• 제목, 요약, 키워드: ATP

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열차방호장치(ATP) 차상설비 시험절차에 대한 고찰 (A review of ATP Onboard System's Test procedure)

  • 장석각;김진환
    • 한국철도학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.1163-1168
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    • 2008
  • Automatic Train Protection(ATP) System is developed by ETCS(European Train Control System) CONSORTIUM for unify Europe railway system. ATP system is composed of Eurobalise and EuroATC. Nowadays, Korea construct ATP system in conventional line and new electrical locomotives also install ATP system. It is important to verify quality which form checklist during Factory Acceptance Test at beyond the seas. In this paper, review the process, test item, norm and checklist for the Balise Transmission Module, Compact Antenna Unit, Vehicle Control Unit and Communication Controller at the Plymouth Bombardier and Vasteras enics factory.

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고속차량 ATP시스템 개량의 최적화에 관한 연구 (Research about optimal installation of ATP system in High speed Rolling-stock)

  • 유병관
    • 한국철도학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.476-482
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    • 2009
  • A signal equipment improvement project for the existing facility ATS to ATP is under construction in Kyung-Bu and Ho-Nam commercial line including 400 rolling stocks. But there was a concern for the interface between KTX OBCS and ATP from the beginning of the project. At present, this is the front burner event. This paper introduces interface checking and predicted failure point between KTX OBCS and ATP improvement system. Through this measure the optimal installation of the ATP will be possible. The study was made under maintenance efficiency including reliability because the KTX signal equipment must qualify the above condition.

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디젤오염토앙의 생물학적 복원에 있어서 유기질비료의 첨가가 석유계 탄화수소의 분해 및 ATP 변화에 미치는 영향 (Effects of Compost Amendment on Petroleum Hydrocarbon Removal and ATP Concentration in Bioremediation of Diesel Contaminated Soil)

  • 이주헌;전관수
    • 대한환경공학회지
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    • v.28 no.7
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    • pp.721-730
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    • 2006
  • 디젤로 오염된 토양에서 유기질비료의 투여가 석유계탄화수소의 생분해에 미치는 영향을 연구하는 한편, 토양의 생태활성과 디젤의 분해도의 관계를 규명하기 위하여 토양내 ATP(Adenosine Triphosphate)농도를 측정하였다. 초기의 자연상태에서 65 ng/g이었던 ATP 농도는 디젤의 오염이 가중됨에 따라 급속하게 감소하여 유류오염도가 80,000 mg diesel/kg까지 증가하자 4 ng/g으로 크게 감소하였다. 건토기준 10%의 유기질비료를 투입한 결과 석유계총탄화수소의 80일간 최종분해율은 대조시료에 비하여 10% 이상 증가되었고, 특히 $C12{\sim}C20$에 해당하는 n-alkanes의 분해가 증가되었다. 또한 유기질비료를 혼합한 경우가 대조시료에 비하여 약 3배 정도의 ATP 농도증가를 보여주어 6일후 112 ng/g의 ATP 농도를 보여주었고, ATP 농도증가의 형태에 있어서도 지연시간을 나타내지 않고 빠른 시간 내에 급속한 증가를 보여주었다. 석유계총탄화수소의 일평균 감소와 ATP 농도는 약간의 시간차이를 두고 유사한 형태를 보여주었다.

Ginsenoside $Rg_3$ Increases the ATP-sensitive $K^+$ Channel Activity in the Smooth Muscle of the Rabbit Coronary Artery

  • Chung Induk;Lee Jeong-Sun
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.235-238
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    • 1999
  • [ $K_{ATP}$ ]채널은 세포내 ATP에 의해서 억제되는 포타슘 채널로서 혈관평활근, 골격근 및 체장의 ${\beta}$세포 막에 존재하여, 근세포의 막전압 조절을 통하여 근수축 및 이완을 조절할 뿐만 아니라 췌장의 ${\beta}$세포로부터 인슐린분비를 조절한다. 홍삼 복합사포닌 및 사포닌 $Rg_3$ 성분은 토끼 관상동맥 평활근세포의 칼슘의존성-포타슘채널$(BK_{Ca})$의 활성을 증가시켜 막전압의 과분극을 유발하여 혈관평활근을 이완시킨다. 사포닌 $Rg_3$성분은 홍삼의 복합사포닌 성분보다 $BK_{Ca}$에 더 높은 활성을 보이기 때문에 본 연구는 사포닌 $Rg_3$성분이 토끼 관상동맥 단일 평활근세포의 ${\beta}$채널의 활성도를 조절하는지를 팻치클램프 방법으로 기록하였다. 막전압 의존성과 함께 내향전류(inward rectification)특성을 보이는 ${\beta}$채널의 활성을 토끼 관상동맥 평활근 세포로부터 기록하였다. 이 ${\beta}$채널은 ATP와 giyburide에 의해서 억제되었으며 minoxidil에 의해서 활성이 증가되었다. 홍삼 사포닌 $Rg_3$성분은 $K_{ATP}$채널의 전류극대치에는 영향을 주지 않고 전류의 inactivation을 억제시켜 결과적으로 $K_{ATP}$채널의 활성을 증가시켰으며, 단일 KhTr채널이 열리는 시간도 증가시켰다. 따라서 본 실험 결과는 사포닌 $Rg_3$성분이 KATP채널의 활성을 증가시켜 막전압을 조절하여 관상동맥 평활근의 이완을 촉진한다고 여겨진다.

