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Kernel-based actor-critic approach with applications

  • Chu, Baek-Suk;Jung, Keun-Woo;Park, Joo-Young
    • International Journal of Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Systems
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.267-274
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    • 2011
  • Recently, actor-critic methods have drawn significant interests in the area of reinforcement learning, and several algorithms have been studied along the line of the actor-critic strategy. In this paper, we consider a new type of actor-critic algorithms employing the kernel methods, which have recently shown to be very effective tools in the various fields of machine learning, and have performed investigations on combining the actor-critic strategy together with kernel methods. More specifically, this paper studies actor-critic algorithms utilizing the kernel-based least-squares estimation and policy gradient, and in its critic's part, the study uses a sliding-window-based kernel least-squares method, which leads to a fast and efficient value-function-estimation in a nonparametric setting. The applicability of the considered algorithms is illustrated via a robot locomotion problem and a tunnel ventilation control problem.

Robot Locomotion via RLS-based Actor-Critic Learning (RLS 기반 Actor-Critic 학습을 이용한 로봇이동)

  • Kim, Jong-Ho;Kang, Dae-Sung;Park, Joo-Young
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Intelligent Systems Conference
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    • pp.234-237
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    • 2005
  • 강화학습을 위한 많은 방법 중 정책 반복을 이용한 actor-critic 학습 방법이 많은 적용 사례를 통해서 그 가능성을 인정받고 있다. Actor-critic 학습 방법은 제어입력 선택 전략을 위한 actor 학습과 가치 함수 근사를 위한 critic 학습이 필요하다. 본 논문은 critic의 학습을 위해 빠른 수렴성을 보장하는 RLS(recursive least square)를 사용하고, actor의 학습을 위해 정책의 기울기(policy gradient)를 이용하는 새로운 알고리즘을 제안하였다. 그리고 이를 실험적으로 확인하여 제안한 논문의 성능을 확인해 보았다.

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Health Promoting Behavior in Pregnant Couples: Actor-Partner Interdependence Model Analysis (자기-상대방 상호의존모형 분석을 적용한 임신부부의 건강증진행위에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Ju Hee;Song, Young-A
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.47 no.4
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    • pp.467-475
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: This study aimed to identify the actor and partner effects of self-efficacy, marital adjustment, and social support on the health promoting behavior of Korean pregnant couples. Methods: Participants were 132 couples who met the eligibility criteria. Data were collected from June to November, 2016 at a community health center. The Actor-Partner Interdependence Model was used for analyzing the actor and partner effects of self-efficacy, marital adjustment, and social support on health promoting behavior. Results: The fitness indices for the model were GFI=0.90, NFI=0.92, CFI=0.91, TLI=0.90, and RMSEA=0.04, which satisfied the criteria. Self-efficacy had actor and partner effect on health promoting behavior of wives, but had only actor effect of on health promoting behavior of husbands. Marital adjustment showed actor and partner effect on the health promoting behavior of pregnant couples. Social support only had an actor effect on the health promoting behavior of wives. And, marital adjustment and social support had a mutual effect. Conclusion: This study indicates that the partner involvement is needed to develop health promotion programs for pregnant couples.

Actor and Partner Effects of Health Status, Marital Satisfaction and Self Efficacy on Retirement Preparation of Middle Aged Couples: Actor-Partner Interdependence Model Analysis (중년부부의 주관적 건강상태, 결혼만족도, 자기효능감이 노후준비에 미치는 자기 효과와 상대방 효과: 상호의존모형(APIM) 적용)

  • Jung, Eun Hee;Shin, Sung Hee
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.48 no.2
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    • pp.154-166
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: This study aimed to identify the actor and partner effects of health status, marital satisfaction, and self efficacy on retirement preparation in middle aged couples using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model. Methods: Participants were 121 middle aged couples living in Seoul, Gyeonggi-do and Daegu City, Korea. All measures were self-administered. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS 20.0 and AMOS 20.0. Results: 1) Wife's self efficacy and marital satisfaction showed direct actor and partner effects on retirement preparation in middle aged couples. Wife's health status showed an indirect actor effect through wife's self efficacy and marital satisfaction on wife's retirement preparation, and showed an indirect partner effect through husband's self efficacy on husband's retirement preparation. 2) Husband's self efficacy and marital satisfaction showed only direct actor effect on retirement preparation. Health status among the husbands showed an indirect actor effect on husband's retirement preparation through their self efficacy and marital satisfaction, and an indirect partner effect through wife's marital satisfaction on wife's retirement preparation. 3) The actor effect size of health status on self efficacy and marital satisfaction was larger among husband's than wife's. Additionally, the partner effect size of health status on self efficacy and marital satisfaction was different between the two groups; however, the actor and partner effect size of self efficacy and marital satisfaction on retirement preparation was the same for husband and wife. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that nursing intervention strategies for improving self efficacy and marital satisfaction are strongly needed to enhance retirement preparation of middle aged couples in Korean community.

