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A Study on the Mechanical and Physical Properties of Sawdustboard combined with Plastic Chip (플라스틱칩 결체(結締) 톱밥보드의 기계적(機械的) 및 물리적(物理的) 성질(性質)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Lee, Phil-Woo;Suh, Jin-Suk
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.44-55
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    • 1987
  • In order to study the effect of sawdustboard combined with plastic chips, 0.5mm($T_1$), 1mm($T_2$), 1.4mm($T_3$) thick nylon fiber. polypropylene rope fiber(RP), and 0.23mm thick moth-proof polypropylene net fiber(NP) were cut into 0.5, 1, 2cm long plastic chips. Thereafter, sawdustboard combined with plastic chips prepared as the above and plastic non-combined sawdustboard(control) were manufactured into 3 types of one-, two-, and three layer with 5 or 10% combination level. By the discussions and results at this study, the significant conclusions of mechanical and physical properties were summarized as follows: 1. The MORs were shown in the order of 3 layer> 2 layer> 1 layer among plastic non-combined boards, and $T_3$ < $T_2$ < $T_1$ < RP (NP(5%) < NP(l0%) among plastic combined boards. In 2cm long plastic chip in 1 layer board, the highest strength through all the composition was recognized. 1 layer board showing the lower strength with 0.5cm plastic chip rendered to the bending strength improvement by 2 or 3 layer board composition. On the other hand, 2 or 3 layer combined with 1, 2cm long polypropylene net fiber chips incurred MOR's conspicuous decrease requiring optimum plastic chip combined level and consideration to combined type. 2. MOE in plastic non-combined 3 layer board exhibited sandwich construction effect by higher resin content application to surface layer in the order of 3layer>1layer>2layer with the highest stiffness of the board combined with polypropylene chip, while nylon chip-combined board had little difference from plastic non-combined board. In relevant to length and layer effect, 3 layer board combined with the 0.5cm long polypropylene net fiber chip in 5% and 10% combined level presented 34-43% and 44-76% stiffness increase against plastic non-combined board(control), respectively. Moreover, in 1 layer board, 30% stiffness increase with 10% against 5% combined level in the 1 and 2cm long polypropylene net fiber chip was obtained. 3. Stress at proportional limit(Spl) showing the fiber relationship (r: 0.81-0.97) between MOR presented in the order of 1 layer<2 layer<3 layer in plastic non-combined board. Correspondingly, combined effect by layer and plastic chip length was similar to MOR's. 4. Differently from previous properties(MOR, MOE, Spl). work to maximum load(Wml) of 2 layer board approached to that of 3 layer board. Conforming the above phenomenon. 2 layer combined with 0.5cm long polypropylene net fiber chip kept the greater work than 1 layer. The polypropylene combined board superior to nylon -and plastic non - combined board seemed to have greater anti - failing capacity. 5. Internal bond strength(IB), in contrast to MOR's tendency. showed in the order of T1

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A Comparison of Minilaparotomy and Laparoscopic Sterilization (Minilaparotomy 불임술(不妊術)과 복강경불임술(腹腔鏡不妊術)에 관(關)한 비교연구(比較硏究))

