• Title, Summary, Keyword: ATP

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Simulation and Characteristic Analysis Using ATP Draw for Power System Equipments (ATP Draw를 이용한 전력계통 설비의 모의 및 특성분석)

  • Ha, Cha-Wung;Lee, Jong-Beom
    • Proceedings of the KIEE Conference
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    • pp.1227-1229
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    • 1999
  • The ATP Draw is a graphical mouse-driven preprocessor to ATP on the Windows Platform. User can build a graphical picture of the electric circuit by selecting components from menus. In this paper, ATP Draw is used to analyze power transformer transient characteristics and lightning overvoltage phenomenon in underground transmission cables. The results obtained by simulations will be used to identify the response of the digital protection algorithms in power system equipment

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Evaluation of Hygienic Status of University Foodservice Operation using ATP bioluminescence Assay (ATP bioluminescence Assay를 이용한 대학 급식시설의 위생상태 평가에 관한 연구)

  • 박영숙
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.195-201
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    • 2000
  • An investigation was conducted to evaluate the hygienic status of university foodservice operation by using conventional swabbing technique plus standard plate count and ATP bioluminescence assay. The results of the study were as follows: 1) For all kitchen boards, knives, feeding trays, and dish towels tested, there was an overall agreement at 84.7% level between the results obtained using ATP bioluminescence and plate count when using a pass/fail cut-off of 3$\times$ control values for ATP assay and 40 CFU(colony forming unit)/㎠ for plate count. 2) The agrement rate between ATP assay and standard plate count was 87.5% for the samples before use, 29.2% for those during use, and 42.7% for those after cleaning and sanitizing. 3) The plate counts of three university foodservice operations for kitchen board, kitchen knife, feeding tray and dish towel were within the acceptable limits when tested before using. However, none of them were within the acceptable limits when tested during using and after cleaning and sanitizing. 4) Above results suggested that an immediate action needs to be taken to reduce the potential danger of cross-contamination and also effective sanitary control methods needs to be developed to improve the sanitary condition.

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Verification of the Suitability of the ATP Luminometer as the Monitoring Tool for Surface Hygiene in Foodservices (급식소 식품접촉표면 위생 모니터링 도구로서의 ATP Luminometer 적합성 확인)

  • Kim, Yang-Sook;Moon, Hey-Kyung;Kang, Seong-Il;Nam, Eun-Jeong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.39 no.11
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    • pp.1719-1723
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    • 2010
  • The purpose of this study was to verify feasibility of using a ATP Luminometer, real-time hygiene monitoring tool for food contact surfaces in foodservices. For this, 54 cutting boards, 70 knives, 21 rubber gloves in 4 institutional foodservices were studied. ATP (RLU: relatively light unit) values by ATP Luminometer were compared with APC (CFU: colony forming unit) of swabbing culture method using aerobic count plates of 3M petrifilm. ATP ranged from 0 RLU/$cm^2$ to 64693 RLU/$cm^2$ on knives, from 0.1 RLU/$cm^2$ to 6743.6 RLU/$cm^2$ on cutting boards and from 31 RLU/$cm^2$ to 465635 RLU/$cm^2$ on the rubber gloves. APC ranged from 0 CFU/$cm^2$ to 166667 CFU/$cm^2$ on knives, from 0 CFU/$cm^2$ to 1000 CFU/$cm^2$ on cutting boards and from 0 CFU/$cm^2$ to 730000 CFU/$cm^2$ on the rubber gloves. To express the degree of association between ATP and APC, a linear regression was performed. There were significant positive correlations found between log RLU and log CFU on the knives (r=0.84, p<0.001), the cutting boards (r=0.79, p<0.001), the rubber gloves (r=0.78, p<0.001). Results of this study showed the possibility that ATP bioluminescence technique can be used as the monitoring tool for surface hygiene in foodservices.

Effect of Econazole on ATP- and Compound 48/80-Induced Histamine Release in Rat Peritoneal Mast Cells (흰쥐의 복강비만세포에서 ATP와 Compound 48/80에 의한 Histamine 유리에 미치는 Econazole의 영향)

