levan solution reduced serum triglyceride and total cholesterol, restrained the visceral fat accumulation and increased UCP expression in white adipose tissue in rats. This study suggests that hypolipidemic and anti-obesity effect of levan attributed to anti-lipogenesis and inefficeint energy utilization by up-regulation of UCPs.

Studies on the Food Components of Triploid Carp Muscle 1. The Taste Compounds of Triploid Carp Muscle (3배체잉어 근육의 식품성분에 관한 연구 1. 3배체잉어 근육의 정미성분)

  • LEE Eung-Ho;CHUNG Bu-Gil;KIM Jin-Soo;AHN Chang-Bum;OH Kwang-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
    • /
    • v.22 no.3
    • /
    • pp.154-160
    • /
    • 1989
  • To obtain basic data on food components of triploid fish, we undertook the analysis of free amino acid, nucleotide, total creatinine, betaine, trimethylamine oxide(TMAO) and their related compounds in diploid and triploid carps(Cyprinus carpio). The contents of total free amino acid and its related compounds in belly and dorsal muscles of triploid carp were 346.1mg/100g and 333.4mg/100g. Histidine occupied $45.1\%\;and\;46.9\%$ in belly and dorsal muscles, and followed by taurine, lysine and glycine in order. As for the compositions of nucleotide and its related compounds in those muscles of triploid carp, IMP were revealed $73.9\%\;and\;65.8\%$ of total nucleotide and its related compounds. The major component of the other organic base in those muscles of triploid carp was total creatinine, but betaine and TMAO were poor. The contents of taste compounds such as free amino acid, nucleotide, total creatinine, betaine, TMAO and their related compounds were less in triploid carp than in diploid carp of nonspawning season, while were more in triploid carp than in diploid carp of spawning season. Total amino acid contents were more in diploid carp of nonspawning season than in triploid carp, but mineral contents were more in triploid carp than in diploid carp of spawning season. Therefore, it is believed that triploid carp is very worthy for a tasty and nutritional food source.

  • PDF

The Clinical Comparision of Amrinone and Dopamine after Open Heart Surgery (개심술후 암리논과 도파민의 효과에 대한 임상 비교)

  • 이성호;이현재
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
    • /
    • v.29 no.2
    • /
    • pp.191-198
    • /
    • 1996
  • Amrinone is a non-glycosidic, non-adrenergic positive inotropic agent with peripheral and coronary vasodilator effect. It inhibits phosphodiesterase F-III, the cardiac cyclic-AMP specific phosphodiesterase, selectively and potently. In this study, the effects of IV administered amrinone and dopamine were compared in 40 patients who had open heart surgery. Amrinone was administered as a bolus of 1 5~2mglkg for several minutes, followed by continuous infusion at 5~1 Oug/kg/min. The hemodynamic measurements including heart rate, systolic and diastolic pressure, cardiac index, pulmonary wedge pressure, and systemic vascular resistance were recorded immediately for 12~24 hours awl 7th day following operation. In amrinone group, cardiac index increased from 3.73$\pm$1.39 L/min/m2 to 5.44$\pm$2.65 L/min/m2 at the time of posterative 48 hours (n=20, p< 0.05). The decrease in systemic vascular resistance from 1237.5 $\pm$ 637.7 dyne/sec/cm2 to 1000.8 $\pm$ 608.5 dyne/sec/cm2(p<0.05). In Dopamine group, the heart rate increased from 92.1 $\pm$ 13.0/min to 101.0 $\pm$ 13.1/min and the cardiac index decreased from 3.40 $\pm$ 0.50 L/min/m2 to 2.53 $\pm$ 1.15 L/min/m2 at the time of postoperative 12 hours(p<0.05). Systemic vascular resistance increased from 1058.5 $\pm$ 234.6 dyne/sec/cm2 to 1979.7 $\pm$ 759.2 dynelsec/cm2 The comparison of the hemodynamic effects of amrinone and dopamine, both drugs improved cardiac performance. But the administration of amrinone results in a higher cardiac index, diastolic blood pressure and lower systemic vascular resistance than those achieved with dopamine (p<0.05). The uniqueness of the action of amrinone on the heart and its sustained hemodynamic effect suggest it has clinical promise, pos operative care of cardiac surgery

