• Title, Summary, Keyword: Acoustic Emission

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An Effective Application of AE Technique for the Detection of Defects in Steel Girder Bridges (강판형교에서의 효율적인 결함검출을 위한 AE기법의 적용)

  • Kim, Sang Hyo;Yoon, Dong Jin;Lee, Sang Ho;Kim, Hyung Suk;Park, Young Jin
    • Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.287-300
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    • 1997
  • In this study, an effective application method of AE technique for the detection of fatigue crack in multi-girder steel bridges has been proposed. The applicability has been examined through the laboratory works with bridge model. The proposed analytical method which evaluates the remaining fatigue lives of structural members may improve the rational determination of the priority of inspection for structural members assuming to have fatigue cracks. Laboratory tests for the application of AE technique to steel girder bridges show that the frequency bands of traffic noise are in the range between 10 show that the frequency bands of traffic noise are in the range between 100~200 kHz and the AE signal raised from fatigue cracks is concentrated around 400~500 kHz. Therefore. R30 sensor is proved to be the most suitable for the detection of cracks in steel girder bridges. A linear proportionality between the crack propagation and the frequency of AE signals has been obtained. In addition, an economic and effective source location method for steel girder bridges was studied through experiments.

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Response Characteristics of the PZT Transducers during Glass Capillary Breakage (유리모세관 파괴시 방출된 탄성파에 대한 PZT 변환기의 응답특성)

  • Lee, Jong-Kyu
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Nondestructive Testing
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.33-41
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    • 1998
  • The response characteristics of the PZT transducers during glass capillary breakage were studied at the epicenter of the glass plate. The PZT transducers had been made by using EC-65 PZT ceramics(supplied by Edo co.) with a constant area and a various thickness. The theoretical displacement and velocity at the epicenter of glass plate with an air boundary condition were calculated by assuming the point load of 1N force strength and a rise time of 280 ns with a ramped functional dependence, and the 1st pulses of the PZT transducer may be considered as the vertical velocity incident on the electrode of the PZT ceramic. The responses of the PZT transducer may be depended on the thickness mode of the PZT ceramic below 0.33 in the ratio of the thickness to the diameter of PZT ceramic, but the reponse of the PZT transducer may be depended on the other modes of PZT transducer in the addition of the thickness mode of the PZT ceramic above 0.33. The full time of half maximum at the 1st pulse was nearly 280 ns without a variation of applied breakage load and the resonant frequency of the PZT transducer, and then may be considered as the rise time of a AE source. The maximum amplitude of the 1st pulse depended on the incident vertical velocity and capacitance of the PZT transducer. Therefore, the full time of half maximum and maximum amplitude of the 1st pulse may be considered as the rise time and strength of acoustic emission source respectively.

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Development of Smart Active Layer Sensor (II): Manufacturing and Application (스마트 능동 레이어 센서 개발 (II): 저작 및 적용 연구)

  • Lee, Young-Sup;Lee, Sang-Il;Kwon, Jae-Hwa;Yoon, Dong-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Nondestructive Testing
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    • v.24 no.5
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    • pp.476-486
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    • 2004
  • This paper is the second part of the study on the development of a smart active layer (SAL) sensor, which consists of two parts. As mentioned in the first paper, structural health monitoring (SHM) is a new technology that is being increasingly applied at the industrial field as a potential approach to improve cost and convenience of structural inspection. Recently, the development of smart sensor is very active for real application. This study has focused on preparation and application study of SAL sensor which is described with regard to the theory and concept of the SAL sensor in the first paper. In order to detect elastic wave, smart piezoelectric sensor, SAL, is fabricated by using a piezoelectric element, shielding layer and protection layer. This protection layer plays an important role in a patched network of distributed piezoelectric sensor and shielding treatment. Four types of SAL sensor are designed/prepared/tested, and these details will be discussed in the paper In this study, SAL sensor ran be feasibly applied to perform structural health monitoring and to detect damage sources which result in elastic waves.

True Triaxial Physical Model Experiment on Brittle Failure Grade and Failure Initiation Stress (취성파괴수준과 파괴개시시점에 관한 진삼축 모형실험연구)

  • Cheon, Dae-Sung;Park, Chan;Park, Chul-Whan;Jeon, Seok-Won
    • Tunnel and Underground Space
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.128-138
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    • 2007
  • At low in-situ stress, the continuity and distribution of natural fractures in rock mass predominantly control the failure processes. However at high in-situ stress, the failure process are affected and eventually dominated by stress-induced fractures preferentially growing parallel to the excavation boundary. This fracturing is often observed in brittle type of failure such as slabbing or spatting. Recent studies on the stress- or excavation-induced damage of rock revealed its importance especially in a highly stressed regime. In order to evaluate the brittle failure around a deep underground opening, physical model experiments were carried out. For the experiments a new tue triaxial testing system was made. According to visual observation and acoustic emission detection, brittle failure grades were classified under three categories. The test results indicate that where higher horizontal stress, acting perpendicular $(S_{H2})$ and parallel $(S_{H1})$ to the axis of the tunnel respectively, were applied, the failure grade at a constant vertical stress level (Sy) was lowered. The failure initiation stress was also increased with the increasing $S_{H1}\;and\;S_{H2}$. From the multi-variable regression on failure initiation stress and true triaxial stress conditions, $f(S_v,\;S_{H1},\;S_{H2})$ was proposed.

