• Title, Summary, Keyword: Abstraction

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Taxonomy of Procedural Abstraction and Polymorphism (절차적 추상화의 분류와 다형성)

  • Kim, Sung-Ki
    • The KIPS Transactions:PartA
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    • v.10A no.1
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    • pp.75-81
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    • 2003
  • Many abstraction techniques are introduced in programming languages in order to facilitate the development, maintenance and extension of softwares. But several concepts and terms related to abstraction have not been uniformly defined and have been explained differently. Expecially in object-oriented paradigm strongly based on abstraction common consensus was not derived. In this paper, we analyse procedural abstraction, propose the taxonomy of procedural abstraction and show that procedural abstraction contains the concept of abstraction on abstraction in addition to the transformation of procedures into abstraction. We also explain polymorphism in the view of abstraction. These analysis and consideration will make it possible to understand procedural abstraction more intensively.

Taxonomy of Abstraction (추상화의 분류)

  • Kim, Sung-Ki
    • The KIPS Transactions:PartA
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    • v.11A no.1
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    • pp.89-96
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    • 2004
  • Abstraction is an important concept applied widely to variables, functions, complex data, abstract data types, classes and polymorphism in programming languages. However, the concept of abstraction has been considered as ambiguous and explained differently because it is not defined clearly and uniformly. In this paper, we analyse many aspects of abstraction in programming languages, and propose the taxonomy of abstraction. We classify abstraction according to the mechanism of formation into 4 categories such as napping abstraction, bundling abstraction. integrating abstraction and extending abstraction. We also consider many concepts related closely to abstraction such as functions, abstract data types, objects, encapsulation and classes in the view of abstraction. These analysis and consideration will make it possible to explain uniformly various aspects of abstraction which have been treated individually and differently, and to understand the meanings, necessity and importance of abstraction more intensively.

Furniture Design from Geometric Abstraction

  • Bailk, Eun
    • Journal of the Korea Furniture Society
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.152-160
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    • 2007
  • The purpose of this study was to suggest a new approach to geometric abstraction for furniture design. For this study, Geometric abstraction that was done during 1917 through 1939 was investigated. Geometric abstraction is one form of pure abstraction and is mainly concerned with geometric elements and primary colors. De stijl and Bauhaus, which were emphasized groups during this period were influenced by geometric abstract arts. The purpose of this body of work has been to create furniture pieces that would express and embody my exploration and interpretation of geometric abstraction. The various compositions of geometric shapes, pure proportion, and primary color have been a focal point.

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The Development of Abstractable Competency Assessment Standards for the Measurement of Computational Thinking (컴퓨팅 사고력 측정을 위한 추상화 역량 평가 기준 개발)

  • Ju, Yeojin;Ma, Daisung
    • Journal of The Korean Association of Information Education
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.375-383
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    • 2018
  • Wing, J. M. emphasized the importance of computational thinking competency to live in the 21st century. In this study, the abstraction of computational thinking is classified into object abstraction, data abstraction, and procedural abstraction through related studies. In addition, abstraction achievement and assessment standards were developed for the abstractable competency assessment. As a result of applying to the school site, the students showed that the object abstraction and the data abstraction competency which are expressed in writing and drawing, they are excellent in solving the problem. However, students hard to write a computer program. The abstractable competency assessment developed in this study will help teach students to teach software education.

Analysis of Abstraction Contents in Informatics Textbooks of Middle School According to 2015 Revised Curriculum (2015 개정교육과정에 따른 중학교 정보 교과서에 나타난 추상화 내용 분석)

  • Kim, Soohwan
    • The Journal of Korean Association of Computer Education
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    • v.21 no.5
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 2018
  • The revised informatics is to be compulsory for middle school students from 2018 according to 2015 revised curriculum. The concept of abstraction in informatics curriculum has common features and differences compared with general abstraction, however there is a mix of concepts in the current informatics textbook. The abstraction of computational thinking needs to connect with automation, so it is difficult to teach correct concept of abstraction with these textbooks. Therefore, this research conducted to investigate several informatics textbooks that were developed by the revised curriculum and to analyze the concept and examples of abstraction. As a result, some textbooks have that there is a mix of concepts about general abstraction and no connection with automation. This research suggests clarified abstraction and educational examples for cultivating computational thinking to improve this situation. This result will be basic recourse for the reconstruction of abstraction lesson to improving computational thinking.

An Abstraction Method for State Minimization based on Syntactic and Semantic Patterns in the Execution Space of Real-Time Systems (실시간 시스템의 실행 공간상에서 구문 및 의미패턴에 기반한 상태 최소화를 위한 추상화 방법)

  • 박지연;조기환;이문근
    • Journal of KIISE:Software and Applications
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    • v.30 no.1_2
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    • pp.103-116
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    • 2003
  • States explosion due to composition of spaces of data, temporal, and locational values is one of the well-known critical problems which cause difficulty in understanding and analysing real-time systems specified with state-based formal methods. In order to overcome this problem, this paper presents an abstraction method for state minimization based on an abstraction in system specification and an abstraction in system execution. The first is named the syntactic in system specification and an abstraction in system execution. The first is named the syntactic abstraction, through which the patterns of the unconditionally internalized computation and the repetition and selection structures are abstracted. The latter is named the semantic abstraction, through which the patterns of the execution space represented with data. Through the abstractions, the components of a system in specification and execution model is hierarchically organized. The system can be analyzed briefly in the upper level in an skeleton manner with low complexity. The system, however, can be abstraction method for the state minimization and the decrease in analysis complexity through the abstraction with examples.