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ATP-Bioluminescence를 이용한 인삼분말의 미생물 신속검사법 (Rapid Microbiological Assessment Method by using ATP-Bioluminescence in Ginseng Powder)

  • 곽이성;김천석;송용범;고셩룡
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.127-129
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    • 2001
  • 새로운 미생물 오염도 검사방법인 ATP-bioluminescence 방법을 인삼분말에 적용한 결과 인삼분말에 오염된 세균수가 약 10,000 CFU/g 이상인 경우에는 세균수가 증감함에 따라 ATP의 양이 비례적으로 증가하였다. 그러나 세균수가 10,000 CFU/g 이하일때는 ATP 의 증가 및 결과의 상관성이 인정되지 않았다. 따라서 이 방법은 세균의 오염도가 높은 인삼 분말($\geq$10,000 CFU/g) 에서 신속하게 미생물을 측정하여 제품의 품질을 관리하는데 유용한 방법이 될 수 있을 것으로 생각된다.

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지불능력에 따른 가계지출 보건의료비의 차이와 소득탄력도 비교 (The comparison of household health care expenditure and income elasticity by ability to pay levels.)

  • 신승호;김창순;김한중
    • 보건행정학회지
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.75-87
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    • 2004
  • The purpose of this paper is to compare the amount of household health expenditures (HHE) and the proportion of health care expenditure to the household expenditure by ability to pay(ATP) levels. This study has focused on the influence of household ATP on HHE, estimating elasticity of health care expenditures for different ATP groups. For the empirical analysis, the Urban Households Survey Data of 2002 have been used. Our principal findings show that HHE are sensitive to changes in household ATP levels and that the group which is most responsive to changes in A TP level is the lower ATP group. These suggest that as households have less ATP, households with lower ATP reduce expenditures on health care in a proportional manner than those with higher ATP.

ATP-Induced Histamine Release Is in Part Related to Phospholipase $A_2$-Mediated Arachidonic Acid Metabolism in Rat Peritoneal Mast Cells

  • Lee, Yun-Hye;Lee, Seung-Jun;Seo, Moo-Hyun;Kim, Chang-Jong;Sim, Sang-Soo
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.552-556
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    • 2001
  • Histamine and arachidonic acid (AA) release was measured using the P2-purinoceptor antaongists, phospholipase $A_2{\;}(PLA_2)$ and cyclooxygenase (COX)/lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitors to determine whether or not ATP-induced histamine release is associated with arachidonic acid (AA) release in rat peritoneal mast cells. ATP increased histamine release in a dose dependent manner, whereas adenosine did not. PPADS (a selective P2X-purinoceptor antagonist) and suramin (a nonselective P2X,2Y-purinoceptor antagonist) inhibited ATP-induced histamine release in a dose dependent manner. However, RB-2 (a P2Y-purinoceptor antagonist) did not block ATP-induced histamine release. Manoalide and oleyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (OPC), secretory PLA$_2$ inhibitors, also inhibited ATP-induced histamine release dose-dependently. Both COX inhibitors (ibuprofen and indomethacin) and LOX inhibitors (baicalein and caffeic acid) inhibited ATP-induced histamine in a dose dependent manner. ATP significantly increased [$^3H$]AA release by 54%. PPADS and suramin significantly inhibited ATP-induced [3H]Ph release by 81% and 39%, respectively. ATP-induced histamine release was significantly inhibited by a variety of protein kinase inhibitors, such as bisindolmaleimide, genistein, methyl 2,5-dihydroxycinnamate, W-7 and trifluoperazine. Overall, the results suggest that ATP-induced histamine release is in part related to the PLA2-mediated AA metabolism and P2X-purinoceptors.

