• Title, Summary, Keyword: ATP

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A Study on a Multi-path ATP Protocol at Ad-hoc Networks (Ad-hoc 네트워크에서 다중경로를 지원하는 ATP 프로토콜에 대한 연구)

  • Lee, Hak-Ju;Jang, Jae-Shin;Lee, Jong-Hyup
    • Journal of the Korea Society for Simulation
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.123-131
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    • 2009
  • Wireless networks have several unique features : node mobility, restricted bandwidth, time-variable bandwidth, large latency, and high bit error rates time due to channel fading. These features at wireless networks intend to decrease the performance TCP protocols are used in wireless networks. Lots of studies have been done for finding appropriate wireless transport protocols for current wireless communications. However, related studies have not provided good performance or some protocols have a good performance only in specific circumstances. Thus, these are not suitable for general wireless circumstance. Therefore, we propose a new wireless transport protocol which provides better performance than the previous ones. And we'd like to solve a problem that previous protocols cannot maintain their connections even though they have multiple paths until another path is successfully set up. To solve these problems, a new protocol ATP-M is proposed which is designed on already known TCP-M and ATP protocols. With NS-2 computer simulation, it is shown that this newly proposed protocol has better system throughput than TCP, TCP-M and ATP protocols.

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Cyanidin-3-glucoside Inhibits ATP-induced Intracellular Free $Ca^{2+}$ Concentration, ROS Formation and Mitochondrial Depolarization in PC12 Cells

  • Perveen, Shazia;Yang, Ji Seon;Ha, Tae Joung;Yoon, Shin Hee
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.297-305
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    • 2014
  • Flavonoids have an ability to suppress various ion channels. We determined whether one of flavonoids, cyanidin-3-glucoside, affects adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP)-induced calcium signaling using digital imaging methods for intracellular free $Ca^{2+}$ concentration ([$Ca^{2+}$]i), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial membrane potential in PC12 cells. Treatment with ATP ($100{\mu}M$) for 90 sec induced [$Ca^{2+}$]i increases in PC12 cells. Pretreatment with cyanidin-3-glucoside ($1{\mu}g/ml$ to $100{\mu}g/ml$) for 30 min inhibited the ATP-induced [$Ca^{2+}$]i increases in a concentration-dependent manner ($IC_{50}=15.3{\mu}g/ml$). Pretreatment with cyanidin-3-glucoside ($15{\mu}g/ml$) for 30 min significantly inhibited the ATP-induced [$Ca^{2+}$]i responses following removal of extracellular $Ca^{2+}$ or depletion of intracellular [$Ca^{2+}$]i stores. Cyanidin-3-glucoside also significantly inhibited the relatively specific P2X2 receptor agonist 2-MeSATP-induced [$Ca^{2+}$]i responses. Cyanidin-3-glucoside significantly inhibited the thapsigargin or ATP-induced store-operated calcium entry. Cyanidin-3-glucoside significantly inhibited the ATP-induced [$Ca^{2+}$]i responses in the presence of nimodipine and ${\omega}$-conotoxin. Cyanidin-3-glucoside also significantly inhibited KCl (50 mM)-induced [$Ca^{2+}$]i increases. Cyanidin-3-glucoside significantly inhibited ATP-induced mitochondrial depolarization. The intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ chelator BAPTA-AM or the mitochondrial $Ca^{2+}$ uniporter inhibitor RU360 blocked the ATP-induced mitochondrial depolarization in the presence of cyanidin-3-glucoside. Cyanidin-3-glucoside blocked ATP-induced formation of ROS. BAPTA-AM further decreased the formation of ROS in the presence of cyanidin-3-glucoside. All these results suggest that cyanidin-3-glucoside inhibits ATP-induced calcium signaling in PC12 cells by inhibiting multiple pathways which are the influx of extracellular $Ca^{2+}$ through the nimodipine and ${\omega}$-conotoxin-sensitive and -insensitive pathways and the release of $Ca^{2+}$ from intracellular stores. In addition, cyanidin-3-glucoside inhibits ATP-induced formation of ROS by inhibiting $Ca^{2+}$-induced mitochondrial depolarization.

Fluctuation of ATP Content in Soybean and Mungbean Seeds with Germinating Time (콩(Glycine max Merrill) 및 녹두(Phaseolus radiatus L.) 종자의 발아일별 ATP 함량변화)

  • 성민웅
    • Journal of Plant Biology
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.11-15
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    • 1980
  • ATP contents of soybean(Glycine max Merrill) and mungbean (Phaseolus radiatus L.) seeds being germinated with Hoagland solution at $30^{\circ}C$ for 6 days were determined. In pregerminated seed, ATP contents in soybean and mumgbean were 11.4 and 63.0$\mu$g/g fresh seed respectively. During germination, the highest ATP content of soybean seeds was 550% of initial content on 2nd day and that of mungbean was 480% on 1st day after germination. ATP content in cotyledon of soybean and mungbean were increased up to 4th and 1st day after germination respectively, thereafter both were decreased, but those in the root, including the hypocotyl, of both seeds were continuously increased with germination progress.

