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Clinical Experiences of Continuous Tepid Blood Cardioplegia; Valvular Heart Surgery (미온혈 심정지액의 임상적 고찰)

  • 이종국;박승일;조재민;원준호;박묘식
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.130-137
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    • 1999
  • Background: In cardiac surgery, hypothermia is associated with a number of major disadvantage, including its detrimental effects on enzymatic function, energy generation and cellular integrity. Warm cardioplegia with normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass cause three times more incidence of permanent neurologic deficits than the cold crystalloid cardioplegia with hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass. Interruptions or inadequate distribution of warm cardioplegia may induce anaerobic metabolism and warm ischemic injury. To avoid these problems, tepid blood cardioplegia was recently introduced. Material and Method: To evaluate whether continuous tepid blood cardioplegia is beneficial in clinical practice during valvular surgery, we studied two groups of patients matched by numbers and clinical characteristics. Warm group(37$^{\circ}C$) consisted of 18 patients who underwent valvular surgery with continuous warm blood cardioplegia. Tepid group(32$^{\circ}C$) consisted of 17 patients who underwent valvular surgery with continuous tepid blood cardioplegia. Result: Heartbeat in 100% of the patients receiving continuous warm blood cardioplegia and 88.2% of the patients receiving continuous tepid blood cardioplegia converted to normal sinus rhythm spontaneously after removal of the aortic cross clamp. There were no differences between these two groups in CPB time, ACC time, the amount of crystalloid cardioplegia used and peak level of potassium. During the operation, the total amount of urine output was more in the warm group than the tepid group(2372${\pm}$243 ml versus 1535${\pm}$130 ml, p<0.01). There were no differences between the two groups in troponin T level measured 1hr and 12hrs after the operation. Conclusion: Continuous tepid blood cardioplegia is as safe and effective as continuous warm blood cardioplegia undergoing cardiac valve surgery in myocardial protection.

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Development of Natural Seasoning using Desalinated Tuna Boiled Extract (탈염된 참치 자숙액을 이용한 천연조미료 개발)

  • KIM Se-Kwon;BYUN Hee-Guk;JEON You-Jin;JOO Dong-Sik;KIM Jong-Bae
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.75-82
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    • 1999
  • The hydrolysate of desalinated tuna boiled extract (TBE) were prepared by continuous hydrolysis of TBE using a membrane reactor. TBE and tuna boiled extract hydrolysate (TBEH) were isolated depending on molecular weights. The major molecular weight distributions of TBEH-l0K, TBEH-5K and TBEH-lK were 9,800Da, 3,000Da and 990Da, respectively. The amounts of nucleotides and their related compounds of TBE were 3.47 $\mu$mole/g AMP, 23.75 $\mu$mole/g IMP, 9.07 $\mu$mole/g inosine and 1.89 $\mu$mole/g hypoxanthine. Total content of amino acids having desirable taste (glycine, glutamic acid, alanine, proline, aspartic acid, serine) was about $63\%$ of total amino acid from TBE and about $62\%$ from TBEH. The natural seasoninings were prepared with TBE and TBEH. From the results of sensory evaluations, complex seasoning containing TBEH-1K was almost equal to the shellfish complex seasoning obtained from the market. The mixed sauce which was made by mixing of $50\%$ TBEH sauce and $50\%$ fermented soy sauce was similar to the tradition soybean sauce in product quality and it showed the possibility to be used for the substitute product for acid hydrolyzed soysauce.

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Changes in Blood Lipid Profile and Hepatic Enzyme Levels after Oriental Medical Treatment to Metabolic Syndrome Patients with Abnormal Liver Function