  • PDF

Utilzation of Ascidian, Holocynthia roretzi -5. Processing and Quality Evaluation of Fermented Ascidian(I)- (우렁쉥이 이용에 관한 연구 -5. 우렁쉥이 젓갈의 제조 및 품질평가( I )-)

  • LEE Kang-Ho;CHO Ho-Sung;LEE Dong-Ho;RYUK Ji-Hee;CHO Young-Je;SUH Jae-Soo;KIM Dong-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
    • /
    • v.26 no.3
    • /
    • pp.221-229
    • /
    • 1993
  • In this study fermentation of fresh ascidian was attempted to widen the utility of ascidian. Fresh deshelled and sliced ascidians were fermented for 90days at $25^{\circ}C$ with different salt contents of 5, 10, 15 and $20\%$ (w/w) and at $5^{\circ}C$ with 5 and $10\%$ salt. Changes of such components during fermentation as free amino acids, nucleotides and the related compounds, volatile basic nitrogen(VBN), trimethyl amine(TMA), amino nitrogen and total creatinine were determined. VBN increased rapidly after 30days of fermentation at $25^{\circ}C$ while slowly in cases of fermentation at $5^{\circ}C$ and with high salt concentration. Amino nitrogen and the total creatinine also increased gradually until 45 days and 30days of fermentation, respectively, hereafter tended to decrease. ATP and ADP seemed to degrade rapidly in fresh ascidian post harvest and AMP, IMP and inosine also degraded down to hypoxanthine during fermentation. After 45days of fermentation, in the free amino acid composition of fermented ascidian were taurine, proline, glutamic acid, histidine, lysine, alanine and valine in order. The amino acids known as sweetner like prolline, lysine, alanine and glycine were in increased in fermented ascidian. The result of sensory evaluation of fermented ascidian pretreated with acid or sulfite solution showed that the peculiar taste and flavor of ascidian remained without browning for 45days fermentation at $5^{\circ}C$.

  • PDF

Interactions between Oxidative Pentose Phosphate Pathway and Enzymes of Nitrate Assimilation "Nitrate Reductase, Nitrite Reductase, Glutamine Synthetase$_1$" and Ammonium Reassimilation "Glutamine Synthetase$_2$" as affected by $No_3$-Concentration ($No_3$-수준이 Oxidative Pentose Phosphate Pathway와 질산동화작용 효소"Nitrate Reductase, Nitrite Reductase, Glutamine Synthetase$_1$" 및 암모늄재동화작용 주요효소"Glutamine Synthetase$_2$"활성도의 상호관계에 미치는 영향)

  • Sohn, Sang-Mok;Michael James Emes
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
    • /
    • v.37 no.5
    • /
    • pp.468-475
    • /
    • 1992
  • In order to understand more clearly the integration between N-assmilation and C-metabolism in relation to N fertilization, a pot experiment with 5 different level of N fertilization(0, 5, 10, 25, 50 mM NO$_3$$_{[-10]}$ ) was conducted in Manchester, U.K. The peas (Pisum sativum L., cv. Early Onward) were sown in vermiculate (5 cm depth) and cultivated for 6 days under temperature controlled dark room conditions ($25^{\circ}C$). The plants received frequent irrigation with a nutrient solution: it was fertilized every 2 days, 3 times a day at 10h, 13h, 16h respectively. Elevated NO$_3$$^{[-10]}$ concentration, the activity levels of NR, NiR, total GS(crude extract), GS$_2$(plastid) in both root and shoot were increased and reached the peak in 5~25 mM, except NiR specific activity which increased its activity continually until 50 mM NO$_3$$^{[-10]}$ treatment. Total activities of GS (crude extract) in both root and shoot became higher than those of GS$_2$(Plastid), and the activity ratios of total GS in the crude extract and GS$_2$ in the plastids were 3.0 to 4.3 in root, but 3.2 to 10.6 in shoot. It was concluded that the reductants and A TP from OPPP itself should be enough to achieve the high rate of NR, NiR, GS$_1$, GS$_2$ in plant root and shoot for reduction or assimilation of nitrogen, but these enzyme activities might be inhibited by an excess of NO$_3$$^{[-10]}$ influx over the reduction capacity.