  • Bai, Byoung-Choo
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.17-25
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    • 1977
  • Anderson(1937), Power and Barnes(1941) reported a study concerning a method of tubal sterilization in association with peritoneoscopy or laparoscopy in which they cauterized the tubes. There appears to have been a hiatus of interest in sterilization (cold or hot) associated with laparoscopy until reintroduction by Palmer(1963), Frangenheim(1964) and Steptoe(1967). On the other hand, for interval female sterilization, however, minilaparotomy is relatively new. By Saunder and Munsick(1972), John Lyle(1974), Frank Stubb(1974), Vitoon(1973) and B.C. Bai(1975), their own technique for interval female sterilization requires 2.0 to 2.5cm, incision at the margin of the mons pubis. In Korea, female sterilization by means of minilaparotomy firstly reported by B.C. Bai using Bai's uterine elevator, of his own device, early in 1975. Recently inteval female sterilization by laparoscopy and minilaparotomy are widely accepted throughout the world especially in Asian countries. Minilaparotomy is carried out from 1974, laparoscopic sterilization from 1976, and in this study each of 250 cases of those were analysed and discussed for the comparison at Seoul Red Cross Hospital. (1) In the age distribution, numerous clients were in their age of $31{\sim}35$ in laparoscopy as well as minilaparotomy. Average 33.7 years in L and 33.2 years in M. (M=minilaparotomy, L=laparoscopic sterilization) (2) As regarding living children, women having 3 children represented the greatest number, 113 cases out of 250 in M group and 102 cases out of 250 in L group. Average No. of child are 2.9 in Land 3.1 in M. (3) Concidering the operation day in the menstrml cycle, the greatest number of cases, those who underwent tubal sterilization during the days of $26{\sim}$, next during the $6{\sim}10$ days of the cycle in both group. (4) Concidering the operation time, 188 cases by laparoscopy were performed in $6{\sim}10$ minutes, 33 cases within 5 minutes and 24 cases in $11{\sim}15$ minutes. Maximum 50 minutes, minimum 4 minutes and average 8.3 minutes. The majority of cases (154 cases) by minilaparotomy required $6{\sim}10$ minutes and 67 cases $11{\sim}15$ minutes, 6 cases within 5 minutes. Maximum 30 minutes, minimum 4 minutes and average 10.4, minutes. In both groups, most of the reasons for the extra length were surgical difficulties such as thick abdominal wall, pelvic adhesion, less cooperation of patients in early period of this study. (5) Hospital stay after operation in L group required $3{\sim}4$ hours in 125 cases, $2{\sim}3$ hours in 41 cases, $4{\sim}5$ hours in 32 cases out of 250. Maximum 8 hours, minimum 1 hour and average 3.8 hours. In M group hospital stay required $6{\sim}7$ hours in 100 cases, over 7 hours in 85 cases, $5{\sim}6$ hours in 46 cases and so on. Maximum 14 hours, minimum 2 hours and average 6.5 hours. (6) The time between operation and gas passing in the majority cases of both groups, were $12{\sim}36$ hours. A veragetime 20.3 hours in L and 27.2 in M. (7) Laparoscopic sterilization coincident with induced abortion were carried out in 27 cases, laparoscopy with minilaparotomy to control for mesosalpingeal hemorrhage in 1 case. Minilaparotomy coincident with induced abortion were performed in 65 cases, D and C whit polypectomy, menstrual regulatian, and remaval of IUD in 1 case respectively. (8) In L group, 1 case of mesosalpingeal hemorrhage, 1 case of abdominal wall infection were complicated during operation. In M group, 1 case of uterine perfaration, 1 case of abdominal wall infection, 1 case of hemorrhage from omentum and 1 case of bloody vaginal discharge were complicated. No intensive medical treatment was required for those minor complications in both groups. (9) No failure has been recognized and these two sterilization techniques might be the simple, safe and the most effective method for permanent contraception at present time. There is no significant clinical defference between L and M group in this study.