  • Kim, Dong-Woung
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.1626-1632
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    • 2008
  • Among patients who are receiving treatments at an oriental medical hospital for various symptoms and diseases, patients whose main disease is accompanied by metabolic syndrome with abnormal liver function. This research was performed in order to observe the progression of changes in the liver function and serum lipid profile after the oriental medical treatments to patients who have been receiving oriental medical treatment for various other diseases and have been diagnosed as having metabolic syndrome at their first visit to the hospital based on NCEP ATP III diagnosis criteria and WHO Asia Pacific region criteria. Total number of subject patients were 39cases(mean age:55.58${\pm}$2.09 years) which had 20 male and 19 female. For the references for hepatic enzyme levels and blood lipid profile were measured in before treatment and four times after treatments(every 2.31${\pm}$06.17 weeks). Serum AST was 48.86${\pm}$7.46 IU/L before oriental medical treatment. After the treatment, 40.63${\pm}$4.69, 43.12${\pm}$5.46, 37.82${\pm}$4.52 IU/L were measured where although the level decreased to the normal level compared to pre-treatment, the value was not significant statistically(P>0.05). ALT was 66.26${\pm}$11.01 IU/L before oriental medical treatment. After the treatment 62.10${\pm}$8.20, 61.10${\pm}$8.76, 43.79${\pm}$5.68 were measured where although the level decreased, abnormally high level was maintained. The last result was significant statistically(P<0.05) compared to pre-treatment. ALP was 193.06${\pm}$14.20 IU/L before oriental medical treatment. After the treatment, 176.80${\pm}$6.48, 177.46${\pm}$11.81, 162.41${\pm}$9.06 where although compared to pre-treatment the last result was significant statistically(P<0.05), the change was within the normal range. ${\gamma}$-GGT was 87.83${\pm}$12.59 IU/L before oriental medical treatment. After the treatment, progressively near normal level was achieved with 118.73${\pm}$46.45, 85.03${\pm}$17.12, 70.64${\pm}$10.93 and the last result was statistically significant compared to pre-treatment (P<0.05). Blood triglyceride was 217.63${\pm}$32.18 mg/dL before oriental medical treatment. After treatment 215.09${\pm}$22.18, 189.93${\pm}$22.44, 191.22${\pm}$18.51 where abnormal values continued even after treatment although results was not statistically significant compared to pre-treatment(P>0.05). Total-cholesterol was 197.28${\pm}$9.24 mg/dL before oriental medical treatment, after treatment 201.55${\pm}$11.13, 186.87${\pm}$8.77 and 186.68${\pm}$7.61 were measured that results were not statistically significant compared to pre-treatment(P>0.05). HDL-cholesterol was 41.88${\pm}$2.38 mg/dL before oriental medical treatment, after treatment 48.75${\pm}$4.22, 44.10${\pm}$1.91, 48.00${\pm}$2.06 the results were not statistically significant compared to pre-treatment(P>0.05). LDL-cholesterol was 111.66${\pm}$13.08 mg/dL before oriental medical treatment, after treatment 109.94${\pm}$10.18, 101.79${\pm}$8.63, 104.00${\pm}$6.98 the results were not statistically significant compared to pre-treatment(P>0.05). With such results, even if common oriental medical treatments were given to metabolic syndrome patients with abnormal liver function, the liver function was confirmed not to be aggravated, and the concentration of lipids in the blood was confirmed not to be affected in most patients.

Customer Acceptance Procedure for Clinac (21EX-Platinum)

