• Title, Summary, Keyword: Adipogenesis

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Role of Reactive Oxygen Species in the Adipogenesis of Adipose-derived Stem Cells (지방유래줄기세포의 지방분화과정에서 활성산소가 미치는 영향)

  • Chang, Hak;Min, Kyung-Hee;Park, Young-In;Kim, Yo-Han;Minn, Kyung-Won
    • Archives of Plastic Surgery
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.131-134
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    • 2011
  • Purpose: Stem cells continue to receive research attention in the clinical fields, and adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) have been shown to be a good source raw material. Many plastic surgeons are researching the ADSC adipogenesis with a view of conducting clinical trials, and many attempts have been made to identify the factors that promote the adipogenesis of ADSCs, but comparatively few correlation studies have been undertaken to explore the relation between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the ADSC adipogenesis. We undertook this study is to investigate the effects of ROS on ADSC adipogenesis. Methods: ADSCs were isolated and cultured from abdominal adipose tissue, and cultured in different media; 1) DMEM(control), 2) adipogenesis induction culture medium, 3) adipogenesis induction culture medium with ROS ($20{\mu}M/50{\mu}M\;H_2O_2$), 4) adipogenesis induction culture medium containing ROS ($20{\mu}M/50{\mu}M\;H_2O_2$) and antioxidant ($10{\mu}M/20{\mu}M$ Deferoxamine). We compared adipogenesis in these different media by taking absorbance measurements after Oil-Red O staining every 5 days. Results: After culturing for 20 days, significant differences were observed between these various culture groups. Absorbance results showed significantly more adipogenesis had occurred in media containing adipogenesis induction culture medium and $H_2O_2$ (in a $H_2O_2$ dose-dependently manner) than in media containing adipogenesis induction culture medium and no $H_2O_2$ (p<0.001). Furthermore, in media containing adipogenesis induction culture medium, $H_2O_2$, and antioxidant, absorbance results were significantly lower than in adipogenesis induction culture medium and $H_2O_2$ (p<0.001). Conclusion: These findings suggest that ROS promote the adipogenesis of ADSCs. We suggests that ROS could be used in the adipose tissue engineering to improve fat cell differentiation and implantable fat tissue organization.

Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor ${\gamma}$ Is Not Associated with Adipogenesis in Female Mice

  • Yoon, Mi-Chung;Jeong, Sun-Hyo
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.139-146
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    • 2008
  • The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ${\gamma}$ $(PPAR{\gamma})$ plays a central role in adipogenesis and lipid storage. The $(PPAR{\gamma})$ ligands, thiazolidinediones (TZDs), enhance in vitro adipogenesis in several cell types, but the role of the TZDs on in vivo adipogenesis is still poorly understood. To investigate how $PPAR{\gamma}$ ligand troglitazone regulates adipogenesis in female mice, we examined the effects of the troglitazone on adipose tissue mass, morphological changes of adipocytes, and the expression of $PPAR{\gamma}$ target and adipocyte-specific genes in low fat diet-fed female C57BL/6 mice. Administration of troglitazone for 13 weeks did not change body and total white adipose tissue weights compared with control mice. Troglitazone treatment also did not cause a significant decrease in the average size of adipocytes in parametrial adipose tissue although it is reported to increase the number of small adipocytes in male animals. Troglitazone did not affect the mRNA expression of $PPAR{\gamma}$ and its target genes as well as adipocyte-specific genes in parametrial adipose tissue. These results suggest that $PPAR{\gamma}$ does not seem to be associated with adipogenesis in females with functioning ovaries and that its inability to induce adipogenesis may be due to sex-related factors.

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Repression of $PPAR{\gamma}$ Activity on Adipogenesis by $17{\beta}$-estradiol in Differentiated 3T3-L1 Cell

