• Title, Summary, Keyword: Address translation

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A Study of an NAT Protocol using Virtual IP Information in the TCP Segment (TCP 세그멘트내의 가상 IP 정보를 이용하는 NAT 프로토콜에 대한 연구)

  • Hwang, Jae-Yong;Ju, Gi-Ho
    • The Journal of Engineering Research
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.45-55
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    • 2004
  • NAT (Network Address Translation) is an IP address modification protocol that translates private IP address into authentic Internet address. The main features of NAT are to improve network security and to save IP address. Generally speaking, in order to perform its functionality, NAT uses the address information in the packet header. Certain application protocols, however, use the information in the packet data as well as the information in the packet header to perform end-to-end communication. Therefore, to support these types of application protocols, NAT should be able to perform appropriate translation of protocol information in the packet data. In this thesis, we design and implement a method which translates virtual IP information in the packet date into real IP information by using port proxy server.

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Anticipatory I/O Management for Clustered Flash Translation Layer in NAND Flash Memory

  • Park, Kwang-Hee;Yang, Jun-Sik;Chang, Joon-Hyuk;Kim, Deok-Hwan
    • ETRI Journal
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.790-798
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    • 2008
  • Recently, NAND flash memory has emerged as a next generation storage device because it has several advantages, such as low power consumption, shock resistance, and so on. However, it is necessary to use a flash translation layer (FTL) to intermediate between NAND flash memory and conventional file systems because of the unique hardware characteristics of flash memory. This paper proposes a new clustered FTL (CFTL) that uses clustered hash tables and a two-level software cache technique. The CFTL can anticipate consecutive addresses from the host because the clustered hash table uses the locality of reference in a large address space. It also adaptively switches logical addresses to physical addresses in the flash memory by using block mapping, page mapping, and a two-level software cache technique. Furthermore, anticipatory I/O management using continuity counters and a prefetch scheme enables fast address translation. Experimental results show that the proposed address translation mechanism for CFTL provides better performance in address translation and memory space usage than the well-known NAND FTL (NFTL) and adaptive FTL (AFTL).

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A Efficient RSIP Address Translation Technique in Linux-based Intranet Environment (리눅스기반 인트라넷 환경에서 효율적인 RSIP주소 변환기법)

  • Lee, Youngtaek;Kim, Won;Jeon, Moon-Seok
    • Journal of the Korea Computer Industry Society
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.39-48
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    • 2004
  • An IP address shortage problem is happening with a rapid propagation of the Internet and demands about a new IP address. Address translation technology as NAT is becoming use widely in order to solve these problems. NAT is an very useful If address translation technique that allows two connected networks to use different and incompatible IP address schemes. Rut it is difficult to use NAT particularly for applications that embeded IP addresses in data payloads or encrypted IP packet to guarantee End-to-End Security such as IPSec. In addition to rewiting the source/destination IP address in the packet, NAT must modify IP checksum every time, which could lead to considerablely performance decrease of the overall system in the process of address translation. RSIP is an alternative to solve these disadvantages and address shortage problems of NAT. Both NAT and RSIP divide networks into inside and outside addressing realms. NAT translates addresses between internal network and external network, but RSIP uses a borrowed external address for outside communications. RSIP server assigns a routable, public address to an RSIP client temporaily to communicate with public network outside the private network. In this paper, I will analyze NAT and RSIP gateway system, and then I will propose the Linux-based RSIP gateway for more efficient IP Address Translation in Intranet environments based on RSIP standard of IETF.

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A Clustered Flash Translation Layer for Mobile Storage Systems (휴대용 저장장치 시스템을 위한 Clustered Flash Translation Layer)

  • Park, Kwang-Hee;Kim, Deok-Hwan
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics Engineers of Korea SD
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    • v.45 no.3
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    • pp.94-100
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    • 2008
  • It is necessary to develop the flash memory system software FTL(Flash Translation Layer) which is used in mobile storage like Compact Flash memory. In this paper, we design the FTL using clustered hash table and two phase software caching method to translate logical address into physical address fastly. The experimental results show that the address translation performance of CFTL is 13.3% higher than that of NFTL and 8% higher than that of AFTL, and the memory usage of CFTL is 75% smaller than that of AFTL.

Analysis and Design of Functional Blocks for IIPv4/IPv6 Protocol and Address Translation (IPv4/IPv6 프로토콜 및 주소변환 기능의 요소기술 분석 및 설계)

  • 이승민;진재경;민상원
    • Journal of KIISE:Information Networking
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.117-125
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    • 2003
  • IPv6 (IP version 6), which was standardized by the IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) to cope with existing IPv4 problems, needs several approaches for interoperation with IPv4. The internetworking of IPv6 with IPv4 is an important key to the deployment of the next generation Internet. As the solutions to the transition mechanism, both tunneling and translator methods have been proposed. In this paper, we analyze functional elements for implementation design of a transition mechanism based on the NAT-PT (NAT-Protocol Translation), and propose an extension algorithm that uses ports for effective use of global IPv4 addresses. The algorithm presented in this paper is a method of combining NAT-PT with Port Translation mechanism. The algorithm does not assign an IPv4 address to the host that needs IPv4 address, but allocates a single temporary IPv4 address and a port number in order to identify host.