  • PDF

Effects of Potassium-Channel Opener on Thallium-201 Kinetics: In-vitro Study in Rat Myocyte Preparations and In-vivo Mice Biodistribution Study (K-통로개방제가 배양심근세포와 생쥐 체내의 Thallium-201역동학에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Jae-Tae;Kim, Eun-Ji;Ahn, Byeong-Cheol;Sohn, Kang-Kyun;Lee, Kyu-Bo;Ha, Jeoung-Hee;Kim, Chun-K.
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
    • /
    • v.30 no.4
    • /
    • pp.507-515
    • /
    • 1996
  • Background : Potassium channel opener (K-opener) opens ATP-sensitive K'-channel located at cell membrane and induces potassium efflux from cytosol, resulting in intracellular hyperpolarization. Newly synthesized K-opener is currently examined for pharmacologic potency by means of rubidium release test from smooth muscle strip pre-incubated with Rb-86. Since in-vivo behavior of thallium is similar to that of rubidium, we hypothesized that K-opener can alter T1-201 kinetics in vivo. Purpose : This study was prepared to investigate the effects of pinacidil (one of potent K-openers) on the T1-201 uptake and clearance in cultured myocyte, and in-vivo biodistribution in mice. Methods : Spontaneous contracting myocytes were prepared to imitate in-vivo condition from 20 hearts of 3-5 days old Sprague-Dawley rat and cultured for 3-5 days before use ($5{\times}10^5$ cells/ml). Pinacidil was dissolved in 10% DMSO solution at a final concentration of 100nM or l0uM and was co-incubated with T1-201 in HBSS buffer for 20-min to evaluate its effect on cellular T1-uptake, or challenged to cell preparation pre-incubated with T1-201 for washout study. Two, 40 or $100{\mu}g$ of pinacidil was injected intravenously into ICR mice at 10 min after $5{\mu}Ci$ T1-201 injection, and organ uptake and whole body retention rate were measured at different time points. Results : Co-incubation of pinacidil with T1-201 resulted in a decrease in T1-201 uptake into cultured myocyte by 1.6 to 2.5 times, depending on pinacidil concentration and activity of T1-201 used. Pinacidil enhanced T1-201 washout by 1.6-3.1 times from myocyte preparations pre-incubated with T1-201. Pinacidil treatment appears to be resulted in mild decreases in blood and liver activity in normal mice, in contrast, renal and cardiac uptake were mildly decreased in a dose dependent manner. Whole body retention ratios of T1-201 were lower at 24 hour after injection with $100{\mu}g$ of pinacidil than control. Conclusion : These results suggest that treatment with K-opener may affect the interpretation of T1-201 myocardial images, due to decreasing thallium accumulation and enhancing washout from myocardium.

  • PDF

Effect of FS11052, an Inhibitor of Exocytosis, on Neurite Extension in Rat Hippocampal Neurons and PC12 Cells (신경전달물질 방출 저해제 FS11052가 신경세포와 PC12 세포의 돌기신장에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee Yun-Sik;Kim Dong-Seob
    • Journal of Life Science
    • /
    • v.16 no.2
    • /
    • pp.315-322
    • /
    • 2006
  • FS11052, a novel microbial metabolite from Streptomyces spp. was identified as a small molecular substance and shown inhibition activities for the release of neurotransmitter from rat hippocampal neuron and PC12 cells. FS11052 is an inhibitor of tritiated norepinephrine ($[^3H]-NE$) release in high $K^+$ buffer solution containing ionomycin, indicating that FS11052 inhibits neurotransmitter release after the influx of $Ca^{2+}$ ions. When examined the effect of FS11052 on glucuronidase release from guinea pig neutrophils, FS11052 inhibited glucuronidase release: when treated with $5{\mu}g/ml$ of FS11052, which was not induced cellular cytotoxicity. The fact that the glucuronidase release in neutrophil and norepinephrine release in neuron was inhibited suggests the similarity in the locations and the mechanisms of FS11052 action targets. When treated with $5{\mu}g/ml$ of FS11052, $[^3H]-NE$ release and neurite extension for both rat hippocampal neurons and PC12 cells were prevented. These observations of FS11052 functioning as an inhibitor of neurotransmitter release suggest that FS11052 has an important role in synaptic transmission in neuron.