  • 장용운;이윤혜;이승준;서무현;윤정이
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.45 no.3
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    • pp.282-286
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    • 2001
  • To investigate the different mechanism between ATP and compound 48/80 (C$_{48}$80/)-induced histamine release, we observed effects of calcium antagonists in histamine release of rat peritoneal mast cells. Verapamil and diltiazem (voltage-dependent calcium channel blocker) and TMB-8 (a blocker of intracellular calcium release) significantly inhibited ATP-induced histamine release, but did not inhibit $C_{48}$80/-induced histamine release. Econazole (a blocker of receptor-operated calcium channel) dose-dependently inhibited both ATP and $C_{48}$80/-induced histamine release, but inhibitory effect of econazole in ATP-induced histamine release was more potent than that in $C_{48}$80/-induced histamine. EGTA dose-dependently inhibited ATP and $C_{48}$80/-induced histamine release, but $C_{48}$80/-induced histamine release was slightly inhibited by high concentrations (>2 mM) of EGTA. These results suggest that ATP-induced histamine release is related to broth intracellular calcium release and extracellular calcium influx via voltage-dependent calcium channel and receptor-operated calcium channel. $C_{48}$80/-induced histamine release is related to extracellular calcium influx, especially by receptor-operated calcium channel rather than voltage-dependent calcium channel.

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The Effect of Hepatic Ischemia and Reperfusion on Energy Metabolism in Rats

  • Jeong Cheol;Cho, Tai-Soon;Lee, Sun-Mee
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology
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    • pp.97-97
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    • 1997
  • It was reported that ATP depletion occurs and accelerates cell damage during ischemia and reperfusion. To determine the mechanism of cell damage, the change of energy metabolism in liver was studied during ischemia/reperfusion. The groups were divided into four categories : sham-operated group, ischemia/reperfusion group, and two types of ATP-MgCl$_2$ treatment groups(one was treated during ischemia and the another during reperfusion). Rats were administered intravenously saline or ATP-MgCl$_2$. Rats were anesthetized and blood vessels in the left and median lobes of the liver were occluded. After 60min of ischemia, the clamp at those vessels were removed. After ischemia, one and five hours after reflow, energy metabolites(ATP, ADP, AMP, inosine, adenosine, hypoxanthine, xanthine) in liver were measured with HPLC. To observe mitochondrial function, aterial keton body ratio in blood and mitochondrial glutamate dehydrogenase activity in liver were measured. And lipid peroxidation was measured to evalutate the involvement of free radicals. In this study, ATP and ADP were catabolized to their metabolites(AMP, inosine, adenosine, hypoxanthine, xanthine) during ischemia and they resynthesized ATP and ADP during reperfusion. But total purine base were not restored to level of normal rat. The main source of resynthesizing ATP and ADP was AMP. In both ATP-MgCl$_2$ treated groups, mitochondrial function was protected and lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced. Our findings suggest that ischemia/reperfusion impairs hepatic energy metabolism.

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Studies on the Light-Induced Mitochondrial ATP Synthase in Pleurotus ostreotus (느타리버섯 중의 광감응성 Mitochondrial ATP Synthase 에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Kap-Duk;Min, Tae-Jin
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.177-183
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    • 1989
  • Mitochondria in Pleurotus ostreatus was purified by stepped sucrose density gradient centrifugation. The mitochondrial ATP synthase was investigated by various waveof the illumination at dark room for 30 min. The mitochondrial ATP synthase activity was stimulated 2.3 fold by 480 nm illumination compared with the broad wavelength group. The mitochondrial ATP synthase activity according to various times of illumination was stimulated 4.2 fold for 15 min at 480 nm compared with the broad wavelength group. The optimum pH and optimum temperature of the mitochondrial ATP synthase were 7.5 and $56^{\circ}C$, respectively. The activity of this enzyme was stimulated by 0.5 mmol $Fe^{2+}$, 1.0 mmol $Fe^{3+}$ and 5.0 mmol $k^+$ ion, but inhibited by 0.1 mmol $Na^+$ ion.

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Presteady State Kinetics of ATP Hydrolysis by Escherichia coli Rho Protein Monitors the Initiation Process

  • Jeong, Yong-Ju;Kim, Dong-Eun
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.224-230
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    • 2006
  • Escherichia coli transcription termination factor Rho catalyzes the unwinding of RNA/DNA duplex in reactions that are coupled to ATP binding and hydrolysis. We report here the kinetic mechanism of presteady state ATP binding and hydrolysis by the Rho-RNA complex. Presteady state chemical quenched-flow technique under multiple turnover condition was used to probe the kinetics of ATP binding and hydrolysis by the Rho-RNA complex. The quenched-flow presteady state kinetics of ATP hydrolysis studies show that three ATPs are bound to the Rho-RNA complex with a rate of $4.4\;{\times}\;10^5M^{-1}s^{-1}$, which are subsequently hydrolyzed at a rate of $88s^{-1}$ and released during the initiation process. Global fit of the presteady state ATP hydrolysis kinetic data suggests that a rapid-equilibrium binding of ATP to Rho-RNA complex occurs prior to the first turnover and the chemistry step is not reversible. The initial burst of three ATPs hydrolysis was proposed to be involved in the initialization step that accompanies proper complex formation of Rho-RNA. Based on these results a kinetic model for initiation process for Rho-RNA complex was proposed relating the mechanism of ATP binding and hydrolysis by Rho to the structural transitions of Rho-RNA complex to reach the steady state phase, which is implicated during translocation along the RNA.

