• Title, Summary, Keyword: Additivity

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MULTICOMPLEXES, BOUNDED COHOMOLOGY AND ADDITIVITY OF SIMPLICIAL VOLUME

  • KUESSNER, THILO
    • Bulletin of the Korean Mathematical Society
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    • v.52 no.6
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    • pp.1855-1899
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    • 2015
  • We discuss some additivity properties of the simplicial volume for manifolds with boundary: we give proofs of additivity for glueing amenable boundary components and of superadditivity for glueing amenable submanifolds of the boundary, and we discuss doubling of 3-manifolds.

INJECTIVE LINEAR MAPS ON τ(F) THAT PRESERVE THE ADDITIVITY OF RANK

  • Slowik, Roksana
    • Bulletin of the Korean Mathematical Society
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    • v.54 no.1
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    • pp.277-287
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    • 2017
  • We consider ${\tau}_{\infty}(F)$ - the space of upper triangular infinite matrices over a field F. We investigate injective linear maps on this space which preserve the additivity of rank, i.e., the maps ${\phi}$ such that rank(x + y) = rank(x) + rank(y) implies rank(${\phi}(x+y)$) = rank(${\phi}(x)$) + rank(${\phi}(y)$) for all $x,\;y{\in}{\tau}_{\infty}(F)$.

Interaction effect of Chemical Mixtures (혼합물에서 화학물질간의 상호작용 효과)

  • Leem Jong Han;Shin Joo-Youn;Kim Yong-Kyu
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.11-16
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    • 2005
  • Chemical mixtures of components, each of which are present at less than guidance concentrations, may be hazardous due to additivity, interactions, or both. Toxicological interactions may increase the health hazard above what would be expected from an assessment of each component singly, or all components additively. So chemical mixture are a particular issue in public health. There are several approach to assess whether there are additivity or interaction in assessing toxicological effects, such as, components-based approach, physiologically-based pharmacokinetic /pharmacodynamic(PBPK/PD) models, hazard index method, and weight-of evidence method. If we consider interaction or additivity effects in assessing the health effects of chemcial mixtures, we can get more accurate information about toxicological effects and dose-response relationship in chemical mixtures.

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Effects of dietary β-mannanase supplementation on the additivity of true metabolizable energy values for broiler diets

  • Lee, Byung Bo;Yang, Tae Sung;Goo, Doyun;Choi, Hyeon Seok;Pitargue, Franco Martinez;Jung, Hyunjung;Kil, Dong Yong
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.564-568
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    • 2018
  • Objective: This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary ${\beta}$-mannanase on the additivity of true metabolizable energy (TME) and nitrogen-corrected true metabolizable energy ($TME_n$) for broiler diets. Methods: A total of 144 21-day-old broilers were randomly allotted to 12 dietary treatments with 6 replicates. Five treatments consisted of 5 ingredients of corn, wheat, soybean meal, corn distillers dried grains with solubles, or corn gluten meal. One mixed diet containing 200 g/kg of those 5 ingredients also was prepared. Additional 6 treatments were prepared by mixing 0.5 g/kg dietary ${\beta}$-mannanase with those 5 ingredients and the mixed diet. Based on a precision-fed chicken assay, TME and $TME_n$ values for 5 ingredients and the mixed diet as affected by dietary ${\beta}$-mannanase were determined. Results: Results indicated that when ${\beta}$-mannanase was not added to the diet, measured TME and $TME_n$ values for the diet did not differ from the predicted values for the diet, which validated the additivity. However, for the diet containing ${\beta}$-mannanase, measured $TME_n$ value was greater (p<0.05) than predicted $TME_n$ value, indicating that the additivity was not validated. Conclusion: In conclusion, the additivity of energy values for the mixed diet may not be guaranteed if the diet contains ${\beta}$-mannanase.

ADDITIVITY OF LIE MAPS ON OPERATOR ALGEBRAS

  • Qian, Jia;Li, Pengtong
    • Bulletin of the Korean Mathematical Society
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    • v.44 no.2
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    • pp.271-279
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    • 2007
  • Let A standard operator algebra which does not contain the identity operator, acting on a Hilbert space of dimension greater than one. If ${\Phi}$ is a bijective Lie map from A onto an arbitrary algebra, that is $${\phi}$$(AB-BA)=$${\phi}(A){\phi}(B)-{\phi}(B){\phi}(A)$$ for all A, B${\in}$A, then ${\phi}$ is additive. Also, if A contains the identity operator, then there exists a bijective Lie map of A which is not additive.

A Study on the Prediction of the Cetane Number of Diesel Fuels from the Carbon Types Structural Compositions by 13C-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (13C-NMR에 의해 결정된 탄소 유형별 구조적 조성으로부터 디이젤 연료의 세탄가의 예측에 관한 연구)

  • Choi, Ju-Hwan;Chun, Yong-Jin;Choi, Ung-Su;Choi, Young-Sang;Kwon, Oh-Kwan
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.4 no.4
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    • pp.709-714
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    • 1993
  • The cetane number is a measure of ignition quality, specifically ignition delay, of diesel fuel. It is an engine measure of kinetic phenomena. The ignition quality such as kinetic behavior does correlate with the molecular structure, the carbon type structural composition. In fact, we use the group additivity rule to dissect the molecular structures and predict cetane number. In this study, the use of $^{13}C-Nuclear$ Magnetic Resonance spectroscopic measuring the molecular structure and group additivity rule at different diesel fuels, whose cetane numbers were determined on a number of standard cetane rating engines is proposed to predict cetane numbers that relate the carbon type structural composition. The effect of the molecular structures on the cetane numbers has been studied.

