• Title, Summary, Keyword: ATP

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Effect of Salviae Radix on Impairment of Membrane Transport Function in Rabbits with Myoglobinuric Acute Renal Failure (마이오글로빈뇨성 급성 신부전 토끼에서 신장 세포막 수송 기능 장애에 대한 단삼의 효과)

  • Ji-Cheon, Jeong;Hyun-Soo, Kim
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.119-128
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    • 2000
  • This study was carried out to determine if Salviae Radix extract (SRE) exerts protective effect against alterations in membrane transport function in rabbits with rhabdomyo lysis-induced acute renal failure. Acute renal failure was induced by intramuscular administration of glycerol (50%, 10 ml/kg). GFR in the glycerol-injected animals was reduced to 11% of the basal value and the fractional $Na^{+}$ excretion was increased to 7.8-fold, indicating generation of acute renal failure. When animals received SRE pretreatment for 7 days prior to glycerol injection, such changes were significantly attenuated. The fractional excretion of glucose and phosphate was increased more than 43-fold and 27-fold, respectively, in rabbits treated with glycerol alone. However, they were increased to 17-and 4.3-fold, respectively, in SRE-pretreated rabbits, and these values were significantly lower than those in rabbits treated with glycerol alone. Uptakes of glucose and phosphate in purified isolated brush-border membrane, the $Na^{+}-K^{+}-ATPase$ activity in microsomal fraction, and cellular ATP levels all were reduced in rabbits treated with glycerol alone. Such changes were prevented by SRE pretreatment. Uptakes of organic ions, PAH and TEA, in renal cortical slices were inhibited by the administration of glycerol, which was prevented by SRE pretreatment. Pretreatment of an antioxidant DPPD significantly attenuated the increase in the fractional excretion of glucose and phosphate induced by rhabdomyolysis. These results indicate that rhabdomyolysis causesimpairment inreabsorption of solutes in the proximal tubule via the generation of reactive oxygen species, and SRE pretreatment may provide the protection against the rhabdomyolysis-induced impairment by its antioxidant action.

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Characterization of Protein Function and Differential Protein Expression in Soybean under Soaking Condition (Proteomics를 이용한 콩의 발아 전 침종처리에 따른 단백질 발현 양상 비교 분석)

  • Cho, Seong-Woo;Kim, Tae-Sun;Kwon, Soo-Jeong;Roy, Swapan Kumar;Lee, Chul-Won;Kim, Hong-Sig;Woo, Sun-Hee
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.60 no.1
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    • pp.114-122
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    • 2015
  • Soybean is very useful crop to supply vegetable protein for human. However, cultivation arear of this economically important crop is gradually diminished in upland field. Hence, cultivation area of soybean is increased in paddy field. During the growth duration of soybean, excessive moisture injury is serious problem for sustainable production and supply. We investigated protein expression according to different period of seed soaking and germination after seed soaking. For comparison on expression of protein according to different condition, we performed two-dimensional electrophoresis. After electrophoresis analysis, we selected differentially expressed protein spots according to different condition such as soaking period and germination after soaking to identify protein function by using MALDI-TOF. Results revealed that pattern of expression of protein according to soaking period and germination after soaking were generally not different in major spots. However, degree of expression of protein in some protein spots was increased in accordance with decrease of soaking period. Especially, in Hwangkeum-Kong, Danyeop-Kon, and Pecking, the degree of expression of protein was remarkably increased for 4 days after soaking. But, according to germination after soaking, degree of expression of protein in germinated seeds of all cultivars was higher than un-germinated seeds. In results of MALDI-TOF analysis, specific proteins were identified by different soaking period such as Allergen Gly m Bd 28K, P24 oleosin isoform B. Also, in accordance with germination, degree of protein expression of the related protein, Gibberellin was increased in un-germinated seeds of Iksan-Kong. In ungerminated seeds of Sinpaldal-kong, proteins were identified as down-regulated by soaking such as ATP binding and Inhibitor II', proteinase.