  • Yoon, Mi-Chung;Jeong, Sun-Hyo
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.179-185
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    • 2009
  • In our previous report, we showed that $PPAR{\gamma}$ does not influence adipogenesis in females with functioning ovaries, indicating that $PPAR{\gamma}$ activity on adipogenesis is associated with sex-related factors. Among the sex-related factors, estrogen has been recognized as a major factor in inhibiting adiposgenesis in females. Thus, we hypothensized that $17{\beta}$-estradiol (E) inhibits 3T3-L1 cell adipogenesis by preventing $PPAR{\gamma}$ activity. E decreased triglyceirde accumulation in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells compared with control group. E also decreased the expression of $PPAR{\gamma}$ mRNA as well as $PPAR{\gamma}$ dependent adipocyte-specific genes, such as adipocyte fatty acid binding protein and tumor necrosis factor $\alpha$. In addition, E not only decreased luciferase reporter activity by $PPAR{\gamma}$, but also transfection of estrogen receptor $\alpha$ ($ER{\alpha}$) or $ER{\beta}$ led to decreases in $PPAR{\gamma}$ reporter gene activation. Moreover, E-activated ERs significantly decreased the luciferase reporter gene activation induced by $PPAR{\gamma}$ transfection, suggesting that estrogen-activated ERs inhibit $PPAR{\gamma}$-dependent transactivation. Accordingly, our results demonstrate that E inhibits the action of $PPAR{\gamma}$ on adipogenesis through E activated ER, providing evidence that lack of estrogen may potentiate $PPAR{\gamma}$ action on adipogenesis.

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The Anti-Adipogenic Activity of a New Cultivar, Pleurotus eryngii var. ferulae 'Beesan No. 2', through Down-Regulation of PPAR γ and C/EBP α in 3T3-L1 Cells

  • Kang, Min-Jae;Kim, Keun Ki;Son, Byoung Yil;Nam, Soo-Wan;Shin, Pyung-Gyun;Kim, Gun-Do
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.26 no.11
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    • pp.1836-1844
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    • 2016
  • Adipogenesis is one of the cellular processes and a highly controlled program. Nowadays, inhibition of adipogenesis has received attention as an effective way to regulate obesity. In the current study, we investigated the inhibition effect of a chloroform extract of Pleurotus eryngii var. ferulae 'Beesan No. 2' (CEBT) on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 murine preadipocytes. Pleurotus eryngii var. ferulae is one of many varieties of King oyster mushroom and has been reported to have various biological activities, including antitumor and anti-inflammation effects. Biological activities of 'Beesan No. 2', a new cultivar of Pleurotus eryngii var. ferulae, have not yet been reported. In this study, we found that CEBT suppressed adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells through inhibition of key adipogenic transcription factors, such as peroxisome proliferatoractivated receptor ${\gamma}$ and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein ${\alpha}$. Additionally, CEBT reduced the expression of the IRS/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and its downstream factors, including mammalian target of rapamycin and p70S6 kinase, which stimulate adipogenesis. Furthermore, ${\beta}-catenin$, a suppressor of adipogenesis, was increased in CEBT-treated cells. These results indicate that Pleurotus eryngii var. ferulae 'Beesan No. 2' effectively inhibited adipogenesis, so this mushroom has potential as an anti-obesity food and drug.

The Regulatory Effects of Trans-chalcone on Adipogenesis

  • Han, Younho
    • International Journal of Oral Biology
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    • v.43 no.1
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    • pp.29-35
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    • 2018
  • It is noted that chalcone derivatives have characteristic diverse pharmacological properties, and that precise evidence has been growing that they could regulate a tumor necrosis $factor-{\alpha}$ ($TNF-{\alpha}$) induced insulin resistance. The purpose of the present investigation is to elucidate the effects of the identified chalcone derivatives on adipogenesis, and to find the underlying mechanism of action in that case. Consequently, we first investigated whether the chalcone derivatives could affect the identified $PPAR{\gamma}$-induced transcriptional activity on the proliferator-activated receptor response elements (PPRE) at target promoters, and find that trans-chalcone most significantly increased the $PPAR{\gamma}$-induced transcriptional activity. Additionally, we confirmed that there were up-regulatory effects of trans-chalcone during the adipogenesis and lipid accumulation, and on the mRNA of adipogenic factors in 3T3-L1 cells. Next, we examined the effect of trans-chalcone on the inhibition induced by $TNF-{\alpha}$ on adipogenesis. To that end, we noted that the treatment with trans-chalcone attenuated the effect of $TNF-{\alpha}$ mediated secretion of various adipokines that are involved in insulin sensitivity. For this reason, we noted that this study clearly demonstrates that trans-chalcone enhanced adipogenesis, in part, by its potent effect on $PPAR{\gamma}$ activation and by its reverse effect on $TNF-{\alpha}$.

