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Provision of a Novel Unlicensed Access Relay Station in IEEE 802.16-based Broadband Wireless Access Networks (IEEE 802.16 기반의 무선 액세스 망에서 Unlicensed 대역 액세스 릴레이에 대한 설계)

  • Choi, W.;Shon, T.S.;Choi, H.H.;Lee, Y.
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics Engineers of Korea TC
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    • v.44 no.10
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    • pp.169-177
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    • 2007
  • Existing wireless access (mobile) routers are based commonly on the network address and port translation (NAPT) technique which permits simultaneously sharing a subscriber's connection to the network with multiple users. However, the NAPT architecturally makes the users invisible on the network side, thus becoming a user-oriented connection technique. In this paper, we propose a novel service provider-oriented unlicensed nomadic access relay station (WiNNERS) for helping wireless broadband network service providers to make their business more lucrative by accommdating unlicensed band users as subscribers into their network. The WiNNERS offers service providers the capability to directly manage each of the unlicensed band users at the network side. This direct management allows the service providers to flexibly and simply handle QoS, access control, and billing for each user. In order to distinguish each of the unlicensed band users the WiNNERS constructs a virtual tunnel from each user's terminal to the network access router using connection identifiers which is defined for service flow management within the WiBro system, Consequently, our proposed service provider-oriented relay station can be included into the WiBro network system with minimum modifications.

Distributed Contents Delivery Network based on Home gateway for a Sustainable Service (안정적인 서비스를 위한 홈 게이트웨이 기반의 분산 컨텐츠 전송 네트워크)

  • Kim, Myung-Won;Yoon, Young-Hyo;Ko, Joong-Sik;Kwak, Hu-Keun;Chung, Kyu-Sik
    • The KIPS Transactions:PartA
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    • v.15A no.5
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    • pp.249-258
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    • 2008
  • DCDN(Distributed Contents Delivery Network) as known the next generation of CDN is to exploit the resource of client PCs based on P2P technology to provide low cost, high scalability and high speed services when contents are delivered. This DCDN has two problems. One is that DCDN can't provide a sustainable service because client PCs are on/off irregularly and their on times tend to focus on specific time zone, and the other is that client PCs can not be accessed outside in DCDN if they are behind NAT or Firewall. In this paper, we present a distributed contents delivery network based on home gateway for a sustainable service. If home gateway is used in DCDN instead of client PC, it can solve the two existing problems of DCDN. That is, home gateway can provide a sustainable service because it is on during all day and it is not behind NAT and Firewall. The proposed method is implemented with ASUS WL-500GP, a wired/wireless router. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed method compared to the existing method of DCDN.

The Study on 'characters made by Empress Wu Zetian' through The Avatamsaka-Sutra in ink on the white paper of the Shilla Period (신라(新羅) 백지묵서(白紙墨書) 화엄경(華嚴經)과 칙천무후자(則天武后字) 고찰(考察))

  • Park, Sang-Kuk
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.37
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    • pp.445-469
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    • 2004
  • The Avatamsaka Sutra copied in ink on the white paper of Shilla Period is the oldest manuscript in korea. This Avatamsaka Sutra is volume 1-10 and 44-50 of the 80 volume's transcription. According to the postscript, written with 528 letters at the end of the volume 10 and 50, this sutra is made during A.D. 754-755, for six months by the order Master Yon-gi(綠起 法師) who founded Hwaumsa Temple(華嚴寺.) It explains the procedure of the ritual and production method of the sutra-copying, and also shows the 19 participants with their name, address, official title, and etc. When the sutra was founded, volume 1-10 were so congealed that we could not open the volumes. And volume 44-50 was prohibited to take photograph for preservation. According to the recent examination, it proved that this sutra is the treasure for the study of the characters made by Empress Wu Zetian(則天武后.) The characters made by Empress Wu Zetian(A.D. 625-705) are new shape of chinese characters which is different from the traditional characters. After the demise of the Queen, the characters were not used any more officially, but privately some people used the characters for personal tastes and interest. The characters in the sutra includes 512 characters of 13 kinds of Empress We Zetians'. Compared to the Tun-huang version of the sutra, this is far better treasure for the study of Empress We Zetians' characters in terms of the number of the character and the their use of frequency. The Avatamsaka Sutra of Shoso-in(正倉院) in japan copied in A.D. 768 does not use the Empress We Zetians' characters. In this respect, this Shilla Avatamsaka-Sutra is a unique one preserves the original forms of Chinese translation at that time.