Studies on Taste Compounds in Alaska Pollack Sikhae during Fermentation (전통 명태식해 숙성중의 정미성분에 관한 연구)

  • Cha, Yong-Jun;Kim, So-Jung;Kim, Eun-Jeong;Kim, Hun;cho, Woo-Jin;Yoo, Mi-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.33 no.9
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    • pp.1515-1521
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    • 2004
  • As one of the research series for the industrialization of sikhae, this study was evaluated the taste compounds present in different temperature conditions, $5^{\circ}C$, $20^{\circ}C$ and alternating temperature (stored at $5^{\circ}C$ after 10 days fermentation at $20^{\circ}C$), respectively. The changes in proximate compositions were negligible but the amounts of total sugar decreased during fermentation. The pH of sikhae products except the product fermented at $5^{\circ}C$, decreased during fermentation and was maintained at the rage of 3.8~4.4 after 10 days. The values of acidity, VBN and amino-N gradually increased with fermentation times and with increasing temperature condition in all products. Three organic acids (lactic, citric and malic acid) were disclosed as key compounds affecting the sourness in Alaska pollack sikhae. The result of taste value revealed that 6 amino acids having sweet and umami taste (aspartic acid, glutamic acid, alanine and lysine) and bitter taste (valine and methionine) as major amino acids affecting the taste of sikhae products, and increased with fermentation times. Hypoxanthine was the main component in ATP related compounds. Amino-N was comprised more over 50% of the Ex-N in sikhae products, and followed by total creatinine-N, TMAO-N and TMA-N in that order.

Anti-fatigue effect of a cucumber vinegar beverage on rats after high-intensity exercise (고강도 운동을 실시한 흰쥐에 대한 오이식초음료의 항피로 효과)

  • Cho, Hyun Dong;Kim, Jeong Ho;Lee, Ju Hye;Hong, Seong Min;Yee, Sung Tae;Seo, Kwon Il
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.49 no.2
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    • pp.209-214
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    • 2017
  • We evaluated the effect of cucumber vinegar (CV) on fatigue accumulation in rats that performed high-intensity exercise. The rats were randomly assigned to 3 groups: sedentary control (SC), exercise control (EC), and CV. Body weights were higher in groups EC and CV than in group SC. Organ weights in group CV did not differ from those in group SC. Running time was significantly longer in group CV than in the other groups. Compared to group EC, cucumber vinegar administration markedly decreased serum concentrations of ammonia, inorganic phosphate, and ${{\small}L}$-lactate. The activities of serum creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase were significantly lower in group CV than in groups SC and EC. Glycogen contents in the muscle and liver were higher in group CV than in groups SC and EC. These results suggest that cucumber vinegar can serve as a functional ingredient in the development of a beverage to attenuate fatigue.

Effect of Tartary Buckwheat Sprout on Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease through Anti-Histone Acetyltransferase Activity (쓴메밀 새싹 추출물의 히스톤 아세틸화 효소 활성 저해에 의한 비알코올성 지방간 억제 효능)

  • Hwang, Jin-Taek;Nam, Tae Gyu;Chung, Min-Yu;Park, Jae Ho;Choi, Hyo-Kyoung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.46 no.2
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    • pp.169-176
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    • 2017
  • Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is caused by chronic lipid accumulation due to dysregulation of lipid metabolism in the liver, and it is associated with various human diseases such as obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes. Histone acetylation is a representative epigenetic mechanism regulated by histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and deacetylases. We observed that tartary buckwheat sprout (TBS) suppressed lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells through its anti-HAT activity. We showed that TBS was a novel HAT inhibitor with specificity for the major HAT enzyme p300. Importantly, TBS reduced acetylation of total and histone proteins, H3K9, H3K36, and H4K8, resulting in decreased transcriptional activities of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c, ATP citrate lyase, and fatty acid synthase. These results suggest that TBS inhibits the NAFLD transcription-modulating activity of lipogenesis-related genes through modification of histone acetylation.