Order Promising Rolling Planning with ATP/CTP Reallocation Mechanism

  • Chen, Juin-Han;Lin, James T.;Wu, Yi-Sheng
    • Industrial Engineering and Management Systems
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.57-65
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    • 2008
  • Available-to-promise (ATP) exhibiting availability of manufacturing resources can be used to support customer order promising. Recently, one advanced function called Capable-to-promise (CTP) is provided by several modern APS (advanced planning system) that checks available capacity for placing new production orders or increasing already scheduled production orders. At the customer enquiry stage while considering the order delivery date and quantity to quote, both ATP and CTP are allocated to support order promising. In particular, current trends of mass customization and multi-side production chain derive several new constraints that should be considered when ATP/CTP allocation planning for order promising - such as customer's preference plants or material vendors, material compatibility, etc. Moreover, ATP/CTP allocation planning would be executed over a rolling time horizon. To utilize capacity and material manufacturing resource flexibly and fulfill more customer orders, ATP/CTP rolling planning should possess resource reallocation mechanism under the constraints of order quantities and delivery dates for all previous order promising. Therefore, to enhance order promising with reliability and flexibility to reallocate manufacturing resource, the ATP/CTP reallocation planning mechanism is needed in order to reallocate material and capacity resource for fulfilling all previous promised and new customer orders beneficially with considering new derived material and capacity constraints.

A Study on the PHA of ATP Equipment for the Korean Tilting Train (한국형 틸팅열차 ATP장치 예비위험원분석에 관한 연구)

  • Shin, Duc-Ko;Baek, Jong-Hyen;Lee, Kang-Mi;Kim, Yong-Kyu
    • Proceedings of the KSR Conference
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    • pp.1959-1962
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    • 2009
  • In this paper, we derive the hazard which is a criterion of safety assurance by PHA for the ATP equipped in Korea Tilting Train. The ATP onboard equipment in Korea Tilting Train was introduced as ETCS Level l(which is ETCS specification). Also, the ATP trackside equipment was introduced as a ETCS SRS(System Requirement Specification) 2.2.2 and it has a target for commercial operation in 2009 late. In IEC 62278(EN50126), it recommend of PHA to derive a hazard of target system in concept establishment step and estimate if it can control as a tolerable level and then derive safety case to control the hazard by lifecycle. Therefore, we indicate the hazard using criterion of safety assurance by PHA using FRS (Functional Requirement Specification) 5.0. which is a upper criterion than SRS. The hazard of ATP onboard equipment derived in Korea Tilting Train will be able to use as ATP functional hazards of unified onboard equipment in G7 which is a multiple unit and preliminary hazards of ATP onboard equipment in NEL drived by Korail.

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The Attitude toward Marriage, Pregnancy and Abortion among Korean Nursing Students (간호대학생의 결혼, 임신 및 낙태에 대한 태도)

  • Jun, Myunghee;Shin, Gyeyoung;Choi, Kyung Sook;Lee, Sun Ae;Hong, Sun Woo
    • The Journal of Korean Academic Society of Nursing Education
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.312-320
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: There recurred controversies related to legal allowance of abortion since newly advancing prenatal genetic testing technology. This survey was aimed to identify the attitudes toward marriage, and pregnancy (AMP) and terminating pregnancy (ATP) among Korean nursing students. Method: A descriptive study was performed from October to November 2012 in South Korea. 424 nursing students responded to two types of tools developed by authors. Questionnaire for ATP is consisted of 10 items with 5-points Likert Scale. Questionnaire for AMP is 12 items containing 5 categories. Results: Mean score of ATP was 36.90. Students that are enrolled in bachelor degree had a significant higher ATP. Students who are currently dating with an opposite gender showed much higher level of ATP than those are not. Lower group of delayed the time of getting marriage and pregnancy showed highest score of ATP, significantly. Conclusion: Individual factor must be primarily considered when assessing ATP of nursing students, for example current relationship with opposite gender and educational background, attitude toward marriage and pregnancy. Further studies are needed to identify personal factors of the young adults affecting on the ATP.