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The Effects of Enamel Matrix Derivative and Calcium Sulfate Paste on the Healing of 1-Wall Intrabony Defects in Beagle Dogs (성견 1면 치조골 결손부에서 $Emdogain^{(R)}$$Emdogain^{(R)}$ 및 특수 제조된 Calcium Sulfate Paste 혼합물이 치주조직 치유에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, Seong-Ho;Kim, Chang-Sung;Suh, Jong-Jin;Kim, Hyun-Young;Kim, Jeong-Hye;Cho, Kyoo-Sung;Kim, Chong-Kwan
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.539-555
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    • 2000
  • Recently, it was reported that enamel matrix derivative may be beneficial in periodontal regeneration procedures in expectation of promoting new bone and cementum formation. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effect of enamel matrix derivative($Emdogain^?$)and Caso4 sulfate paste in 1-wall intrabony defects in beagle dogs. Surgically created 1-wall intrabony defects were randomly assigned to receive root debridement alone or $Emdogain^{(R)}$ or $Emdogain^{(R)}$ and Caso4. Clinical defect size was 4 X 4mm. The control group was treated with root debridement alone,and Experimental group I was treated with enamel matrix derivative application, and Experimental group II was treated with enamel matrix derivative and Caso4 sulfate paste application,. The healing processes were histologically and histometrically observed after 8 weeks and the results were as follows: 1. The length of junctional epithelium was $0.41{\pm}0.01mm$ in the control group, $0.42{\pm}0.08mm$in the experimental group I and $0.50{\pm}0.13mm$in the experimental group II. 2. The connective tissue adhesion was $0.28{\pm}0.02mm$ in the control group, $0.13{\pm}0.08mm$ in the experimental group I and $0.19{\pm}0.02mm$ in the experimental group II. 3. The new cementum formation was $3.80{\pm}0.06mm$ in the control group, $4.12{\pm}0.43mm$ in the experimental group I and $4.34{\pm}0.71mm$ in the experimental group II. 4. The new bone formation was $1.43{\pm}0.03mm$ in the control group, $1.53{\pm}0.47mm$ in the experimental group I and $2.25{\pm}1.35mm$ in the experimental group II. Although there was limitation to present study, the use of enamel matrix derivative in the treatment of periodontal 1-wall intrabony defect enhanced new cementum and bone formation. Caso4 sulfate paste will be the candidate for carriers to deliver enamel matrix derivative, and so enhance the regenerative potency of enamel matrix derivative.

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THE EFFECTS OF PASTE TYPE CALCIUM SULFATE ON THE PERIODONTAL HEALING OF 3-WALL INTRABONY DEFECTS IN DOGS (성견 3면 골내낭에서 Paste형 Calcium Sulfate 가 치주조직 치유에 미치는 영향)

  • Hyun, Suk-Ju;Kim, Chang-Sung;Choi, Seong-Ho;Cho, Kyoo-Sung;Chai, Jung-Kiu;Kim, Chong-Kwan
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.429-455
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    • 2002
  • There are numerous kind of materials and techniques to regenerate the periodontal tissue which has been lost due to destructive periodontal disease, including bone graft material. Many bone graft materials have been reported and among these materials, synthetic material has been developed fin the long time because of its sufficient supply economically. Calcium sulfate which was evaluated as including much calcium, has been used in the clinical field. In the dental field calcium sulfate has been used as bone graft material and Kim reported that improved bone formation and more amount of new attachment after grafting calcium sulfate. but, because calcium sulfate has the problem that it generates the heat in setting period and resolves fast, we need to evaluate the effect of the improved calcium sulfate on periodontal tissue. The present study evaluates the effect of paste type calcium sulfate on the epithelial migration, alveolar bone regeneration, cementum formation and gingival connective tissue attachment in intrabony defect in dogs. Four millimeter deep and four millimeter wide 3-wall defects were surgically created in the mesial or distal aspects of premolars or molars. the test group received paste-type calcium sulfate with a flap procedure and the control group underwent flap procedure only. Histologic analysis after 8 weeks of healing revealed the following results : 1. The length of epithelial growth(the distance from CEJ to the apical end of JE) was 0.52${\pm}$0.26mm in the control and 0.56${\pm}$0.25mm in the test group. there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups. 2. The length of connective tissue adhesion was 1.74${\pm}$1.06mm in the control and 1.28${\pm}$0.57mm in the test group. there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups. 3. The length of new bone was 2.01${\pm}$0.95mm in the control and 2.62${\pm}$0.81mm in the test group. there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups. 4. The length of new cementum was 1.86${\pm}$0.80mm in the control and 2.77${\pm}$ 0.86mm in the test group. there was a statistically significant difference between the two groups.(P<0.01) These results suggest that the use of paste type calcium sulfate in 3-wall intrabony defects has significant effect on new cementum formation , but doesn't have any significant effect on the prevention of junctional epithelium migration and new bone formation. Finally, the paste type calcium sulfate that is used in this study is suggested to be the material that can have a significant effect on the periodontal healing, if its biocompatibility is improved.