Histone H3 Lysine Methylation in Adipogenesis (Adipogenesis에서 히스톤 H3 lysine methylation)

  • Jang, Younghoon
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.30 no.8
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    • pp.713-721
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    • 2020
  • Adipogenesis as a model system is needed to understand the molecular mechanisms of human adipocyte biology and the pathogenesis of obesity, diabetes, and other metabolic syndromes. Many relevant studies have been conducted with a focus on gene expression regulation and intracellular signaling relating to Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα), which are master adipogenic transcription factors. However, epigenome regulation of adipogenesis by epigenomic modifiers or histone mutations is not fully understood. Histone methylation is one of the major epigenetic modifications on gene expression in mammals, and histone H3 lysine methylation (H3Kme) in particular implicates cell differentiation during various tissue and organ development. During adipogenesis, cell type-specific enhancers are marked by histone H3K4me1 with the active enhancer mark H3K27ac. Mixed-lineage leukemia 4 (MLL4) is a major H3K4 mono-methyltransferase on the adipogenic enhancers of PPARγ and C/EBPα loci. Thus, MLL4 is an important epigenomic modifier for adipogenesis. The repressive mark H3K27me3 is mediated by the enzymatic subunit Enhancer zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) of the polycomb repressive complex 2. EZH2-mediated H3K27 tri-methylation on the Wnt gene increases adipogenesis because WNT signaling is a negative regulator of adipogenesis. This review summarizes current knowledge about the epigenomic regulation of adipogenesis by histone H3 lysine methylation which fundamentally regulates gene expression.

Acer okamotoanum Nakai Leaf Extract Inhibits Adipogenesis Via Suppressing Expression of PPAR γ and C/EBP α in 3T3-L1 Cells

  • Kim, Eun-Joo;Kang, Min-jae;Seo, Yong Bae;Nam, Soo-Wan;Kim, Gun-Do
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.28 no.10
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    • pp.1645-1653
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    • 2018
  • The genus Acer contains several species with various bioactivities including antioxidant, antitumor and anti-inflammatory properties. However, Acer okamotoanum Nakai, one species within this genus has not been fully studied yet. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the anti-adipogenic activities of leaf extract from A. okamotoanum Nakai (LEAO) on 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Adipogenesis is one of the cell differentiation processes, which converts preadipocytes into mature adipocytes. Nowadays, inhibition of adipogenesis is considered as an effective strategy in the field of anti-obesity research. In this study, we observed that LEAO decreased the accumulation of lipid droplets during adipogenesis and down-regulated the expression of key adipogenic transcription factors such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ${\gamma}$ (PPAR ${\gamma}$) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein ${\alpha}$ (C/EBP ${\alpha}$). In addition, LEAO inactivated PI3K/Akt signaling and its downstream factors that promote adipogenesis by inducing the expression of PPAR ${\gamma}$. LEAO also activated ${\beta}$-catenin signaling, which prevents the adipogenic program by suppressing the expression of PPAR ${\gamma}$. Therefore, we found that treatment with LEAO is effective for attenuating adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Consequently, these findings suggest that LEAO has the potential to be used as a therapeutic agent for preventing obesity.

Tributyltin increases the expression of apoptosis- and adipogenesis-related genes in rat ovaries

  • Lee, Hyo-Jin;Lim, So-Jeong;Yun, Su-Jin;Yoon, A-Young;Park, Ga-Young;Yang, Hyun-Won
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.15-21
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    • 2012
  • Objective: Tributyltin (TBT), an endocrine disrupting chemical, has been reported to decrease ovarian function by causing apoptosis in the ovary, but the mechanism is not fully understood. Therefore, we examined whether TBT increases the expression of adipogenesis-related genes in the ovary and the increased expression of these genes is associated with apoptosis induction. Methods: Three-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were orally administered TBT (1 or 10 mg/kg body weight) or sesame oil as a control for 7 days. The ovaries were obtained and weighed on day 8, and then they were fixed for terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) or frozen for RNA extraction. Using the total RNA of the ovaries, adipogenesis- and apoptosis-related genes were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: The ovarian weight was significantly decreased in rats administered 10 mg/kg TBT compared to that in control rats. As determined by the TUNEL assay, the number of apoptotic follicles in ovary was significantly increased in rats administered 10 mg/kg TBT. The real-time PCR results showed that the expression of adipogenesis-related genes such as $PPAR{\gamma}$, ${\alpha}P2$, CD36, and PEPCK was increased after TBT administration. In addition, apoptosis-related genes such as $TNF{\alpha}$ and TNFR1 were expressed more in the TBT-administered rats compared with the control rats. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that TBT induces the expression of adipogenesis- and apoptosis-related genes in the ovary leading to apoptosis in the ovarian follicles. These results suggest that the increased expression of adipogenesis-related genes in the ovary by TBT exposure might induce apoptosis resulting in a loss of ovarian function.