IDMMAC: Interference Aware Distributed Multi-Channel MAC Protocol for WSAN

  • Kakarla, Jagadeesh;Majhi, Banshidhar;Battula, Ramesh Babu
    • Journal of Information Processing Systems
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.1229-1242
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    • 2017
  • In this paper, an interference aware distributed multi-channel MAC (IDMMAC) protocol is proposed for wireless sensor and actor networks (WSANs). The WSAN consists of a huge number of sensors and ample amount of actors. Hence, in the IDMMAC protocol a lightweight channel selection mechanism is proposed to enhance the sensor's lifetime. The IDMMAC protocol divides the beacon interval into two phases (i.e., the ad-hoc traffic indication message (ATIM) window phase and data transmission phase). When a sensor wants to transmit event information to the actor, it negotiates the maximum packet reception ratio (PRR) and the capacity channel in the ATIM window with its 1-hop sensors. The channel negotiation takes place via a control channel. To improve the packet delivery ratio of the IDMMAC protocol, each actor selects a backup cluster head (BCH) from its cluster members. The BCH is elected based on its residual energy and node degree. The BCH selection phase takes place whenever an actor wants to perform actions in the event area or it leaves the cluster to help a neighbor actor. Furthermore, an interference and throughput aware multi-channel MAC protocol is also proposed for actor-actor coordination. An actor selects a minimum interference and maximum throughput channel among the available channels to communicate with the destination actor. The performance of the proposed IDMMAC protocol is analyzed using standard network parameters, such as packet delivery ratio, end-to-end delay, and energy dissipation, in the network. The obtained simulation results indicate that the IDMMAC protocol performs well compared to the existing MAC protocols.

Effect of Activity Immersion Conflict Perceived by Rural Multicultural Couple on Their Self-esteem, and Happiness : Focusing on Analysis of Actor and Partner Effect Using APIM (농촌 다문화가족 부부의 활동몰입갈등이 자아존중감과 행복감에 미치는 효과 : APIM을 이용한 행위자와 파트너 효과 분석 중심)

  • Yang, Soon Mi
    • The Korean Journal of Community Living Science
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    • v.27 no.spc
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    • pp.557-571
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    • 2016
  • This study examined the effects of the actor and partner according to the activity immersion conflict perceived by rural multicultural couples in terms of the self-esteem and happiness using Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM). For this purpose, the data of 482 persons from 241 husband-immigrant women dyads were analyzed. As results of the analysis, only the effect of the actor among the actor and partner effect according to the activity immersion conflict affected the self-esteem significantly in both husband and immigrant women. Conflict, namely the actor and partner effect, affected the happiness in both the husband and immigrant women significantly. Second, the difference in the actor conflict level on activity immersion perceived by the couple according to the women's native country was significant in both husband and immigrant women. The level of actor conflict was highest in Vietnamese husbands and the Philippine women. On the other hand, the difference in the partner conflict level on the activity immersion according to the women's native country was significant only in the women, and the level of Vietnamese women was highest. Therefore, the characteristics in the level of actor and partner conflict on activity immersion was caused by the difference in the number of activity organizations participating between the husband and women. Based on the results, this study suggests some measures to reduce the conflict of couples through activity. In addition, some plans for a follow-up study using APIM are suggested.

Actor-Critic Algorithm with Transition Cost Estimation

  • Sergey, Denisov;Lee, Jee-Hyong
    • International Journal of Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Systems
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.270-275
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    • 2016
  • We present an approach for acceleration actor-critic algorithm for reinforcement learning with continuous action space. Actor-critic algorithm has already proved its robustness to the infinitely large action spaces in various high dimensional environments. Despite that success, the main problem of the actor-critic algorithm remains the same-speed of convergence to the optimal policy. In high dimensional state and action space, a searching for the correct action in each state takes enormously long time. Therefore, in this paper we suggest a search accelerating function that allows to leverage speed of algorithm convergence and reach optimal policy faster. In our method, we assume that actions may have their own distribution of preference, that independent on the state. Since in the beginning of learning agent act randomly in the environment, it would be more efficient if actions were taken according to the some heuristic function. We demonstrate that heuristically-accelerated actor-critic algorithm learns optimal policy faster, using Educational Process Mining dataset with records of students' course learning process and their grades.