The Expression of MUC1 and CD44s in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer (비소세포폐암에서 MUC1과 CD44s의 발현)

  • Park, Hye-Kyung;Lee, Ji-Seok;Lee, Jun-Hee;Lee, Jung-Wook;Kim, Yun-Seong;Lee, Min-Ki;Kim, Young-Dae;Lee, Hyung-Ryu;Kim, Kun-Il;Lee, Chang-Hun;Park, Soon-Kew
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.52 no.2
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    • pp.117-127
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    • 2002
  • Backgroud : MUC1 mucin is a heavily glycosylated large glycoprotein and is expressed aberrantly in carcinoma. CD44 is polymorphic family of cell surface glycoproteins participating in cell-cell adhesion and modulation of the cell-matrix interaction. MUC1 mucin and CD44 expression have been implicated in a tumor invasion and metastasis in certain malignancies. In this study, the expression of MUC1 and the standard form of CD44 (CD44s) was examined in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods : Immunohistochemical staining using monoclonal antibodies including MUC1 glycoprotein and CD44s was performed on 80 NSCLC surgical specimens. The association between MUC1 and CD44s expression and the histological type and tumor stage was investigated. Results : Depolarized MUC1 expression in more than 10% of cancer cells was found in 12 (27.9%) out of 43 squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) and 12 (32.4%) out of 37 adenocarcinomas (ACs). It was not associated with the tumor histological type and the TNM-stage in SCCs. Depolarized MUC1 expression correlated with the N-stage in ACs (p=0.036). CD44s was expressed in 36 (83.7%) out of 43 SCCs and 14 (37.8%) out of 37 ACs. Reduced CD44s expression correlated with the N-stage (p=0.031) and the TNM-stage (p=0.006) in SCCs. Conclusions : Depolarized MUC1 expression was related to the nodal stage in NSCLC adenocarcinoma. Reduced CD44s expression was related to nodal involvement and the TNM-stage in squamous cell carcinoma. This suggests that MUC1 and CD44s expression in NSCLC might play important roles in tumor progression and cap be used as prognostic variables.

Legal Relations of the Contract of International Carriage of Goods by Air (국제항공화물운송계약(國際航空貨物運送契約)의 법률관계(法律關係) -화주(貨主)의 권리의무(權利義務)를 중심(中心)으로-)

