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Removal of Organic Matter and Pharmaceuticals in Wastewater Effluent through Managed Aquifer Recharge (하수처리수를 이용한 대수층 함양관리 기술(Managed Aquifer Recharge)에서 유기물과 의약화합물 제거)

  • Im, Huncheol;Yeo, Inseol;Maeng, Sung-Kyu;Choi, Heechul
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.182-190
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    • 2015
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the removal efficiencies of organic matter and pharmaceuticals and to identify the removal mechanism of pharmaceuticals using sand obtained from Hwangryong River in Jangsung. Batch and column studies were used to simulate managed aquifer recharge (MAR) systems. All experiments were performed using field effluent containing pharmaceuticals from Damyang Wastewater Treatment Plant as an influent. Based on the removal results of organic matter and pharmaceuticals from the batch and column experiments, soil organic matter (SOM) and microbial activity were found to effectively remove target contaminants. The removal of organic matter was found to increase under biotic conditions. Neutral and cation pharmaceuticals (iopromide, estrone, and trimethoprim) exhibited removal efficiencies higher than 70% from natural sand and baked sand media in batch and column studies. Carbamazepine persisted in the sand batch and column studies. Anion pharmaceuticals (ketoprofen, ibuprofen, and diclofenac) can be removed under conditions featuring high SOM and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentrations in the sand surface. Based on the experimental Batch and column results, biodegradation and sorption were found to be important mechanisms for the removal of pharmaceuticals within the simulated MAR systems.

A Clinical Study on Relevance between Classified Dampness-Phlegm Pattern of Metabolic Syndrome and Heart Rate Variability (대사증후군의 습담 변증군과 심박변이도의 관련성에 관한 고찰)

  • Lee, Jae-Wook;Shin, Yoon-Ri;Bae, Su-Hyun;Park, Seon-Young;Choi, Sang-Ok;Kim, Kyoung-Min;Kim, Young-Kyun
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.284-297
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    • 2012
  • Objectives : This study was performed to investigate characteristic indice of heart rate variability (HRV) according to presence of metabolic syndrome (MS), pattern identification. Methods : We analyzed 167 subjects who participated in a stroke check-up. We classified the subjects into two groups as MS (n=48) and non-MS (n=119) based on NCEP ATP III. First, we investigated pattern identification of all subjects based on Korean Standard Pattern Identifications for Stroke-III. Second, we surveyed significance of HRV indices between MS and non-MS groups. Third, we investigated significance of HRV indices between classified DP of MS and classified DP of non-MS. Fourth, we investigated significance of HRV indices between classified DP of MS and non-MS. Fifth, we investigated significance between components of MS and HRV indices. Results : 1. SDNN, RMS-SD, HF, Ln(HF), and HF (NORM) were significantly lower in the MS than non-MS group. LN (TP), LF/HF were significantly higher in the MS than non-MS. 2. Ln (HF), Ln (TP), and LF/HF were statistically significant in the classified DP of MS group. 3. RMS-SD, and Ln (HF) were significantly lower in the abdominal obesity group than in the non-abdominal obesity group. SDNN, RMS-SD, TP, Ln (TP), VLF, Ln (VLF), and Ln (LF) were significantly lower in the hypertension group than in the non-hypertension group. RMS-SD was significantly lower in the diabetes group than in the non-diabetes group. Mean HRT,LF/HF were significantly higher in the hypertriglyceridemia than non-hypertriglyceridemia group, but Ln (HF), RMS-SD, and HF (NORM) were significantly lower in the hypertriglyceridemia than non-hypertriglyceridemia group. Conclusions : We found a few significant relationships between classified DP of MS and HRV indices. The resluts demonstrate that MS has potentially negative effects on the cardiovascular system, and these effects could be detected by HRV.

Correlation between Metabolic Syndrome and Plasma Homocysteine Level in Patients with Silent Lacunar Infarction (무증상성 열공성 뇌경색 환자에서 호모시스테인과 대사증후군의 상관관계에 대한 연구)