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Modulation of Cardiac ATP-Sensitive $K^+$ Channels Via Signal Transduction Mechanisms During Ischemic Preconditioning

  • Han, Jin;Kim, Nari;Seog, Dae-Hyun;Kim, Euiyong
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.33-42
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    • 2002
  • In several species, a short period of ischemic preconditioning protects the heart by reducing the size of infarcts resulting from subsequent prolonged bouts of ischemia. The mechanism by which activation of ATP-sensitive $K^+$($K_ATP$) channels could provide the memory associated with ischemic preconditioning is still under debate. Several signal transduction pathways have been implicated in the mechanisms of protection induced by ischemic preconditioning. The exact receptor-coupled pathways involved in preconditioning remain to be identified. Likely extracellular agonists are those whose circulating levels increase under conditions that activate $K_ATP$ channels; these conditions include ischemia and ischemic preconditioning. Potential physiological agonists include the following: (1) nitric oxide; (2) catecholamine; (3) adenosine; (4) acetylcholine; (5) bradykinin and (6) prostacycline. The purpose of this review was to understand the mechanism by which biological signal transduction mechanism acts as a link in one or more known receptor-mediated pathways to increase $K_ATP$ channel activity during ischemic preconditioning.

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The Role of the ATP in the Pain Signal Transmission (통증 신호 전달에 있어서 ATP의 역할)

  • Koo Hyun-Mo;Nam Ki-Won;Kim Jin-sang
    • The Journal of Korean Physical Therapy
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.20-27
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    • 2002
  • A role for ATP in nociception and pain induction was proposed. ATP-gated P2X ion channel receptors are localized throughout the nervous system and have been identified on neurons which participate in conduction of nociceptive information from the periphery to central nervous system. We consider the role of ATP as a peripheral activator of nociceptive sensory neuron via ATP-gated ion channels.

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ATP-Induced Apoptosis of Human Luteinized Granulosa Cells: a Role of Mitochondria

  • 김미란;박동욱;김영아;조태섭;황경주;민철기
    • Proceedings of the KSAR Conference
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    • pp.32-36
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    • 2001
  • 난소의 재형성 과정은 난소 내 여러 조절인자들에 의해 조절되는 성장 및 퇴행 과정을 반복하는 특징을 가지고 있다. 황체는 주기적 성장과 퇴행을 보이며 과립세포의 세포자멸사 (apoptosis)를 통해 황체의 퇴행이 일어나게 된다지. 이러한 세포자멸사 과정은 난소의 정상 생리에 매우 중요하다. ATP 는 자율신경으로부터 세포외 유출을 통해 분비되어 근육 수축, 신경전달체계, 외분비 및 내분비 호르몬의 분비, 면역반응, 염증, 혈소판 응집, 동통 및 심장기능의 조절 등 매우 다양한 생물학적 기능에 영향을 미친다. 이러한 작용은 세포 표변에 존재하는 purinoceptor를 통해 이루어지는 것으로 알려져 있다. ATP는 일반적으로 세포 내에서는 에너지원으로서 작용하나 세포외부에 존재하는 ATP의 경우에는 조절물질로 작용하여 어떤 세포에 있어서는 세포용해를 일으키기도 하며, 어떤 세포에서는 세포자멸사를 유발하기도 한다. 세포 내에 존재하는 ATP는 세포의 주요한 에너지원으로 사용되며 살아있는 세포에서는 세포막을 통과하지 못하는 반면 세포 외에 존재하는 ATP는 말초신경계 혹은 중추신경계에 있어서 매우 중요한 신경전달물질로 작용하고 있다. (중략)

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Block of ATP-Sensitive $K^+$ Channels Expressed in Xenopus Oocytes by Dimethyl Sulfoxide

  • Park, Jin-Bong;Chae, Soo-Wan
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.157-163
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    • 2001
  • The effects of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) were studied in two groups of Xenopus oocytes, one expressing ATP sensitive $K^+\;(K_{ATP})$ channel comprised of sulfonylurea receptor SUR1 and inwardly rectifying $K^+$ channel subunit Kir6.2, and the other expressing renal $K_{ATP}$ channel ROMK2. At concentrations of $0.3{\sim}10%$ (vol/vol) DMSO inhibited whole cell Kir6.2/SUR1 currents elicited by bath application of sodium azide (3 mM) in a concentration-dependent manner. The inhibition constant and Hill coefficient were 2.93% and 1.62, respectively. ROMK2 currents, however, was not affected significantly by DMSO. The results support the idea that DMSO inhibits $K_{ATP}$ channel expressed in Xenopus oocyte through a protein-specific mechanism(s) that remains to be further elucidated.