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Activation of ATP-sensitive Potassium Channels by the Predominant Metabolite of Isoflurane in Rabbit Ventricular Myocytes

  • Han, Jin;Kim, Na-Ri;Kim, Eui-Yong;Kim, Sung-Ju;Cho, Kang-Hee
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.165-175
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    • 2001
  • Background: Recent in vivo experimental evidence suggests that isoflurane-induced cardioprotection may involve $K_{ATP}$ channel activation. However, it was demonstrated that isoflurane inhibited $K_{ATP}$ channel activities in the inside-out patch mode. To explain this discrepancy, the present investigation tested the hypothesis that a metabolite of isoflurane, trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), contributes to isoflurnae-induced cardioprotection via $K_{ATP}$ channel activation during myocardial ischemia and reperfusion. Methods: Single ventricular myocytes were isolated from rabbit hearts by an enzymatic dissociation procedure. Patch-clamp techniques were used to record single-channel currents. $K_{ATP}$ channel activities were assessed before and after the application of TFA with the inside-out patch mode. Results: TFA enhanced channel activity in a concentration-dependent fashion. The concentration of TFA for half-maximal activation and the Hill coefficient were 0.03 mM and 1.2, respectively. TFA did not affect the single channel conductance of $K_{ATP}$ channels. Analysis of open and closed time distributions showed that TFA increased burst duration and decreased the interburst interval without changes in open and closed time distributions shorter than 5 ms. TFA diminished ATP sensitivity of $K_{ATP}$ channels in a concentration-response relationship for ATP. Conclusions: TFA, a metabolite of isoflurane, enhanced $K_{ATP}$ channel activity in a concentration-dependent fashion. These results imply that TFA could mediate isoflurane-induced cardioprotection via $K_{ATP}$ channel activation during myocardial ischemia and reperfusion.

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효모의 ATP 재생산계와 대장균 유래의 재조합 생산효소를 이용한 in vitro 글루타치온 생산 (In-vitro Production of Glutathione Using Yeast ATP Regeneration System and Recombinant Synthetic Enzymes from Escherichia coli.)

  • 고성영;구윤모
    • 한국미생물·생명공학회지
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.213-220
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    • 1998
  • 글루타치온 생산에 필요한 ${\gamma}$-glutamylcysteine synthetase와 glutathione synthetase 효소의 활성을 위한 ATP 재생산계에 대하여 연구하였다. 글루타치온 합성용 효소를 생산하는 E. coli TG1/pDR7${\alpha}$의 최적 배양하였으며 이때 글루타치온의 생산농도는31 mg/g wet cell이었다. 빵효모를 이용한 글루타치온의 생산수율은 acetate kinase보다 낮았으나, 경제성의 면에서는 더 우수할 것으로 판단된다. ATP 재생산계로 빵효모가 Saccharomyces cerevrsiae ATCC24858보다 더 우수함을 보였다. ATP농도 5mM에서 cysteine에 대한 글루타치온의 생산 수율은 36%이었다. Cysteine의 소모에 의한 글루타치온 생산 제약을 피하기 위하여 cysteine을 반응 2시간에 추가 공급함으로써 글루타치온 생산수율을 1.91배 증가시켰다. 다양한 기질 추가 실험 결과에 의해 빵효모에 의한 ATP재생산계가 유효하고, 14mM이상의 글루타치온 농도에서는 산물저해 현상이 있는 것으로 나타났다.

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Eugenol Inhibits ATP-induced P2X Currents in Trigeminal Ganglion Neurons

  • Li, Hai Ying;Lee, Byung-Ky;Kim, Joong-Soo;Jung, Sung-Jun;Oh, Seog-Bae
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.12 no.6
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    • pp.315-321
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    • 2008
  • Eugenol is widely used in dentistry to relieve pain. We have recently demonstrated voltage-gated $Na^+$ and $Ca^{2+}$ channels as molecular targets for its analgesic effects, and hypothesized that eugenol acts on $P2X_3$, another pain receptor expressed in trigeminal ganglion (TG), and tested the effects of eugenol by whole-cell patch clamp and $Ca^{2+}$ imaging techniques. In the present study, we investigated whether eugenol would modulate 5'-triphosphate (ATP)-induced currents in rat TG neurons and $P2X_3$-expressing human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells. ATP-induced currents in TG neurons exhibited electrophysiological properties similar to those in HEK293 cells, and both ATP- and $\alpha$, $\beta$-meATP-induced currents in TG neurons were effectively blocked by TNP-ATP, suggesting that $P2X_3$ mediates the majority of ATP-induced currents in TG neurons. Eugenol inhibited ATP-induced currents in both capsaicin-sensitive and capsaicin-insensitive TG neurons with similar extent, and most ATP-responsive neurons were IB4-positive. Eugenol inhibited not only $Ca^{2+}$ transients evoked by $\alpha$, $\beta$-meATP, the selective $P2X_3$ agonist, in capsaicin-insensitive TG neurons, but also ATP-induced currents in $P2X_3$-expressing HEK293 cells without co-expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1). We suggest, therefore, that eugenol inhibits $P2X_3$ currents in a TRPV1-independent manner, which contributes to its analgesic effect.