  • Shin, Yoon-Ri;Lee, Jae-Wook;Lee, Seung-Yeon;Yun, Yong-Jae;Jeong, Hyun-Yun;Kim, Kyoung-Min;Kim, Young-Kyun
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.243-256
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    • 2012
  • Objectives : This clinical study was done to examine metabolic syndrome (MS) and plasma homocysteine (HCY) level in patients with silent lacunar infarction (SLI) and in normal controls. Methods : A total of 154 patients, who were over 20 years of age and visited the stroke prevention check-up center of a university hospital from December 2006 to December 2010, were examined by brain CT or brain MRI, and classified into two groups. We compared the components of MS and HCY levels between patients with SLI (n=74) and normal controls (n=80). Modified ATP III definition was used for diagnosis of MS while Korean standard for waist circumference was used. Results : Prevalence of MS was significantly higher in the SLI group than the normal group. HCY was also significantly higher in the SLI group than the noraml, and the odds ratio (OR) for SLI, comparing high HCY level (${\geq}10{\mu}mol/L$) with low HCY level ($<10{\mu}mol/L$), was 3.64 (95% confidence interval (CI); 1.81-7.29, p<.0001). However, there was no correlation between MS and HCY in the SLI group. Prevalence of diabetes and hypertension (HT) was higher in the SLI group than the normal group, but there was no significant difference in blood lipids level between the SLI and normal groups. Of note, HT itself was enough to be an independent risk factor for SLI (OR; 4.58, 95% CI; 1.91-11.01, p=0.001). Body mass index, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio and visceral fat area were significantly higher in the SLI than normal group, and visceral fat area was enough to be an independent risk factor for SLI (OR; 2.41, 95% CI; 1.04-5.59, p=0.040). Conclusions : SLI is shown to have significant correlation with HCY and prevalence of MS, however there is no relationship between HCY and prevalence of MS in patients with SLI.

Analysis on infection control of general hospital radiology (종합병원 영상의학과의 감염관리 대한 분석)

  • Shin, Jung-Sub;Park, Cheol-Woo;Jeon, Byeong-Kyou
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology
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    • v.6 no.5
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    • pp.335-342
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    • 2012
  • This study aims to find a way to control infection of community radiology effectively by calculating the degree of contamination, culture and identifying the flora in radiology of five general hospitals in Gyeongsangbuk-do. Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Pseudomonas oryzihabitans were identified as surface flora. These are know to be pathogens of hospital acquired infection and there was no radiology-specific flora. Research subject hospitals were conducting similar infection control education but degree of contamination of each hospital showed significant difference. Difference in degree of contamination according to contact sources were analyzed by Contact sources were classified into technologist-using, patients-using and common-using materials. Analysis of each hospital's degree of contamination showed that patient-using materials were significantly more contaminated than technologist-using and common-using materials (p<0.001). Devices which are similar to each other in monthly average frequency of use showed no significant difference in degree of contamination, but general X-ray devices and chest boards which are used most frequently showed higher degree of contamination than others. In addition, hospital A, B and C which have heavier monthly average caseload showed relatively high degree of contamination on irradiation devices which are used by technologists only or by technologists and patients commonly, office desks and doorpulls. Hence it is considered that intensity of infection control education should be different according to the degree of monthly average caseload. This study provided an opportunity to aware that technologists' feeling of contamination is crucial for infection control of radiology, and the Accupoint ATP public hygiene monitoring system which was used in this study for measuring the degree of contamination was proved to be an effective measuring device for hospital acquired infection management.

Development of Standard Specification of Korea Radio based Train Control System(KRTCS-2) for Conventional & High Speed Railway (일반·고속철도용 무선기반 열차제어시스템(KRTCS-2) 표준사양 개발)

  • Kim, Chan-ho;Park, Jong-won;Lee, Kang-gyoo;Sung, Dong-il;Yun, Hak-sun
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Railway
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.736-743
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    • 2016
  • In accordance with the trend of higher speed and automation, the Train Control System is building on the technology of control methods using radio in the technology of exchanging information by wire, toward a wireless communication method that will be applied using LTE-R radio communication technology with $4^{th}$ generation LTE mobile communication a $2^{nd}$ generation GSM-R. Therefore, a standard specification suitable for the Korea Radio based Train Control System-2(below KRTCS-2) for the 350km/h class using wireless communication is created; a prototype based on the standard specification is installed on a high-speed train and is installed on a test section(Ik san-Jeong eup) on the Honam high speed line to ensure the reliability and safety of the standard specifications, which are verified through various performance tests. In the future, the standard specification that has been established as a national railway standard, and the standard specifications will be commercialized by applying the train control system to conventional and High speed railway lines.

Predictors of Metabolic Syndrome in Chronic Schizophrenic Patients Followed for 5 Years(2011-2016) (5년 동안 추적한 만성 조현병 환자에서 대사증후군의 예측인자)