Integrity evaluation of rock bolt grouting using ultrasonic transmission technique (초음파 투과법을 이용한 록볼트 그라우팅의 건전도 평가)

  • Han, Shin-In;Lee, Jong-Sub;Lee, Yong-Jun;Nam, Seok-Woo;Lee, In-Mo
    • Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.75-82
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    • 2007
  • As one of the main support systems, rock bolts play a crucial role in the reinforcement of tunnels. Numerical and experimental studies using a transmission method of ultrasonic guided waves are performed to evaluate the integrity of rock bolts encapsulated by grouting paste. Numerical simulations using "DISPERSE" are carried out for the selection of the optimal experimental setup, i.e. non-destructive testing (NDT) system of the rock bolt. Based on results of the numerical simulation, the calculated frequency range for NDT testing is between 20kHz and 70kHz with the first longitudinal L(1) mode. Laboratory transmission tests are performed by attaching the piezo electric sensor at the tip of the rock bolt before embedding. Both of analytical and experimental results show that the amplitude of signals as well as the wave velocity increases with increase in the defect ratio of grouting paste. The defect in grouting paste means that the space around the rock bolt is not fully filled with the grouting paste. Experimental results also show that the increase of the wave velocity is more sensitive to the defect ratio increase than that of the amplitude. This study demonstrates that the transmission technique of ultrasonic guided waves may be a valuable tool in the evaluation of the rock bolt integrity.

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Particle Based Discrete Element Modeling of Hydraulic Stimulation of Geothermal Reservoirs, Induced Seismicity and Fault Zone Deformation (수리자극에 의한 지열저류층에서의 유도지진과 단층대의 변형에 관한 입자기반 개별요소법 모델링 연구)

  • Yoon, Jeoung Seok;Hakimhashemi, Amir;Zang, Arno;Zimmermann, Gunter
    • Tunnel and Underground Space
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.493-505
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    • 2013
  • This numerical study investigates seismicity and fault slip induced by fluid injection in deep geothermal reservoir with pre-existing fractures and fault. Particle Flow Code 2D is used with additionally implemented hydro-mechanical coupled fluid flow algorithm and acoustic emission moment tensor inversion algorithm. The output of the model includes spatio-temporal evolution of induced seismicity (hypocenter locations and magnitudes) and fault deformation (failure and slip) in relation to fluid pressure distribution. The model is applied to a case of fluid injection with constant rates changing in three steps using different fluid characters, i.e. the viscosity, and different injection locations. In fractured reservoir, spatio-temporal distribution of the induced seismicity differs significantly depending on the viscosity of the fracturing fluid. In a fractured reservoir, injection of low viscosity fluid results in larger volume of induced seismicity cloud as the fluid can migrate easily to the reservoir and cause large number and magnitude of induced seismicity in the post-shut-in period. In a faulted reservoir, fault deformation (co-seismic failure and aseismic slip) can occur by a small perturbation of fracturing fluid (<0.1 MPa) can be induced when the injection location is set close to the fault. The presented numerical model technique can practically be used in geothermal industry to predict the induced seismicity pattern and magnitude distribution resulting from hydraulic stimulation of geothermal reservoirs prior to actual injection operation.

Condition Monitoring of Low Speed Slewing Bearings Based on Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition Method (EEMD법을 이용한 저속 선회베어링 상태감시)

  • Caesarendra, W.;Park, J.H.;Kosasih, P.B.;Choi, B.K.
    • Transactions of the Korean Society for Noise and Vibration Engineering
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.131-143
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    • 2013
  • Vibration condition monitoring of low-speed rotational slewing bearings is essential ever since it became necessary for a proper maintenance schedule that replaces the slewing bearings installed in massive machinery in the steel industry, among other applications. So far, acoustic emission(AE) is still the primary technique used for dealing with low-speed bearing cases. Few studies employed vibration analysis because the signal generated as a result of the impact between the rolling element and the natural defect spots at low rotational speeds is generally weak and sometimes buried in noise and other interference frequencies. In order to increase the impact energy, some researchers generate artificial defects with a predetermined length, width, and depth of crack on the inner or outer race surfaces. Consequently, the fault frequency of a particular fault is easy to identify. This paper presents the applications of empirical mode decomposition(EMD) and ensemble empirical mode decomposition(EEMD) for measuring vibration signals slewing bearings running at a low rotational speed of 15 rpm. The natural vibration damage data used in this paper are obtained from a Korean industrial company. In this study, EEMD is used to support and clarify the results of the fast Fourier transform(FFT) in identifying bearing fault frequencies.