  • Hong, Dong-Ki;Lee, Woo-Seok;Kwon, Kyung-Tae;Park, Kwang-Ho;Kim, Chung-Man
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.43-61
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    • 2004
  • Purpose : For qualify improvement in radiotherapy, it is important to set up and evaluate equipment (linac) accurately. In addition, technicians are needed to be fully aware of the equipment's detailed quality and its manual. Therefore, the result of ATP is evaluated and introduced, in order that the technicians are skilled by participating in quality assurance (QA) and understanding the quality of the equipment before clinical use. Method and Material : QA for LINAC 21EX (Varian, US) was done with suppliers its procedure was divided into radiation survey, mechanical test, radiation isocenter test, bean performance, dosimetry, and enhanced dynamic wedge and using X-omat film (Kodak), multidata, densitometer, and electrometer. QA of MLC (Millennium, 120 leaf) attached to LINAC and EPID (Portal vision) were done separately. Result : The leakage dose by survey meter was below the tolerance. In mechanical test, collimater, gantry, and couch rotation were less than 1mm, and the angles were ${\pm}0.1^{\circ}$ for digital and ${\pm}0.5^{\circ}$ for mechanical. The alignment test of the light field and crosshair were evaluated less than 1mm. The (a)symmetrical jaw field was less than ${\pm}0.5mm$. The radiation isocenter test using X-mat film was less than 1mm. The consistency of light field and radiation field was less than ${\pm}0.1mm$. PDD for photon energy was less than ${\pm}1\%$ and for electron energy of $90\%,\;80\%,\;50\%,\;and\;30\%$ were evaluated within the tolerance. Flatness for photon and electron energy was evaluated $2.3\%$ (tolerance $3\%$) and $3\%$ (tolerance $4.5\%$), respectively, and symmetry was $0.45\%$ (tolerance $2\%$) and $0.3\%$ (tolerance $2\%$), respectively. Dosimetry test for short term, MU setting, rep rate, and dose rate accuracy of photon and electron energy was within the tolerance depending on energy, MU, and gantry angle. Conclusion : Accuracy and safety for clinical use of Clinac 21EX was verified through customer acceptance procedure and the quality of the equipment was found out. These can reduce the difficulties in using the equipment. Furthermore, it is useful for clinically treatment of patients by technicians' active participations.

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Ecosysteme de I′Etang de Berre (Mediterranee nord-occidentale) : Caracteres Generales Physiques, Chimiques et Biologiques

  • Kim, Ki-Tai
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.247-258
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    • 2004
  • Climatological, hydrological and planktonical research studies, measurements of primary production and photosynthetic efficiency from December 1976 to December 1978 have been carried out in two brackish lakes: Lake Etang de Berre and Lake Etang de Vaine located in the French Mediterranean coast, in the region of Carry-le-Rouet located on the north-west Mediterranean near Marseilles, and in fresh water inflows from 4 Rivers (Touloubre, Durance, Arc, Durancole) to Lake Etang de Berre. Physico-chemical parameters were measured for this study: water temperature, salinity, density, pH, alcalinity, dissolved oxygen (% saturation), phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, silicate etc. Diverse biological parameters were also studied: photosynthetic pigments, phaeopigments, specific composition and biomass of phytoplankton, primary pelagic production etc. Climatical factors were studied: air-temperature, solar-radiation, evaporation, direction (including strength) of winds, precipitation and freshwater volume of the four rivers. The changes in Lake ‘Etang de Berre’ ecosystem depend on the quality of the water in the Durance River, and on the effects of seawater near the entrance of the Caronte Canal. The water quality of the lake varies horizontally and vertically as a result of atmospheric phenomena, maritime currents and tides. The distribution of water temperatures is generally heterogeneous. Southeasterly winds and the Northeasterly Mistral wind are important in the origins of circulated and mixed water masses. These winds are both frequent and strong. They have, as a result, a great effect on the water environment of Lake Etang de Berre. In theory, the annual precipitation in this region is well over eight times the water mass of the lake. The water of the Durance River flows into Lake Etang de Berre through the EDF Canal, amounting to 90% of the precipitation. However, reduction of rainfall in dry seasons has a serious effect on the hydrological characteristics of the lake. The temperature in the winter is partially caused by the low temperature of fresh water, particularly that of the Durance River. The hydrological season of fresh and brackish water is about one month ahead of the hydrological season of sea water in its vicinity. The salinity of Lake Etang de Berre runs approximately 3$\textperthousand$, except at lower levels and near the entrance to the Caronte Canal. However, when the volume of the Durance River water is reduced in the summer and fall, the salinity rises to 15$\textperthousand$. In the lake, the ratio of fresh water to sea water is six to one (6:1). The large quantities of seston conveyed by rivers, particularly the Durance diversion, strongly reduce the transparency in the brackish waters. Although the amount of sunshine is also notable, transparency is slight because of the large amount of seston, carried chiefly by Tripton in the fresh water of the Durance River. Therefore, photosynthesis generally occurs only in the surface layer. The transparency progressively increases from freshwater to open seawater, as mineral particles sink to the bottom (about 1.7kg $m^{-2}a^{-1}$ on the average in brackish lakes). The concentration of dissolved oxygen and the rate of oxygen saturation in seawater (Carry-le-Rouet) ranged from 5.0 to 6.0 $m\ell$ㆍ.$1^{-1}$, and from 95 to 105%, respectively. The amount of dissolved oxygen in Etang de Berre oscillated between 2.9 and 268.3%. The monographs of phosphate, nitrate, nitrite and silicate were published as a part of a study on the ecology of phytoplankton in these environments. Horizontal and vertical distributions of these nutriments were studied in detail. The recent diversion of the Durance River into Lake Etang de Berre has effected a fundamental change in this formerly marine environment, which has had a great impact in its plankton populations. A total of 182 taxa were identified, including 111 Bacillariophyceae, 44 Chlorophyceae, and 15 Cyanophyceae. The most abundant species are small freshwater algae, mainly Chlorophyceae. The average density is about $10^{8}$ cells $1^{-1}$ in Lake Etang de Berre, and about double that amount in Lake Etang de Vaine. Differences in phytoplankton abundance and composition at the various stations or at various depths are slight. Cell biovolume V (equivalent to true biomass), plasma volume VP (‘useful’ biomass) and, simultaneously. the cell surface area S and S/V ratio through the measurement of cell dimensions were computed as the parameters of phytoplankton productivity and metabolism. Pigment concentrations are generally very high on account of phytoplankton blooms by Cyanophyceae, Chlorophyceae and Cryptophyceae. On the other hand, in freshwaters and marine waters, pigment concentrations are comparatively low and stable, showing slight annual variation. The variations of ATP concentration were closely related to those of chlorophyll a and phytoplankton blooms only in marine waters. The carbon uptake rates ranged between 38 and 1091 mg$Cm^{-2}d^{-1}$, with an average surface value of 256 mg; water-column carbon-uptake rates ranged between 240 and 2310 mg$Cm^{-2}d^{-1}$, with an average of 810, representing 290 mg$Cm^{-2}$, per year 45 000 tons per year of photosynthetized carbon for the whole lake. Gross photosynthetic production measured by the method of Ryther was studied over a 2-year period. The values obtained from marine water(Carry-le-Rouet) ranged from 23 to 2 337 mg$Cm^{-2}d^{-1}$, with a weighted average of 319, representing about 110 gCm$^{-2}$ per year. The values in brakish water (Etang de Berre) ranged from 14 to 1778 mg$Cm^{-2}d^{-1}$, with a weighted average of 682, representing 250 mg$Cm^{-2}$ per year and 38 400 tons per year of photosynthesized carbon for the whole lake.