Mathematics Teachers' Abstraction Levels and Multiple Approaches: The Case of Multiplicative and Divisibility Structure of Numbers

  • Unal, Hasan
    • Research in Mathematical Education
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.197-216
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    • 2009
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate middle and high school mathematics teachers' levels and multiple approaches in United States practicing their abstraction levels and, different strategies and method of solutions towards given number theory problems. The mathematics teachers taking part in this study are consisted of 25 members of online graduate and undergraduate course (MAE 5641 and MAE 4813) delivered through Online Learning System called as the Blackboard (http://www.blackboard.com). Data collection methods include journal entries, written solutions to problems, the teachers' reflections on said problems, and post interviews. Data analysis was done based on [Hazzan, O. & Zazkis, R. (2005). Reducing abstraction: The case of school mathematics. Educ. Stud. Math. 58(1), 101-119]. Analysis of students' written solutions revealed that transitions among the solution methods have major effect on abstraction levels. Elevation and reducing abstraction is a dynamic process.

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A Video Abstraction Algorithm Reflecting Various Users Requirement (사용자의 요구를 반영하는 동영상 요약 알고리즘)

  • 정진국;홍승욱;낭종호;하명환;정병희;김경수
    • Journal of KIISE:Software and Applications
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    • v.30 no.7_8
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    • pp.599-609
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    • 2003
  • Video abstraction is a process to pick up some important shots on a video, while the important shots might vary on the persons subjectivity. Previous works on video abstraction use only one low level feature to choose an important shot. This thesis proposes an abstraction scheme that selects a set of shots which simultaneously satisfies the desired features(or objective functions) of a good abstraction. Since the complexity of the computation to find a set of shots which maximizes the sum of object function values is $0({2^n})$, the proposed .scheme uses a simulated annealing based searching method to find the suboptimal value within a short period of time. Upon the experimental results on various videos, we could argue that the proposed abstraction scheme could produce a reasonable video abstraction. The proposed abstraction scheme used to build a digital video library.

Reflective Abstraction and Operational Instruction of Mathematics (반영적 추상화와 조작적 수학 학습-지도)

  • 우정호;홍진곤
    • Journal of Educational Research in Mathematics
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.383-404
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    • 1999
  • This study began with an epistemological question about the nature of mathematical cognition in relation to the learner's activity. Therefore, by examining Piaget's 'reflective abstraction' theory which can be an answer to the question, we tried to get suggestions which can be given to the mathematical education in practice. 'Reflective abstraction' is formed through the coordination of the epistmmic subject's action while 'empirical abstraction' is formed by the characters of observable concrete object. The reason Piaget distinguished these two kinds of abstraction is that the foundation for the peculiar objectivity and inevitability can be taken from the coordination of the action which is shared by all the epistemic subjects. Moreover, because the mechanism of reflective abstraction, unlike empirical abstraction, does not construct a new operation by simply changing the result of the previous construction, but is forming re-construction which includes the structure previously constructed as a special case, the system which is developed by this mechanism is able to have reasonability constantly. The mechanism of the re-construction of the intellectual system through the reflective abstraction can be explained as continuous spiral alternance between the two complementary processes, 'reflechissement' and 'reflexion'; reflechissement is that the action moves to the higher level through the process of 'int riorisation' and 'thematisation'; reflexion is a process of 'equilibration'between the assimilation and the accomodation of the unbalance caused by the movement of the level. The operational learning principle of the theorists like Aebli who intended to embody Piaget's operational constructivism, attempts to explain the construction of the operation through 'internalization' of the action, but does not sufficiently emphasize the integration of the structure through the 'coordination' of the action and the ensuing discontinuous evolvement of learning level. Thus, based on the examination on the essential characteristic of the reflective abstraction and the mechanism, this study presents the principles of teaching and learning as following; $\circled1$ the principle of the operational interpretation of knowledge, $\circled2$ the principle of the structural interpretation of the operation, $\circled3$ the principle of int riorisation, $\circled4$ the principle of th matisation, $\circled5$ the principle of coordination, reflexion, and integration, $\circled6$ the principle of the discontinuous evolvement of learning level.

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Decision Tree Classifier for Multiple Abstraction Levels of Data (다중 추상화 수준의 데이터를 위한 결정 트리 분류기)

  • Jeong, Min-A;Lee, Do-Heon
    • The KIPS Transactions:PartD
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    • v.10D no.1
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    • pp.23-32
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    • 2003
  • Since the data is collected from disparate sources in many actual data mining environments, it is common to have data values in different abstraction levels. This paper shows that such multiple abstraction levels of data can cause undesirable effects in decision tree classification. After explaining that equalizing abstraction levels by force cannot provide satisfactory solutions of this problem, it presents a method to utilize the data as it is. The proposed method accommodates the generalization/specialization relationship between data values in both of the construction and the class assignment phase of decision tree classification. The experimental results show that the proposed method reduces classification error rates significantly when multiple abstraction levels of data are involved.