Actor and Partner Effects of Mothers' and Fathers' Parenting Stress and Family Cohesion and Flexibility on Warm Parenting Behavior (유아 자녀를 둔 어머니와 아버지의 양육스트레스, 가족 응집성과 유연성 및 온정적 양육행동 간의 자기효과 및 상대방효과 검증)

  • Hong, Yea-Ji;Yi, Soon-Hyung
    • Korean Journal of Child Studies
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.37-50
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    • 2017
  • Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess actor and partner effects of mothers' and fathers' parenting stress and family cohesion and flexibility on warm parenting behavior. Methods: The sample consisted of 1,471 couples from the Panel Study of Korean Children. The sample was drawn from the sixth wave of data collection, including mothers and fathers of children aged 60-66 months. Data were analyzed via actor-partner interdependence models. Results: The findings illustrated that the actor effect of parenting stress on warm parenting behavior was significant in mothers and fathers, but there was no partner effect. They also revealed that actor and partner effects were significant in relation to mothers' and father's parenting stress and family cohesion and flexibility. Moreover, there was an actor effect of family cohesion on warm parenting behavior for mothers and fathers, but its partner effect was significant only in mothers. Finally, the mediating effects of family cohesion and flexibility between parenting stress and warm parenting behavior was verified. Conclusion: The results highlight not only the need for dyadic data analysis for mothers and fathers but also the need to consider in depth the fathers' role in parenting. Additional implications are discussed.

Mediating Effect of Intimate Partner Violence on the Relationship between Alcohol Use and Relational Satisfaction: Actor-Partner Interdependence Model Analysis (부부의 음주와 부부관계 만족도의 관계에서 부부 폭력의 매개 효과: 자기-상대방 상호의존 모형(APIM) 분석)

  • Woo, Sungbum;Lee, Youngsun
    • Family and Environment Research
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    • v.58 no.1
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    • pp.75-86
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    • 2020
  • This study examined the mediating effect of intimate partner violence (IPV) between alcohol use and relational satisfaction by the Actor Partner Interdependence Model (APIM). For this study, data were drawn from the 13th-wave Korea Welfare Panel data and a total of 2,263 married couples were included in the analysis. SPSS 25.0 and AMOS 24 were used to analyze data and the Actor Partner Interdependence Mediation Model (APIMeM) examined the mediating effect. The results of this study are summarized as follows. First, the actor effect and the partner effect on the relationship of alcohol use and partner violence were all verified to be positive effects. Second, the actor effect and the partner effect on the relationship of partner violence and relational satisfaction were all verified to be negative effects. Third, comparison of the actor effect and partner effect between the husband and wife showed that the partner effect in which alcohol use to partner violence was greater in the husband than in the wife. In addition, both the actor and partner effect of violent reducing their relational satisfaction were greater in wives than in husbands. The findings of this study suggest that IPV has a mediating role between couples' alcohol use and the relational satisfaction and husband's violent behavior has more negative effect on the quality of the relationship than the wife's violent behavior.

Actor and Partner Effect of Self Efficacy, Marital Adjustment, and Family Support on Yangsaeng in Infertile Couples (자기효능감, 부부적응도 및 가족 지지가 난임부부의 양생에 미치는 자기효과와 상대방효과)

  • Kim, Ju Hee;Park, Hanjong;Shin, Hye Sook;Han, Su Kyung
    • Journal of East-West Nursing Research
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.44-51
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the actor and partner effects of self efficacy, marital adjustment and family support on Yangseang in infertile couples using the actor-partner interdependence model. Methods: The participants were 108 infertile couples. Data were collected using the Yangsaeng Scale, Infertility Self Efficacy Scale, Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale, and Perceived Social Support Scale from March to April in 2016. The Actor-Partner Interdependence Model was used to analyze the actor and partner effects of self-efficacy, marital adjustment and family support on Yangsaeng. Results: The fit indices for the model were Comparative Fit Index (CFI) = 0.99, Normed Fit Index (NFI) = 0.99, Tucker-Lewis Index (TLI) = 0.90, and Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) = 0.01, which met the criteria. We found that only self efficacy had an actor effect on Yangsaeng. Marital adjustment and family support of infertile husbands had an actor effect on the Yangsaeng. In addition, marital adjustment showed an interaction effect. Conclusions: The findings of this study indicate that the level of Yangseang in infertile couples was positively associated with the levels of self efficacy and martial adjustment. Partner effects may be hidden due to much stronger actor effects on Yangseang.