Detection of Multidrug Resistance Using Molecular Nuclear Technique (분자핵의학 기법을 이용한 다약제내성 진단)

  • Lee, Jae-Tae;Ahn, Byeong-Cheol
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.180-189
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    • 2004
  • Although the outcome of cancer patients after cytotoxic chemotherapy is related diverse mechanisms, multidrug resistance (MDR) for chemotherapeutic drugs due to cellular P-glycoprotein (Pgp) or multidrug-resistance associated protein (MRP) is most important factor in the chemotherapy failure to cancer. A large number of pharmacologic compounds, including verapamil, quinidine, tamoxifen, cyclosporin A and quinolone derivatives have been reported to overcome MDR. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) are available for the detection of Pgp and MRP-mediated transporter. $^{99m}Tc$-MIBI and other $^{99m}Tc$-radiopharmaceuticals are substrates for Pgp and MRP, and have been used in clinical studies for tumor imaging, and to visualize blockade of PgP-mediated transport after modulation of Pgp pump. Colchicine, verapamil and daunorubicin labeled with $^{11}C$ have been evaluated for the quantification of Pgp-mediated transport with PET in vivo and reported to be feasible substrates with which to image Pgp function in tumors. Leukotrienes are specific substrates for MRP and $N-[^{11}C]acetyl-leukotriene$ E4 provides an opportunity to study MRP function non-invasively in vivo. SPECT and PET pharmaceuticals have successfully used to evaluate pharmacologic effects of MDR modulators. Imaging of MDR and reversal of MDR with bioluminescence in a living animal is also evaluated for future clinical trial. We have described recent advances in molecular imaging of MDR and reviewed recent publications regarding feasibility of SPECT and PET imaging to study the functionality of MDR transporters in vivo.