Estimation of the Characteristics of Delayed Failure and Long-term Strength of Granite by Brazilian Disc Test (압열인장시험을 이용한 화강암의 지연파괴특성 및 장기안정성 평가)

  • Jung, Yong-Bok;Cheon, Dae-Sung;Park, Eui-Seob;Park, Chan;Lee, Yun-Su;Park, Chul-Whan;Choi, Byung-Hee
    • Tunnel and Underground Space
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.67-80
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    • 2014
  • Long-term stability and delayed failure of granite were evaluated through the laboratory test based on Wilkins method and Brazilian disc test (BDT) which yields tensile strength, mode I fracture toughness and subcritical crack growth parameters. Then, the long-term strength of granite was estimated by using analytical models and long-term stability of compressed air-energy storage (CAES) pilot cavern pressurized up to 5 ~ 6 MPa was evaluated using numerical code, FRACOD with the determined subcritical crack growth parameters. The results of test and analyses showed that the subcritical crack growth index, n was determined as 29.39 and the inner pressure of 5 ~ 6 MPa had an insignificant effect on the long-term stability of pilot cavern. It was also found that the measurement and analysis of acoustic emission events can describe the accumulation of damage due to subcritical crack growth quantitatively. That is, AE monitoring can provide the current status of rock under loading if we make an identical installation condition in the field with that of the laboratory test.

Development and Application of Mode II Fracture Toughness Test Method Using Rock Core Specimen (시추코어를 이용한 암석의 mode II 파괴인성 시험법 개발과 적용)

  • Jung, Yong-Bok;Park, Eui-Seob;Kim, Hyunwoo
    • Tunnel and Underground Space
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.396-408
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    • 2016
  • Rock fracture mechanics has been widely applied to various fields of rock and civil engineering. But most researches covered mode I behavior, though mode II behavior is dominant in rock engineering. Until now, there is only one ISRM suggested method for mode II toughness of rock. A new SCC (Short Core in Compression) mode II toughness test method was developed considering 1) application of confining pressure, 2) easiness of notch creation, 3) utilization of existing equipment, 4) simple test procedure. The stress intensity factors were determined by 3D finite element method considering line and distributed loading conditions. The tests with granite specimens were carried out using MTS 815 rock test system with a loading rate of 0.002 mm/s. The mean value of mode II fracture toughness of granite showed $2.33MPa{\sqrt{m}}$. Mode I toughness of the same granite was $1.12MPa{\sqrt{m}}$, determined by Brazilian disk test and $K_{IIC}/K_{IC}=2.08$. The smooth fracture surface with rock powder formation also supported mode II behavior of SCC method. The SCC method can be used for the determination of mode II fracture toughness of rocks based on the current results.

Integrity evaluation of grouting in umbrella arch methods by using guided ultrasonic waves (유도초음파를 이용한 강관보강다단 그라우팅의 건전도 평가)

  • Hong, Young-Ho;Yu, Jung-Doung;Byun, Yong-Hoon;Jang, Hyun-Ick;You, Byung-Chul;Lee, Jong-Sub
    • Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.187-199
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    • 2013
  • Umbrella arch method (UAM) used for improving the stability of the tunnel ground condition has been widely applied in the tunnel construction projects due to the advantage of obtaining both reinforcement and waterproof. The purpose of this study is to develop the evaluation technique of the integrity of bore-hole in UAM by using a non-destructive test and to evaluate the possibility of being applied to the field. In order to investigate the variations of frequency depending on grouted length, the specimens with different grouted ratios are made in the two constraint conditions (free boundary condition and embedded condition). The hammer impact reflection method in which excitation and reception occur simultaneously at the head of pipe was used. The guided waves generated by hitting a pipe with a hammer were reflected at the tip and returned to the head, and the signals were received by an acoustic emission (AE) sensor installed at the head. For the laboratory experiments, the specimens were prepared with different grouted ratios (25 %, 50 %, 75 %, 100 %). In addition, field tests were performed for the application of the evaluation technique. Fast Fourier transform and wavelet transform were applied to analyze the measured waves. The experimental studies show that grouted ratio has little effects on the velocities of guided waves. Main frequencies of reflected waves tend to decrease with an increase in the grouted length in the time-frequency domain. This study suggests that the non-destructive tests using guided ultrasonic waves be effective to evaluate the bore-hole integrity of the UAM in the field.