Effects of deoxynivalenol- and zearalenone-contaminated feed on the gene expression profiles in the kidneys of piglets

  • Reddy, Kondreddy Eswar;Lee, Woong;Jeong, Jin young;Lee, Yookyung;Lee, Hyun-Jeong;Kim, Min Seok;Kim, Dong-Woon;Yu, Dongjo;Cho, Ara;Oh, Young Kyoon;Lee, Sung Dae
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.138-148
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    • 2018
  • Objective: Fusarium mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN), common contaminants in the feed of farm animals, cause immune function impairment and organ inflammation. Consequently, the main objective of this study was to elucidate DON and ZEN effects on the mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and other immune related genes in the kidneys of piglets. Methods: Fifteen 6-week-old piglets were randomly assigned to three dietary treatments for 4 weeks: control diet, and diets contaminated with either 8 mg DON/kg feed or 0.8 mg ZEN/kg feed. Kidney samples were collected after treatment, and RNA-seq was used to investigate the effects on immune-related genes and gene networks. Results: A total of 186 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened (120 upregulated and 66 downregulated). Gene ontology analysis revealed that the immune response, and cellular and metabolic processes were significantly controlled by these DEGs. The inflammatory stimulation might be an effect of the following enriched Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes pathway analysis found related to immune and disease responses: cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, chemokine signaling pathway, toll-like receptor signaling pathway, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), tuberculosis, Epstein-Barr virus infection, and chemical carcinogenesis. The effects of DON and ZEN on genome-wide expression were assessed, and it was found that the DEGs associated with inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 10 receptor, beta, chemokine [C-X-C motif] ligand 9, CXCL10, chemokine [C-C motif] ligand 4), proliferation (insulin like growth factor binding protein 4, IgG heavy chain, receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase C, cytochrome P450 1A1, ATP-binding cassette sub-family 8), and other immune response networks (lysozyme, complement component 4 binding protein alpha, oligoadenylate synthetase 2, signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-9, ${\alpha}$-aminoadipic semialdehyde dehydrogenase, Ig lambda chain c region, pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isozyme 4, carboxylesterase 1), were suppressed by DON and ZEN. Conclusion: In summary, our results indicate that high concentrations of DON and ZEN suppress the inflammatory response in kidneys, leading to potential effects on immune homeostasis.

Non-ribosomal Ribosome Assembly Factors in Escherichia coli (Escherichia coli 에서 리보솜 조립과정에 관여하는 단백질들)

  • Choi, Eunsil;Hwang, Jihwan
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.24 no.8
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    • pp.915-926
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    • 2014
  • The ribosome is a protein synthesizing machinery and a ribonucleoprotein complex that consists of three ribosomal RNAs (23S, 16S and 5S) and 54 ribosomal proteins in bacteria. In the course of ribosome assembly, ribosomal proteins (r-protein) and rRNAs are modified, the r-proteins bind to rRNAs to form ribonucleoprotein complexes which are folded into mature ribosomal subunits. In this process, a number of non-ribosomal trans-acting factors organize the assembly process of the components. Those factors include GTP- and ATP-binding proteins, rRNA and r-protein modification enzymes, chaperones, and RNA helicases. During ribosome biogenesis, they participate in the modifications of ribosomal proteins and RNAs, and the assemblies of ribosomal proteins with rRNAs. Ribosomes can be assembled from a discrete set of components in vitro, and it is notable that in vivo ribosome assembly is much faster than in vitro ribosome assembly. This suggests that non-ribosomal ribosome assembly factors help to overcome several kinetic traps in ribosome biogenesis process. In spite of accumulation of genetic, structural, and biochemical data, not only the entire procedure of bacterial ribosome synthesis but also most of roles of ribosome assembly factors remain elusive. Here, we review ribosome assembly factors involved in the ribosome maturation of Escherichia coli, and summarize the contributions of several ribosome assembly factors which associate with 50S and 30S ribosomal subunits, respectively.