Controversial issues in the legal restriction for prenatal genetic testing in Korea (산전검사 대상 질환에 대한 법적 규제의 문제점에 대한 고찰)

  • Choi, Ji-Young;Jeong, Seon-Yong;Kim, Hyon-J.
    • Journal of Genetic Medicine
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.186-189
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    • 2007
  • More than 6,000 rare disorders including genetic diseases have been reported. Of them, 1,500 diseases (1,211 for clinical diagnosis and 289 for research only) are technically possible for genetic testing. In Korea, since 2005, only 63 genetic diseases is permitted for prenatal genetic testing by the "Bioethics and Biosafety Law". The article 25 in the law prescribes 63 genetic diseases without clear indication for its selection and inclusion criteria. In EU, USA, and other foreign countries, however, there is no provision in the statute on prenatal genetic testing; it is not restricted by a law. Recently, a woman (Mrs. L, 38y) who is a carrier for Menkes disease made an appeal to a government for an amendment of the "Bioethics and Biosafety Law" prohibiting the prenatal diagnosis of her pregnancy at risk for Menkes disease. Menkes disease (MNK) is an X-linked recessive disorder characterized by neurodegeneration, connective tissue defects and hair abnormalities, and no effective treatment is available yet. The prevalence rate of MNK is one in about 250,000 live births. Menkes syndrome patients fail to absorb copper from the gastrointestinal tract in quantities adequate for meeting nutritional needs. These needs seem particularly acute during the initial 12 month of life, when the velocity of brain growth and motor neurodevelopment. Most of pts. die around 3yrs. of age. Mrs. L had a boy with Menkes disease who died at 2y.o. in 2001. Subsequent pregnancy in 2003, she was able to have prenatal genetic testing for mutation of the Menkes (ATP7A) gene and delivered a healthy baby boy. Now, She is pregnant again and wants to have prenatal diagnosis. however, this time, she was not allowed to have any more because Menkes disease is not included in 63 genetic diseases permitted by the law for prenatal genetic testing, in spite of the fact that she is a Menkes disease carrier and her pregnancy is at risk to have an affected baby. This case shows the practical problem of the legal restriction for prenatal genetic testing in Korea. In this study, we report a arguable case and discuss the controversial issues in the legal restriction for prenatal genetic testing in Korea.

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Isolation and Characterization of vasa Gene of Triploid and Diploid Human Lung Flukes (Paragonimus westermani) (폐흡충의 이배체와 삼배체 vasa 유전자 분석 및 특징)

  • Lee, Keun-Hee;Yu, Hak-Sun;Hur, Jae-Won;Yu, Sung-Suk;Choi, Sun-Hee;Park, Sang-Kyun;Lee, Sun-Joo;Chung, Dong-Il;Kong, Hyun-Hee;Ock, Mee-Sun;Jeong, Hae-Jin
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.462-469
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    • 2007
  • In this study, we isolated, characterized, and compared the vasa homologous genes of diploid and triploid Paragonimus westermani and localized VASA homologous proteins in both lung fluke types. Open reading frames of Pw-vasa-2n and Pw-vasa-3n were of 1812 bp, and encoded deduced proteins of 622 amino acids with calculated molecular weights of 69.0 kDa and 68.9 kDa and pI's of 9.11 and 9.03, respectively. A comparison of these two VASA deduced protein sequences showed that only 6 of the 622 amino acids differed. The deduced sequences of Pw-VASA-2n and Pw-VASA-3n contained eight consensus sequences characteristic of the DEAD-box protein family and their N-terminal regions contained four arginine-glycine-glycine (RGG) motifs. These two lung fluke VASA-like proteins were more similar to those of other VASA proteins than to those of other DEAD-family proteins isolated from several organisms (planarian, zebra fish, mouse, and human). vasa homologous gene transcription and VASA protein expressions in triploid type lung flukes was slightly stronger than in the diploid type. Immunostaining showed that testes and a portion of the ovaries of both diploid and triploid lung flukes reacted strongly to anti-Pw-VASA antibody.