  • Lee, Kang-Bin
    • The Korean Journal of Air & Space Law and Policy
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    • v.1
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    • pp.193-222
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    • 1989
  • The purpose of this study is to review the rights and duties of cargo owners, the party to the contract of international carriage of goods by air under the Warsaw Convention System and the IATA conditions. It is generally known that air freight is the most-cost mode of transportation. However, should there be considerations of total distribution cost, the use of air freight leads exporters to be advantageous in physical distribution. The Warsaw Convention System defined and limited the rights and duties of cargo owners and air carriers paticipating in the international carriage of goods, but it does not regulate every aspect of air transportation. Therefore, the unregulated parts are governed by national laws and by individual contracts of carriage. The International Air Transport Association(lATA), a worldwide organization of airlines, has formulated model conditions of contract for the carriage of cargo. These models are not uniformly followed but they serve as a basis for many of the individual standard form of contracts prepared by air carriers. The contract of air carriage of goods is a contract of adhesion, 'the consignor recognizing and accepting the conditions laid down by the carrier'. There are consignors and carriers as the parties to the contract of international carriage of goods. In addition to his basic right, implied in Warsaw Convention Article 18 and 19, to require devery of the goods in good condition and at the date agreed upon, the consignor has the right to dispose the goods in the course of the journey up to the moment when the consignee is entitled to require delivery. If it is impossible to carry out the orders of the consignor, the carrier must so inform him forthwith. The right conferred on the consignor ceases at the moment when that of the consignee begins in accordance with Warsaw Convention Article 13. Nevertheless, if the consignee declines to accept the air waybill or the goods, or if he cannot be communicated with, the consignor resumes his right of disposition. Unless it is otherwise agreed, it is the duty of the carrier to give notice to the consignee as soon as the goods arrive. The consignee is entitled, on arrival of the goods at the place of destination, to require the carrier to hand over to him the air waybill and to deliver the goods to him, on payment of the charges due and on complying with the conditions of carriage set out in the air waybill. The air waybill is supposed to be made out by the consignor. If the carrier makes it out, he is deemed, subject to proof to the contrary, to have done so on behalf of the consignor, whether there is one air waybill or several, each must be made out in three original parts. The first is for the carrier, the second is for the consignee, and the the third is handed to the consignor when the shipment has been accepted. The consignor is responsible for the correctness of the particulars and statement concerning the cargo appearing in the air waybill. Each of the original parts of the air waybill has evidential value and possession of his part is a condition for the exercise by the consignor or consignee of his rights under the contract of carriage. Hague Protocol set forth in Article 9 that nothing in this. Convention prevents the issue of a negotiable air waybill, but Montreal Additional Protocol No. 4 deleted this article. All charges applicable to a shipment are payable in cash at the time of acceptance thereof by the carrier in case of a prepaid shipment or at the time of delivery thereof by the carrier in case of a collect shipment. The carrier shall have lien the cargo for unpaid charges and, in the event of non-payment thereof, shall have the right to dispose of the cargo at public or private sale and pay itself out of the proceeds of such sale any and all such amounts. In conclusion, the Warsaw Convention System has the character of ambiguity in various respects, not only in the part of the forms of documents but also in conditions of contract. Accordingly, the following propositions might be considered: (1) If the carrier does not obey the orders of the consignor for the disposition of the goods without proper reasons, he will be liable strictly for any damage which may be caused thereby to the cargo owner. The special agreement and carrier's conditions of carriage which limit unreasonably the consignor's right of disposition of the goods will be nullified. (2) The instrument of the Warsaw Convention System which is not yet in force(Montreal Additional Protocol No. 4) would considerably simplfy the processing and keeping of computerized records of the carriage. Until this instrument enters into force, the airlines will be faced with practical problems preventing them to substitute computerized data processing techniques for the formal issuance of the documents. Accordingly, Montreal Additional Protocol No. 4 should become effective as soon as posisble. From a practical point of view in the international trade, the issuance of negotiable air waybill should be permitted for the security of the bank.

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Development of Biocompatible Vascular Graft -Endothelialization of Small Vascular Graft- (생체적합성 인조혈관의 개발 -혈관내피화 인조혈관-)

  • 김형묵;이윤신
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.373-380
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    • 1996
  • Prevention of thromboembolism is the most important task in the development of bioconpatible small caliber artificial vascular graft. In normal vessels, vascular endothelial cells maintain homeosatsis by secreting numerous factors. The aim of this study is to develope a method which Improves biocompatibility of small caliver polyurethane graft using endothelial cell culture technique, and ev luate the efTectiveness of extracelluar matrix for endothelization which was produced by cultured fibroblast. Methods ; Multiporous polyurethane tube of 3 mm diameter, 0.3 mm thickness was manufactured for vascular graft. Three mongrel dogs were intubated and internal jugular veins removed. Extracelluar matrix produced by cultured flbrobast which was obtained from dog's internal jugular vein were coated to the polyurethane graft. Then, endothelial cells extracted from Jugular vein were cultured and fixed on the extracelluar matrix layer of vascular graft. Endothelial cell coated vascular grafts were implanted to the carotid arteries of experimental dogs as interposed autograft. Implanted grafts were removed after 3 and 6 weeks. As a control, PTFE graft was interposed on carotid artery. These experiments demonstrated that extracelluar matrix produced by fibroblast can afford a base for endothelial cell linings of polyurethane graft. Although thrombosis were developed on autografted en othelial cell coated graft, 33% opening was noticed, and showed less adhesion to adjacent tissue layer. These findings suggest that fiboblast produced extracelluar matrix which can be used for edothelial cell lining vascular graft, and by improving the cultured endothelial cell function, there will be a new modality for reducing thrombosis on small vascular graft.