Characterization of Physiological Properties in Vibrio fluvialis by the Deletion of Oligopeptide Permease (oppA) Gene (Vibrio fluvialis oligopeptide permease (oppA) 유전자 deletion에 의한 생리적 특성)

  • Ahn Sun Hee;Lee Eun Mi;Kim Dong Gyun;Hong Gyoung Eun;Park Eun Mi;Kong In Soo
    • Journal of Life Science
    • /
    • v.16 no.1
    • /
    • pp.131-135
    • /
    • 2006
  • Oligopeptide is known to be an essential nitrogen nutrient for bacterial growth. Oligopeptide can be transported into cytoplasm by a specific transport system, Opp system. Opp system is composed of five proteins, which are transcribed by an operon. These are responsible for oligopeptide binding protein (OppA), permease (OppB and OppC) and energy generation system (OppD and OppF), respectively. Previously, we isolated the opp operon from Vibrio fluvialis and constructed the oppA mutant by allelic exchange method. In this study, we investigated the growth pattern and biofilm production under the different growth condition. When the cells were cultivated using brain heart infusion(BHI) medium, the wild type was faster than the mutant in growth during the exponential phase. However, it showed that the growth pattern of two strains in M9 medium is very similar. The growth of wild type showed better than that of the mutant grown at pH 8. At pH 7, there was no an obvious difference in growth. After 5 mM $H_2O_2$ was treated to the cells $(OD_{600}=1.2)$, the cell survival was examined. The oppA mutation did not affect in survivability. In the presence of $10{\mu}g/ml$ polymyxin B, the biofilm production of the oppA mutant was higher than that of the wild type.

Quality Characteristics of Accelerated Salt-fermented Anchovy Sauce Added with Shrimp Pandalus borealis, Byproducts (새우가공부산물을 이용한 속성 멸치액젓의 품질특성)

  • Kim, Jin-Soo;Kim, Hye-Suk;Yang, Soo-Kyeong;Park, Chan-Ho;Oh, Hyeon-Seok;Kang, Kyung-Tae;Ji, Seung-Gil;Heu, Min-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
    • /
    • v.35 no.1
    • /
    • pp.87-95
    • /
    • 2006
  • Nutritional quality of accelerated salt-fermented anchovy sauce using shrimp processing byproduct as fermenting aids was characterized and compared with commercial anchovy sauce. Four types of sauces were fermented with 0 and $10\%$ addition of shrimp byproducts ($24{\pm}2^{\circ}C$, for 270 days), and 20 and $30\%$ addition of those ($24{\pm}2^{\circ}C$, for 180 days), respectively. Extractive nitrogen content (1,431 to 1,569 mg/100g) of anchovy sauces increased as additional ratios of shrimp byproduct increased. According to the results of ommission test, the taste of all anchovy sauces was influenced by the content of free amino acids, such as mainly glutamic acid and aspartic acid. Regardless of additional ratios of shrimp byproducts, all sauces were similar in total amino acid content ($9,848\~10,324$ mg/100 g), which were 2 times higher compared to that of the commercial sauce. Proline, valine and histidine contents of sauces tend to decrease as the additional ratios of shrimp byproducts increased, whereas methionine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine and lysine contents increased. Increase of some amino acids and mineral content of sauces by increasing of additional ratios was due to release from shrimp byproducts. Sensory evaluation showed that scores of color, flavor and taste of the sauce added with $20\%$ shrimp byproducts_were significantly higher than those of other sauces (p<0.05). In the useful utilization aspects of seafood processing byproducts, shrimp byproducts were good resource for accelerated fermentation and nutritional improvement in preparation of fish sauce.