The micosporine-like amino acids-rich aqueous methanol extract of laver (Porphyra yezoensis) inhibits adipogenesis and induces apoptosis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

  • Kim, Hyunhee;Lee, Yunjung;Han, Taejun;Choi, Eun-Mi
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.9 no.6
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    • pp.592-598
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    • 2015
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Increased mass of adipose tissue in obese persons is caused by excessive adipogenesis, which is elaborately controlled by an array of transcription factors. Inhibition of adipogenesis by diverse plant-derived substances has been explored. The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of the aqueous methanol extract of laver (Porphyra yezoensis) on adipogenesis and apoptosis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and to investigate the mechanism underlying the effect of the laver extract. MATERIALS/METHODS: 3T3-L1 cells were treated with various concentrations of laver extract in differentiation medium. Lipid accumulation, expression of adipogenic proteins, including CCAAT enhancer-binding protein ${\alpha}$, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ${\gamma}$, fatty acid binding protein 4, and fatty acid synthase, cell viability, apoptosis, and the total content and the ratio of reduced to oxidized forms of glutathione (GSH/GSSG) were analyzed. RESULTS: Treatment with laver extract resulted in a significant decrease in lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, which showed correlation with a reduction in expression of adipogenic proteins. Treatment with laver extract also resulted in a decrease in the viability of preadipocytes and an increase in the apoptosis of mature adipocytes. Treatment with laver extract led to exacerbated depletion of cellular glutathione and abolished the transient increase in GSH/GSSG ratio during adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. CONCLUSION: Results of our study demonstrated that treatment with the laver extract caused inhibition of adipogenesis, a decrease in proliferation of preadipocytes, and an increase in the apoptosis of mature adipocytes. It appears that these effects were caused by increasing oxidative stress, as demonstrated by the depletion and oxidation of the cellular glutathione pool in the extract-treated adipocytes. Our results suggest that a prooxidant role of laver extract is associated with its antiadipogenic and proapoptotic effects.

A Study on the Gene Expression in Shikonin-Induced Inhibition of Adipogenesis (Shikonin에 의한 지방세포형성 억제과정에서의 유전자 발현 연구)

  • Lee, Hae-Yong;Kang, Ryun-Hwa;Chung, Sang-In;Cho, Soo-Hyun;Oh, Dong-Jin;Yoon, Yoo-Sik
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.19 no.11
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    • pp.1637-1643
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    • 2009
  • Shikonin, a component of Lithospermum erythrorhizon Sieb. et Zucc, exerts various characteristics such as anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and anti-obesity functions. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of shikonin-induced inhibition of adipogenesis, we analyzed the mRNA expression level of various adipogenesis-related factors including C/EBPs (CCAAT/enhancerbinding proteins) and $PPAR{\gamma}$ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor $\gamma$). The data showed that mRNA expressions of C/$EBP{\beta}$ and C/$EPB{\delta}$ were only slightly changed by shikonin treatment, but mRNA expressions of $PPAR{\gamma}$ and C/$EPB{\alpha}$ were significantly down-regulated. Then, we tested whether upstream regulators of C/$EBP{\beta}$ and $PPAR{\gamma}$ were involved in anti-adipogenesis of shikonin. C/$EBP{\gamma}$ and CHOP (C/EBP homologous protein), which are upstream regulators of C/$EBP{\beta}$, were not affected by shikonin treatment. On the contrary, the mRNA level of KROX20 was markedly down-regulated by shikonin treatment. These results suggest that KROX20 might regulate downstream factors of adipogenesis through C/$EBP{\beta}$-independent pathway. The expression of KLF15 (Kruppel-like factor15), which is a member of KLF family and is a upstream regulator of $PPAR{\gamma}$, was dramatically decreased by shikonin treatment, but KLF2 was not changed. Shikonin had no impact on the expression of KLF5 in the early stage of adipogenesis, but shikonin increased expression of KLF5 in the late stage of adipogenesis. Even though mRNA expression of KLF5 was moderately changed by shikonin treatment, its effect may be small compared with the effect of KLF15, which was markedly inhibited. Taken together, these results suggest that shikonin inhibits adipogenesis through the down-regulation of $PPAR{\gamma}$ and C/$EPB{\alpha}$, which is mediated by the down-regulation of two pro-adipogenic factors, KROX20 and KLF15.