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Diagnostic Video-Assisted Thoracic Surgery (진단목적의 비디오 흉강경 수술)

  • Baek, Hyo-Chae;Hong, Yun-Ju;Lee, Du-Yeon;Park, Man-Sil
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.542-547
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    • 1996
  • All patients who underwent video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) for diagnostic purposes from Jan. 1992 to Aug. 1995 were reviewed. The total number of patients were 111 with 57 male and 54 female, and the mean age was 49 years (range 1 to 74). Multiple biopsies from more than one location were performed in 17 patients , pleural biopsies were performed In 49 patients, lung biopsies in 43 patients, mediastinal mass or Iymph node biopsies in 33 patients, and two pericardium biopsies and one dia- phragm biopsy, for a total of 128 biopsies. Seventeen pleural biopsy cases and one lung biopsy case underwent operation under local anesthesia , the rest were performed under general anesthesia. In patients who underwent lung biopsy, the mean age was 49.1 ye rs (range 22~ 73). The operating time was 40 to 170 minutes (mean 97), intravenous or intramuscular injection for pain control was required 0 to 22 times(mean 4.7), and chest tube was inserted from 1 to 26 days(mean 7). In all patients except two, a diagnosis was obtained from the biopsy and complication was encountered in one patient in whom intraoperative paroxysmal atrial tachycardia was detected. In 7 patients, a thorn- cotomy had to be done due to pleural adhesion or intraoperative bleeding, and 7 patients had postoperative complications associated with the chest tube. In the pleural biopsy group, the mean age was 49 years (range 17~ 74). The operating time was 25 to 80 minutes (mean 49), intravenous or intramuscular injection for pain control was needed 0 to 20 times (mean 3.6), and the chest tube was i.nserted for 0 to 67 days(mean 9.8). In all the patients, a diagnosis was possible. The chest tube was inserted for longer than 7 days in 11 patients. In the Iymph node biopsy roup, the mean age was 44.2 years (range 1 ~ 68). The operating time was )0 to 3)5 minutes(mean 105), pain control was required 0 to 15 times(mean 3.2), and a chest tube was kept in place for 1 to 36 days(mean 6.1). In one patient, a diagnosis was not possible and a chest tube was kept in place for longer than 7 days in 7 patients. In the multiple biopsy group, the mean age was 53.1 years(range 20~ 71). The operating time was 15 to 165 minutes(mean 85), and pain control was done from 0 to 17 times(mean 3.1). The chest tube was kept in place for 1 to 16 days (mean 7.9).

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The Role of Video-Assisted Thoracic Surgery in the Diagnosis and the Treatment of a Mediastinal Mass (종격동 병변의 진단 및 치료와 비디오 흉강경의 역할 -흉강경에 의한 종격동 병변 진단 치료-)