  • Joe, Jae-Gil;Yoon, Bo-Hyun;Jeon, Bong-Hee;Park, Su-Hee;Song, Je-Heon;Jeong, Ha-Ran;Hong, Kye Hyun
    • Korean Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.217-226
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    • 2016
  • Objectives : To investigate changes in, and predictors of, metabolic syndrome(MetS) status over a 5-year period in chronic schizophrenic patients and to identify factors associated with the prevention of or recovery from MetS. Methods : In total, 107 patients, all of whom provided written informed consent, were followed from 2011 to 2016 at Naju National Hospital for this study. MetS was defined according to the revised National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines. Results : During follow-up period, 22(20.5%) patients were newly diagnosed to MetS, 14(13.1%) were disappeared, 77(66.4%) were not changed[MetS : 34(31.8%), No MetS 37(34.6%)]. Common significant factors in the two changed groups were triglyceride and waist circumference, not dose and type of antipsychotic medication. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that female gender(odds ratio[OR]=2.846, 95% confidence interval[CI] : 1.020-7.942), attending two or more outpatient visits per month(OR=3.155, 95% CI : 1.188-8.379) and taking antidepressant medication(OR=3.991, 95% CI : 1.048-15.205) were significantly associated with MetS after controlling for other confounding variables. Type and dose of antipsychotic medication were not significantly associated with MetS. Conclusions : Triglyceride and waist circumference were important manageable indicator of MetS. Adoption of a healthy lifestyle is more important than adjusting the dose or type of antipsychotic medication in the treatment of chronic schizophrenia patients with MetS.

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Diagnostic Value of Ceruloplasmin in the Diagnosis of Pediatric Wilson's Disease

  • Kim, Jung Ah;Kim, Hyun Jin;Cho, Jin Min;Oh, Seak Hee;Lee, Beom Hee;Kim, Gu-Hwan;Choi, Jin-Ho;Kim, Kyung Mo;Yoo, Han-Wook
    • Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.187-192
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: Measurement of serum ceruloplasmin level is the first step in screening for Wilson's disease (WD). Despite the rarity of WD in the general population, ceruloplasmin levels are routinely measured through hepatitis screening in both adults and children. Herein, we evaluated the diagnostic value of ceruloplasmin for the diagnosis of WD among children with hepatitis. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed data on serum ceruloplasmin levels measured as a serologic marker for patients with hepatitis at Asan Medical Center (Seoul, Korea) between from January 2004 to November 2013. The diagnosis of WD was confirmed by the identification of pathogenic variants in the ATP7B gene. To determine the diagnostic accuracy of ceruloplasmin, receiver operation characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed and the area under curve (AUC) were calculated. Results: Measurements of serum ceruloplasmin were performed in 2,834 children who had hepatitis. Among these, 181 (6.4%) children were diagnosed with WD. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of a ceruloplasmin level of <20 mg/dL in the discrimination of WD were 93.4%, 84.2%, and 84.8%, respectively. In this study, 418 (14.7%) false-positive cases and 12 (0.4%) false-negative cases were noted. Using a ROC curve, a ceruloplasmin level of ${\leq}16.6mg/dL$ showed the highest AUC value (0.956) with a sensitivity of 91.2%, a specificity of 94.9%, and an accuracy of 94.7%. Conclusion: The measurement of serum ceruloplasmin was frequently used for the screening of WD in children, despite a low positive rate. The diagnostic value of ceruloplasmin may be strengthened by adopting a new lower cut-off level.

Overexpression of Rcan1-1L Inhibits Hypoxia-Induced Cell Apoptosis through Induction of Mitophagy

  • Sun, Lijun;Hao, Yuewen;An, Rui;Li, Haixun;Xi, Cong;Shen, Guohong
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.37 no.11
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    • pp.785-794
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    • 2014
  • Mitophagy, a cellular process that selectively targets dysfunctional mitochondria for degradation, is currently a hot topic in research into the pathogenesis and treatment of many human diseases. Considering that hypoxia causes mitochondrial dysfunction, which results in cell death, we speculated that selective activation of mitophagy might promote cell survival under hypoxic conditions. In the present study, we introduced the Regulator of calcineurin 1-1L (Rcan1-1L) to initiate the mitophagy pathway and aimed to evaluate the effect of Rcan1-1L-induced mitophagy on cell survival under hypoxic conditions. Recombinant adenovirus vectors carrying Rcan1-1L were transfected into human umbilical vein endothelial cells and human adult cardiac myocytes. Using the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide MTT assay and Trypan blue exclusion assay, Rcan1-1L overexpression was found to markedly reverse cell growth inhibition induced by hypoxia. Additionally, Rcan1-1L overexpression inhibited cell apoptosis under hypoxic conditions, as detected by annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)/propidium iodide (PI) apoptosis assay. Meanwhile, the mitochondria-mediated cell apoptotic pathway was inhibited by Rcan1-1L. In contrast, knockdown of Rcan1-1L accelerated hypoxia-induced cell apoptosis. Moreover, Rcan1-1L overexpression significantly reduced mitochondrial mass, decreased depolarized mitochondria, and downregulated ATP and reactive oxygen species production. We further delineated that the loss of mitochondrial mass was due to the activation of mitophagy induced by Rcan1-1L. Rcan1-1L overexpression activated autophagy flux and promoted translocation of the specific mitophagy receptor Parkin into mitochondria from the cytosol, whereas inhibition of autophagy flux resulted in the accumulation of Parkin-loaded mitochondria. Finally, we demonstrated that mitochondrial 1permeability transition pore opening was significantly increased by Rcan1-1L overexpression, which suggested that Rcan1-1L might evoke mitophagy through regulating mitochondrial permeability transition pores. Taken together, we provide evidence that Rcan1-1L overexpression induces mitophagy, which in turn contributes to cell survival under hypoxic conditions, revealing for the first time that Rcan1-1L-induced mitophagy may be used for cardioprotection.