An End-to-end IPSec Security Mechanism considering NAT-PT (NAT-PT를 고려한 단대단 IPSec 보안 메커니즘)

  • 현정식;황윤철;정윤수;이상호
    • Journal of KIISE:Information Networking
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    • v.30 no.5
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    • pp.604-613
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    • 2003
  • Network Address Translation-Protocol Translation(NAT-PT) is an IPv4/IPv6 translation mechanism, as defined in RFC2766, allowing IPv6-only devices to communicate with IPv4-only devices and vice versa. But NAT-PT has the restriction that applies to IPv4 NAT where NAT-PT does not provide end-to-end security, which is a major goal of IPSec. Therefore it cannot support security services such as confidentiality, authentication, and integrity. In this paper, we propose secure NAT-PT(SNAT-PT) and the corresponding secure host architecture to support IPSec security service. And also tunneling scheme using dummy IP header is presented to show the valid operation of end-to-end IPSec protocol on the proposed architectures.

Design and Implementation of Carrier-Grade Network Address Translation (NAT) (캐리어 급 주소 변환기(NAT)의 설계 및 구현)

  • Lee, Moon-Sang;Lee, Chiyoung;Kim, Wootae;Lee, Young-Woo
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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    • v.41 no.10
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    • pp.1290-1300
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    • 2016
  • Recently, various middle box services have been developed and applied to provide network functions to end nodes of the network. Especially, network virtualization is increasingly proceeding by applying the virtualization technologies of cloud computing field to network field, and network platforms for various flexible services are being developed to connect among the virtual network devices. Carrier-grade Network Address Translation (CGNAT) is also one of these flexible network services. This paper designs and implements the DPDK-based CGNAT framework that provides flexibility and maximizes address translation throughput. Our framework achieves 15.5 times higher throughput than the address translation service by Linux kernel.

STP-FTL: An Efficient Caching Structure for Demand-based Flash Translation Layer

  • Choi, Hwan-Pil;Kim, Yong-Seok
    • Journal of the Korea Society of Computer and Information
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    • v.22 no.7
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2017
  • As the capacity of NAND flash module increases, the amount of RAM increases for caching and maintaining the FTL mapping information. In order to reduce the amount of mapping information managed in the RAM, a demand-based address mapping method stores the entire mapping information in the flash and some valid mapping information in the form of cache in the RAM so that the RAM can be used efficiently. However, when cache miss occurs, it is necessary to read the mapping information recorded in the flash, so overhead occurs to translate the address. If the RAM space is not enough, the cache hit ratio decreases, resulting in greater overhead. In this paper, we propose a method using two tables called TPMT(Translation Page Mapping Table) and SMT(Segmented Translation Page Mapping Table) to utilize both temporal locality and spatial locality more efficiently. A performance evaluation shows that this method can improve the cache hit ratio by up to 30% and reduces the extra translation operations by up to 72%, compared to the TPM scheme.

Implementation of TCP/IP Network Address Translation and Port Network Address Translation (TCP/IP 주소 및 포트 변환 기능 구현에 관한 연구)

  • 고문준;민상원
    • Proceedings of the Korean Information Science Society Conference
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    • pp.463-465
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    • 1999
  • 인터넷으로 연결된 모든 장치는 각 나라마다 정해진 권위기관으로부터 고유한 IP 주소를 할당 받게 되는데, 현재 Internet Network Center(Inter NIC)라는 조직에서 이를 전체적으로 관장하고 있다. 최근 인터넷 사용이 급속히 확산되면서 인터넷을 이용하는 모든 장치에 고유 IP 주소를 할당하게 될 경우 고유 주소 체계의 사용 가능한 IP 주소 고갈이라는 문제에 직면하게 되었다. 그러나 이러한 문제는 내부 근거리 통신망(LAN)과 인터넷 상에 IP 주소를 변환시켜 주는 역할을 하는 네트워크 주소 변환(NAT: Network Address Translation) 기능을 이용하여 보완할 수 있다. 본 연구에서는 사설망 사용자의 인터넷 접속을 제공하는 것으로 기존 라우터에 NAT 기능을 적용하여 라우터가 보유한 공인 주소를 각 사용자가 공유하여 인터넷 접속을 제공하는 것으로 기존 라우터에 NAT 기능을 적용하여 라우터가 보유한 공인 주소를 각 사용자가 공유하여 인터넷 접속을 시도하는 것으로 사설망의 IP주소를 공인된 인터넷 주소로 변환시켜 외부로 전송하므로써 가능하다. 또한, 주소 변환 과정으로 사설망에서 사용하는 IP주소가 NAT 기능으로 IP주소가 변경되어 외부 침입자가 사설망의 존재를 알 수 없어 침입을 막는 간접적인 방화벽 기능도 수행한다.

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Efficient Prefetching and Asynchronous Writing for Flash Memory (플래시 메모리를 위한 효율적인 선반입과 비동기 쓰기 기법)

  • Park, Kwang-Hee;Kim, Deok-Hwan
    • Journal of KIISE:Computing Practices and Letters
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.77-88
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    • 2009
  • According to the size of NAND flash memory as the storage system of mobile device becomes large, the performance of address translation and life cycle management in FTL (Flash Translation Layer) to interact with file system becomes very important. In this paper, we propose the continuity counters, which represent the number of continuous physical blocks whose logical addresses are consecutive, to reduce the number of address translation. Furthermore we propose the prefetching method which preloads frequently accessed pages into main memory to enhance I/O performance of flash memory. Besides, we use the 2-bit write prediction and asynchronous writing method to predict addresses repeatedly referenced from host and prevent from writing overhead. The experiments show that the proposed method improves the I/O performance and extends the life cycle of flash memory. As a result, proposed CFTL (Clustered Flash Translation Layer)'s performance of address translation is faster 20% than conventional FTLs. Furthermore, CFTL is reduced about 50% writing time than that of conventional FTLs.