  • Baek, Hyo-Chae;Park, Han-Gi;Bae, Gi-Man;Lee, Du-Yeon
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.29 no.7
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    • pp.769-776
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    • 1996
  • The application of video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) in the examination of the thoracic cavity can be a new option in patients with mediastinal tumor because it provides outstanding visibility of the structures of the mediastinum. By clear viewing through the thoracoscope, a mediastinal tumor can be biopsied or resected, depending on the findings during an operation. We reviewed all patients who underwent curative or diagnostic operations from March 1990 to August 1995 under the impression of a mediastinal mass. The total number of patients were 113 with 59 males and 54 females. Group A underwent resection of tu or by thoracotomy(38 patients: 18 males, 20 females), and group B underwent resection of tumor by VATS (36 patients : 20 males and 16 females). Seven patients in group B were excluded because they underwent thoracotomy due to pleural adhesion or intra-operative bleeding ; therefore, the true VATS group numbered 29 cases. Group C underwent Iymph node biopsy by VATS(33 patients'16 males, 17 females), and group D(6 patients: 5 males, 1 female) underwent Iymph node biopsy through anterior mediastinotomy. The mean age in group A was 36.2 years compared to 41.3 years In group B. We compared operation time, frequency of injection for pain control, duration of chest tube insertion, postoperative hospital stay, and diagnostic yield. In group A, they were 164 minutes, 3.4 times, 5.2 days, and 11.3 days, respectively, in comparison to 152 minutes, 2 times, 4.7 days, and 8.3 days, respectively, in group B. These data revealed that the day of discharge was significantly shorter in group B (p valu : 0.03). In group C, the mean age was 45.8 years (range 1 ∼70). The operation time was from 30 to 335 minutes (mean 105), pain control was required from 0 to 15 times(mean 3.2), and a chest tube was needed for 1 to 36 days (mean 6.1). In group D, mean age was 53.3 years, operation time 121 minutes, pall control injec- tion frequency 2.6 times, and mean chest tube duration 10.5 days. The diagnostic yield in group C was 8 oyo compared to 100 oyo in group D although the number of patients in group D is small.

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Superoxide Generation by Blood Monocyte and Pulmonary Alveolar Macrophage in Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis (폐결핵환자의 폐포대식세포 및 말초혈액내 단구세포에서 분비하는 과산화음이온의 비교 관찰)

  • Song, Jeong-Sup;Lee, Suk-Young;Jang, Jie-Jung;Kim, Young-Kyoon;Kim, Kwan-Hyoung;Moon, Hwa-Sik;Park, Sung-Hak
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.11-19
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    • 1994
  • Background: Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a facultative intracellular pathogen which persists and multiplies within macrophage. Competent cell mediated immunity by cooperation of both T lymphocyte and macrophage of the host is required to kill the Mycobacterium tuberculosis. But a precise understanding of the pathogenesis of tuberculosis infection in pulmonary alveolar macrophage has not been achived. Research on the macrophage's basic microbicidal mechanism has elucidated the importance of oxygen-dependent or oxygen-independent components. Oxygen dependent processing begins with the reduction of oxygen by NADPH oxidase and generation of superoxide. In this study, the oxidative metabolic status of blood monocyte and pulmonary alveolar macrophage in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis was accessed and compared with that of healthy control subjects to know whether there was a basic difference in superoxide generation by mononuclear cells between two groups. Methods: Pulmonary alveolar macrophage was purified after performing BAL(bronchoalveolar lavage) through the bronchi of infected lesion by plastic adhesion method. Blood monocyte was purified by Ficoll-Hypaque method. Superoxide generation by blood monocyte and pulmonary alveolar macrophage was measured by ferricytochrome-C reduction method after either stimulated with PMA(phorbol myristate acerate) or non-stimulated states. We also measured the effect of pulmonary tuberculosis patient's serum on superoxide generation by monocyte. Results: 1) Generation of superoxide by alveolar macrophage obtained from patients with pulmonary tuberculosis was little higher than those of controls, and PMA enhanced the generation of 2) Generation of superoxide by blood monocyte obtained from patients with pulmonary tuberculosis was little higher than those of control(p>0.05), and PMA more enhanced the generation of superoxide in patientswith pulmonary tuberculosis than those in controls(p<0.02). 3) Patient's serum enhanced the generation of superoxide by blood monocyte obtained from patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and controls, but not in the case of PMA stimulated blood monocyte. Conclusion: The present study suggest that the phenomenon of M.tuberculosis escape the microbicidal action of macrophage was not result of suppressed superoxide generation by blood monocyte and pulmonary alveolar macrophage, rather there might be a factor to stimulate the generation of superoxide by blood monocyte in pulmonary tuberculosis patient serum, but the comparision with effect of control's serum on superoxide generation needs further elucidation.

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