Proteomic Analysis of Protein Changes in Human Lung Cancer Epithelial Cells Following Streptococcus pneumoniae Infection (Streptococcus pneumonia 감염으로 변화한 사람 폐 상피세포 단백질의 프로테오믹 분석)

  • Lee, Yun Yeong;Chung, Kyung Tae
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.23 no.8
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    • pp.1050-1056
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    • 2013
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of community-acquired pneumonia throughout the world. The bacteria invade through lung tissue and cause sepsis, shock, and serious sequelae, including rheumatic fever and acute glomerulonephritis. However, the molecular mechanism associated with pneumonia's penetration of lung tissue and invasion of the blood stream are still unclear. We attempted to investigate the host cell response at protein levels to S. pneumoniae D39 invasion using human lung cancer epithelial cells, A549. Streptococcus pneumoniae D39 began to change the morphology of A549 cells to become round with filopodia at 2 hours post-infection. A549 cell proteins obtained at each infection time point were separated by SDS-PAGE and analyzed using MALDI-TOF. We identified several endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident proteins such as Grp94 and Grp78 and mitochondrial proteins such as ATP synthase and Hsp60 that increased after S. pneumoniae D39 infection. Cytosolic Hsc70 and Hsp90 were, however, identified to decrease. These proteins were also confirmed by Western blot analysis. The identified ER resident proteins were known to be induced during ER stress signaling. These/ data, therefore, suggest that S. pneumoniae D39 infection may induce ER stress.

Development of Standard Specification of Korea Radio based Train Control System(KRTCS-2) for Conventional & High Speed Railway (일반·고속철도용 무선기반 열차제어시스템(KRTCS-2) 표준사양 개발)

  • Kim, Chan-ho;Park, Jong-won;Lee, Kang-gyoo;Sung, Dong-il;Yun, Hak-sun
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Railway
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.736-743
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    • 2016
  • In accordance with the trend of higher speed and automation, the Train Control System is building on the technology of control methods using radio in the technology of exchanging information by wire, toward a wireless communication method that will be applied using LTE-R radio communication technology with $4^{th}$ generation LTE mobile communication a $2^{nd}$ generation GSM-R. Therefore, a standard specification suitable for the Korea Radio based Train Control System-2(below KRTCS-2) for the 350km/h class using wireless communication is created; a prototype based on the standard specification is installed on a high-speed train and is installed on a test section(Ik san-Jeong eup) on the Honam high speed line to ensure the reliability and safety of the standard specifications, which are verified through various performance tests. In the future, the standard specification that has been established as a national railway standard, and the standard specifications will be commercialized by applying the train control system to conventional and High speed railway lines.

Isolation and Identification of Pathogenic Bacteria from Spinach (시금치로부터 병원성세균의 분리 및 동정)

  • Kim, Hye-Jung;Kim, Young-Hoon;Lee, Dong-Sun;Paik, Hyun-Dong
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.97-102
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    • 2003
  • Raw and washed spinaches were tested to evaluate the incidences of Aeromonas hydrophila, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Plesiomonas shigelloides, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Yersinia enterocolitica, Bacillus cereus, Campylobacter jejuni, Clostridium perfringens, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus. Four pathogenic bacteria were isolated from spinach samples, and identified by morphological and biochemical methods, including API and ATB identification systems. Isolates from MacConkey, Cereus Selective, Clostridium Perfringens, and Baird-Parker agar media were in 99.9, 99.8, 99.9, and 97.8% agreements with A. hydrophila, B. cereus, C. perfringens, and S. aureus at the species level, respectively. SET-RPLA revealed, among the five strains of S. aureus isolates, two produced type A enterotoxin. All five strains of B. cereus isolates produced enterotoxin as revealed with CRET-RPLA.