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Relation between Huggins Constant and Compatibility of Binary Polymer Mixtures in the Aqueous Ternary Systems

  • Isamu Inamura;Makoto Kittaka;Tatsuya Aikou;Kazuhiko Akiyama;Tomoyuki Matsuyama;Masatsugu Hiroto;Hirade, Ken-ichi;Yuji Jinbo
    • Macromolecular research
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.246-250
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    • 2004
  • We have classified a number of aqueous ternary systems containing two different polymers into three types by focusing on the deviation of the Huggins constant k'from the additivity line. Systems of type I have negative deviations of k'; the repulsive interaction between the two different polymers dominates. In systems of type II, k' almost follows the additivity relation; the repulsive and attractive interactions between the two different polymers are balancing. Type III systems have positive deviations of k'; the attractive interactions are relatively dominant. This classification of systems is supported by the fact that the positive and negative deviations of k' from the additivity line also correspond to the sign of interaction parameter between polymer 2 and 3, Δb$\_$23/. Furthermore, we have verified the relatively high compatibility between dextran and poly(vinyl alcohol) by determining the binodal concentration of a liquid-liquid phase separation for a water/dextran/poly(vinyl alcohol) system, which is classified as type III. Thus, we found that the compositional dependence of k' closely relates to the compatibility of binary polymer mixtures in aqueous ternary systems.

Additivity Factors Analysis of Compositions in Li2O-TeO2-ZnO Glass System Determined from Mixture Design (혼합물설계법에 의한 Li2O-TeO2-ZnO 유리의 물성에 대한 조성의 가성성인자 분석)

  • Jung, Young-Joon;Lee, Kyu-Ho;Kim, Tae-Ho;Kim, Young-Seok;Na, Young-Hoon;Ryu, Bong-Ki
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
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    • v.18 no.11
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    • pp.617-622
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    • 2008
  • In this study, the additivity factors of compositions to density and glass transition point ($T_g$) in a $xLi_2O-(1-x)[(1-y)TeO_2-yZnO]$ (0$T_g$ was discussed. As a method for predicting the relation between glass structure and ionic conductivity, density was measured by the Archimedes method. The glass transition point was analyzed to predict the relation between ionic conductivity and the bonding energy between alkali ions and non-bridge oxygen (NBO). The relation equations showing the additivity factor of each composition to the two properties are as follows: Density(g/$cm^3$) = $2.441x_1\;+\;5.559x_2\;+\;4.863x_3\;T_g(^{\circ}C)$ = $319x_1\;+\;247x_2\;+\;609x_3\;-\;1950x_1x_3$ ($x_1$ : fraction of $Li_2O$, $x_2$ : fraction of $TeO_2$, $x_3$ : fraction of ZnO) The density decreased as $Li_2O$ content increased. This was attributed to change of the $TeO_2$ structure. From this structural result, the electric conductivity of the glass samples was predicted following the ionic conduction mechanism. Finally, it is expected that electric conductivity will increase as the activation energy for ion movement decreases.

On the Evaluation Algrithm of Hierarchical Process using $\lambda$-Fuzzy Integral (퍼지 적분을 도입한 계증구조 평가 알고리즘)

  • 여기태;노홍승;이철영
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.97-106
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    • 1996
  • One of the main problems in evaluating complex objects, such as an ill-defined system, is how to treat ambiguous aspect of the evaluation. Due to the Complexity and ambiguity of the objects, many types of evaluation attributes should be identified based on the rational dsision. One of these attributes is an analytical hierarchy process (AHP). the weight of evaluation attribtes in AHP however comes from the probability measure based on the additivity. Therefore, it is notapplicable to the objects which have the property of non-additivity. In the previous studies by other researchers they intriduced the Hierarchical Fuzzy Integral method or mergd AHP and fuzzy measure for the analysis of the overlaps among the evaluation objects. But, they need more anlyses in terms of transformation of the probability measure into fuzzy measure which fits for the additivity and overlapping coefficient which affects to the fuzzy measure. Considering these matters, this paper deals that, ⅰ) clarifying the relation between the fuzzy and probability measure adopted in AHP, ii) calculating directly the family of fuzzy measure from the overlapping coefficient and probability measure. A simple algorithm for the calculation of fuzzy measures and set family of those from the above results is also proposed. Finally, the effectiveness of the algorithm developed by applying this to the problems for estimation of safety in ship berthing and for evaluation of ports in competition is verified. This implied that the new algoritnm gives better description of the system evaluation.

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Antibacterial Activity of Magnolol and Honokiol in Combination with Antibiotics (Magnolol 및 Honokiol의 항생제와의 병용 효과)

  • Chung, Kyeong-Soo;Lee, Soo-Na;Kim, Young-Ho;Bae, Ki-Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.407-411
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    • 2000
  • Antibacterial activities of magnolol (MGL) and honokiol (HKL) in combination with four representative antibiotics-amoxicillin (AMPC), oxytetracyclin (OTC), gentamicin (GM) and chloramphenicol (CAP)-were evaluated against four bacterial strains. When tested by disk-plate method, five out of eight combinations such as HKL-AMPC, HKL-CAP, MGL- AMPC, MGL-OTC, and MGL-CAP showed additive to synergistic interaction against gram- negative bacterium Salmonella typhimureum. Of these, MGL-AMPC combination turned out to be antagonistic against Sarcina lutea and Bacillus thurungiensis. Against these two grain-positive bacteria, only HKL-GM combination showed additivity to synergism. All the other combinations showed no interactions. Despite these results, however, no synergism was observed in checkerboard titration assay.

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