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The ATP Installation Strategy for Railway Long-term Development in Korea (철도 장기 발전전략에 입각한 ATP(Automatic Train Protection) 도입 방안)

  • 유병관;양근율
    • Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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    • v.20 no.7
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    • pp.205-211
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    • 2002
  • 본고에서는 최근 논의되고 있는 ATP 도입의 필요성 및 시스템 선정의 적절성을 검토하는데 있어서 철도신호 분야 뿐만이 아닌 우리의 환경변화 여건 등을 종합적으로 고려하여 철도의 장기 발전전략에 부합하는 APT 도입 방안을 제시하였다. ATP 도입시 고려해야 할 주요 환경변화로는 고속철도개통, 기존철도시스템과의 조화와 관련한 기술발전 측면, 틸팅차량 등 기존선 속도향상, 전철화, 복선화 등 철도영업거리 확장 및 남북철도연결 등을 고려해야 할 것이다. 즉, 바람직한 차상신호장치 도입을 위해서는 차량과의 적합성에 있어서는 기존차량, 특히 속도계장치와의 호환성, 시설분야에 있어서는 설치작업 및 향후 유지보수의 용이성과 국산화 가능성, 향후 남북철도 연결과 고속 철도의 기존선 연계운행 등을 종합적으로 고려하고 장기적인 철도발전에 도움이 되는 방향으로 추진되어야 할 것이다. 결론적으로, 우리철도의 기반시설과 차량 등의 현황과 향후 변동요인을 반영하여 가장 바람직한 ATP 표준기준을 용역 등을 통해 설정하고, 업체선정, 적어도 1년 정도의 시험기간을 거쳐 실용화 단계로 접근해야 할 것이다.

Analysis of Double Stranded DNA-dependent Activities of Deinococcus radiodurans RecA Protein

  • Kim, Jong-Il
    • Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.44 no.5
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    • pp.508-514
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    • 2006
  • In this study, the double-stranded DNA-dependent activities of Deinococcus radiodurans RecA protein (Dr RecA) were characterized. The interactions of the Dr RecA protein with double-stranded DNA were determined, especially dsDNA-dependent ATP hydrolysis by the Dr RecA protein and the DNA strand exchange reaction, in which multiple branch points exist on a single RecA protein-DNA complex. A nucleotide cofactor (ATP or dATP ) was required for the Dr RecA protein binding to duplex DNA. In the presence of dATP, the nucleation step in the binding process occurred more rapidly than in the presence of ATP. Salts inhibited the binding of the Dr RecA protein to double-stranded DNA. Double-stranded DNA-dependent ATPase activities showed a different sensitivity to anion species. Glutamate had only a minimal effect on the double-stranded DNA-dependent ATPase activities, up to a concentration of 0.7 M. In the competition experiment for Dr RecA protein binding, the Dr RecA protein manifested a higher affinity to double-stranded DNA than was observed for single-stranded DNA.

Phylogenetic Study of Genera Staurastrum and Staurodesmus (Zygnemophyceae, Streptophyta) Inferred from atpB Sequences (atpB 유전자 염기서열을 이용한 Staurastrum 속과 Staurodesmus 속 (Zygnemophyceae, Streptophyta)의 계통학적 연구)

  • Moo, Byeong-Ryeol;Lim, An-Suk;Ahn, Jae-Hyun;Park, Jung-Hoon;Lee, Ok-Min
    • ALGAE
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.261-270
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    • 2005
  • We analyzed chloroplast ATP synthetase beta subunit(atpB) sequences from 32 strains of the zygnemophycean green algae, Staurastrum, Staurodesmus, and a single species of Xanthidium. A total of 42 atpB sequences including previously published ones was aligned for phylogenetic analyses. The phylogenies were validated with bootstrap analysis and Kishino-Hasegawa test. Taxa of Staurastrum excluding S. muticum indicate that they can be characterized by taxa having the ornamented cell wall or the process of cells. However, the genus Staurodesmus was grouped with taxa having the smooth cell wall and the absence of process or arms. The results suggest that the genus Staurodesmus could be extended to include Staurastrum muticum, Desmidium, Onychonema and Xanthidium. Further taxon sampling of Staurodesmus and putative relatives is necessary for a solid classification of the genus.