Protein target identification of ginsenosides in skeletal muscle tissues: discovery of natural small-molecule activators of muscle-type creatine kinase

  • Chen, Feiyan;Zhu, Kexuan;Chen, Lin;Ouyang, Liufeng;Chen, Cuihua;Gu, Ling;Jiang, Yucui;Wang, Zhongli;Lin, Zixuan;Zhang, Qiang;Shao, Xiao;Dai, Jianguo;Zhao, Yunan
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.461-474
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    • 2020
  • Background: Ginseng effectively reduces fatigue in both animal models and clinical trials. However, the mechanism of action is not completely understood, and its molecular targets remain largely unknown. Methods: By screening for proteins that interact with the primary components of ginseng (ginsenosides) in an affinity chromatography assay, we have identified muscle-type creatine kinase (CK-MM) as a potential target in skeletal muscle tissues. Results: Biolayer interferometry analysis showed that ginsenoside metabolites, instead of parent ginsenosides, had direct interaction with recombinant human CK-MM. Subsequently, 20(S)-protopanaxadiol (PPD), which is a ginsenoside metabolite and displayed the strongest interaction with CK-MM in the study, was selected as a representative to confirm direct binding and its biological importance. Biolayer interferometry kinetics analysis and isothermal titration calorimetry assay demonstrated that PPD specifically bound to human CK-MM. Moreover, the mutation of key amino acids predicted by molecular docking decreased the affinity between PPD and CK-MM. The direct binding activated CK-MM activity in vitro and in vivo, which increased the levels of tissue phosphocreatine and strengthened the function of the creatine kinase/phosphocreatine system in skeletal muscle, thus buffering cellular ATP, delaying exercise-induced lactate accumulation, and improving exercise performance in mice. Conclusion: Our results suggest a cellular target and an initiating molecular event by which ginseng reduces fatigue. All these findings indicate PPD as a small molecular activator of CK-MM, which can help in further developing better CK-MM activators based on the dammarane-type triterpenoid structure.

Myricetin Protects Against High Glucose-Induced β-Cell Apoptosis by Attenuating Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress via Inactivation of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5

  • Karunakaran, Udayakumar;Elumalai, Suma;Moon, Jun Sung;Jeon, Jae-Han;Kim, Nam Doo;Park, Keun-Gyu;Won, Kyu Chang;Leem, Jaechan;Lee, In-Kyu
    • Diabetes and Metabolism Journal
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    • v.43 no.2
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    • pp.192-205
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    • 2019
  • Background: Chronic hyperglycemia has deleterious effects on pancreatic β-cell function and turnover. Recent studies support the view that cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) plays a role in β-cell failure under hyperglycemic conditions. However, little is known about how CDK5 impair β-cell function. Myricetin, a natural flavonoid, has therapeutic potential for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this study, we examined the effect of myricetin on high glucose (HG)-induced β-cell apoptosis and explored the relationship between myricetin and CDK5. Methods: To address this question, we subjected INS-1 cells and isolated rat islets to HG conditions (30 mM) in the presence or absence of myricetin. Docking studies were conducted to validate the interaction between myricetin and CDK5. Gene expression and protein levels of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers were measured by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. Results: Activation of CDK5 in response to HG coupled with the induction of ER stress via the down regulation of sarcoendoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 2b (SERCA2b) gene expression and reduced the nuclear accumulation of pancreatic duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX1) leads to β-cell apoptosis. Docking study predicts that myricetin inhibit CDK5 activation by direct binding in the ATP-binding pocket. Myricetin counteracted the decrease in the levels of PDX1 and SERCA2b by HG. Moreover, myricetin attenuated HG-induced apoptosis in INS-1 cells and rat islets and reduce the mitochondrial dysfunction by decreasing reactive oxygen species production and mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) loss. Conclusion: Myricetin protects the β-cells against HG-induced apoptosis by inhibiting ER stress, possibly through inactivation of CDK5 and consequent upregulation of PDX1 and SERCA2b.