Quality Characteristics of Soybean Anchovy Sauce Added with Medicinal Herbs (약용식물을 첨가한 어간장의 품질특성)

  • Kim, Young-Sook;Yeum, Dong-Min;Roh, Sung-Bae;Kim, Young-Hee;Chung, Sun-Kyung
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.367-376
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    • 2008
  • This study was conducted to investigate 1he quality characteristics of 1he soybean anchovy sauces added with medicinal herbs, Saururu chinensis Baill. and Houttuynia cordata Thunb. and fermented for 4 months. The total nitrogen content of 1he soybean anchovy sauce increased with the fermentation time showing the highest values in the sauce with Houttuynia cordata Thunb.. The contents of total sugar and reduced sugar were high in the order of the sauces with Houttuynia cordata Thunb.(sauce T), with Saururu chinensis Baill.(sauce B), and control. The content of salt decreased much more in the sauces with medicinal herbs. After 4 months of fermentation, pH was lowered from 5.86 to 5.27 in control, to 5.38 and 5.54 in sauce B and sauce T, respectively. Generally the total aerobic bacterial count increased until 3 months of fermentation and then decreased, and the addition of medicinal hems reduced the count especially showing apparent reduction in the sauce T. During the fermentation, total protease activity generally increased with the highest value in the sauce T. In the changes of nucleotides and their related compounds, the contents of AMP, ADP, and ATP were increased and hypoxanthine decreased during the fermentation, and IMP produced after 3 months. The soybean anchovy sauce B had 1he highest IMP and the lowest hypoxanthine after 4 months. The content of total amino acids increased showing 177.1 mg% and 134.7 mg% in the sauce B and sauce T respectively compared with 171.2 mg% of control. The contents of glutamic acid and aspartic acid were 29.2 mg% in sauce B and 34.3 mg% in sauce T, which were higher compared with 25.9 mg% of control. The fermented soybean anchovy sauce had 1he functionality of ACE inhibition with 70.5% (control), 72.5% (sauce B) and 81.6% (sauce T). In the results of sensory evaluation, the sance T scored the highest and the sauce B was preferred to control.

Management of Non-pain Symptoms in Terminally Ill Cancer Patients: Based on National Comprehensive Cancer Network Guidelines (말기암환자에서 통증 외 증상의 관리: 최신 NCCN(National Comprehensive Cancer Netweork) 권고안을 중심으로)

  • Lee, Hye Ran
    • The Korean Journal of Hospice and Palliative Care
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.205-215
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    • 2013
  • Most terminally ill cancer patients experience various physical and psychological symptoms during their illness. In addition to pain, they commonly suffer from fatigue, anorexia-cachexia syndrome, nausea, vomiting and dyspnea. In this paper, I reviewed some of the common non-pain symptoms in terminally ill cancer patients, based on the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines to better understand and treat cancer patients. Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is a common symptom in terminally ill cancer patients. There are reversible causes of fatigue, which include anemia, sleep disturbance, malnutrition, pain, depression and anxiety, medical comorbidities, hyperthyroidism and hypogonadism. Energy conservation and education are recommended as central management for CRF. Corticosteroid and psychostimulants can be used as well. The anorexia and cachexia syndrome has reversible causes and should be managed. It includes stomatitis, constipation and uncontrolled severe symptoms such as pain or dyspnea, delirium, nausea/vomiting, depression and gastroparesis. To manage the syndrome, it is important to provide emotional support and inform the patient and family of the natural history of the disease. Megesteol acetate, dronabinol and corticosteroid can be helpful. Nausea and vomiting will occur by potentially reversible causes including drug consumption, uremia, infection, anxiety, constipation, gastric irritation and proximal gastrointestinal obstruction. Metoclopramide, haloperidol, olanzapine and ondansetron can be used to manage nausea and vomiting. Dyspnea is common even in terminally ill cancer patients without lung disease. Opioids are effective for symptomatic management of dyspnea. To improve the quality of life for terminally ill cancer patients, we should try to ameliorate these symptoms by paying more attention to patients and understanding of management principles.