• Title, Summary, Keyword: Adolescent

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The relationship of nutrition of rice and positive evaluation of the rice-based meal on the physical and emotional self-diagnosis and learning efficiency of the middle and highschool students in the jeonju area (전주 지역 청소년 대상 쌀의 영양과 쌀을 기반으로 한 식사에 대한 긍정적 평가에 따른 신체·정서적 자각증상 및 학습 효능감과의 관련성)

  • Lee, Hyeon Kyeong;Lee, Young Seung;Jung, Soo Jin;Kang, Min Sook;Hwang, Yu Jin;Yoo, Sun Mi;Cha, Yeon Soo;Cho, Soo Muk
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.52 no.1
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    • pp.90-103
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    • 2019
  • Purpose: This study examined the relationship of the nutrition of rice and the positive evaluation of the rice-based meal with the food consumption habits, physical and emotional health status, and learning efficacy of 601 middle and high school students in Jeonju area. Methods: The participants were divided into two groups using cluster analysis in that the participants belonging to the upper groups had a center score of 46.86 (n = 348), while the people belonging to the lower group had a center score of 36.89 (n = 253). Statistical differences were tested for all the relationships between the physical and emotional health symptoms and learning efficacy between the groups at the ${\alpha}=0.05$ level. Results: Significant differences in the physical self-evaluated symptoms were observed in all five items in each cluster (p < 0.05). In the case of the emotional health status, nine out of 10 items showed significant differences between the groups. Similarly, significant differences in all five items in learning efficacy questionnaire were noted (p < 0.05). Positive attitudes of the parents toward having breakfast also showed significant differences among the groups. Conclusion: The nutrition of rice and a positive evaluation of the rice-based meals significantly affect the physical and emotional health status and learning efficacy of juveniles. These findings can be used as baseline information for promoting nutrition education, particularly rice-based breakfast.

AN EXPLORATORY STUDY TO DETERMINE HOW ADOLESCENT STUDENT NURSES VIEW PEDIATRIC NURSING EXPERIENCE AS STRESSFUL SITUATION (소아과 간호학 실습시에 느끼는 성년기 간호학생들의 긴장감에 대한 실험적 연구)

  • Oh, Kasil
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.33-56
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    • 1974
  • 간호를 장래의 전문직으로 택하려고 공부하는 간호학생들은 완전한 성인으로서의 발달 과정중 후기 성년기에 속한다. 이시기는 자아를 발견하고 인간이 무엇을 믿으며 인간의 가치가 무엇인가를 추구하는 중요한 시기이다. 다시 말해서 어른과 어린이의 과도기에 서서 자신의 이상적 가치와 기성사회의 기존 가치를 잘 융화시켜 독립된 인간으로서 성숙하려는 노력의 시기이다. 그러므로 성년기의 갈등은 인생의 어느 시기보다도 그 정도가 심하게 나타난다. 간호학생들은 이상의 일반적인 성년기 발달의 요구 외에도 간호대학이라는 특수한 배움의 여건 때문에 좀 더 심각한 문제에 대두된다. 특히 소아과 간호대학이라는 실습환경은 여러 가지 복잡한 병실 사정으로 많은 긴장감을 주는 학습경험이다. 어린이의 간호에는 그들의 발달과정에 따른 다양한 역활이 요구된다. 또한 병원이라는 낯선 환경과 어머니를 떨어져야하는 두려움으로 불안한 어린이와 그 어린이의 불안과 두려움으로 인해 우울과 죄의식에 있는 어머니의 간호는 여러 면에서 성년기 학생들에게 긴장감을 일으키게 하는 요인이 된다. 본 연구의 문헌조사는 주로 미국 문헌에 나타난 간호 대학생들의 성년기 성숙을 위한 발달의 요구와, 소아병실의 복잡한 여건으로 발생되는 긴장감을 다루고 있다. 문헌을 기초로 하여 저자는 긴장감을 주는 간호활동을 크게 다섯 부군으로 묶었다. 1. 어린이 환자의 신체적 간호, 2. 어린이 환자나 부모와의 원만한 대화와 상호관계를 위한 간호활동 3. 소아병실에서 요구되는 다양한 간호원의 역활 4. 어린이나 부모의 간호에 대한 의뢰심 5. 간호의 가치나 이상적 간호. 연구방법으로는 49개의 폐쇄식 질문 항목을 가진 질문지를 사용하였다. 질문 항목들은 문헌연구에서 소아과 간호학 실습시 학생들이 긴장감을 느낀다고 밝혀진 내용들이 다. 학생들은 자신의 경험을 "긴장감이 없었다. ""긴장감이 있었다. ""심한 긴장감이 있었다. ""실습 중 경험이 없었다. "의 사항 중 택일을 하게 되어 있다. 연구대상으로는 모 대학교 간호대학 학생으로 산부인과 간호학 실습을 마친 후 소아과 간호학 실습 8주를 완료한 4학년 학생 42명이었다. 자료분석의 결과는 대부분의 학생들에게 소아과 간호학 실습은 긴장감을 주는 경험이 있다고 나타났다. 다음은 연구결과 주목할만한 몇 가지 사항들이다. 1. 어린이 환자의 신체적 간호는 성년기 학생들에게 긴장감을 주는 실습 경험이었다. 특별히 심하게 긴장감을 주었던 간호활동은 어린이환자의 상태가 중한 경우로, 장기간 앓는 아이, 선천성 기형이 있는 아이, 회복이 불가능하여 죽게될 아이나 사망하는 경우의 어린이 간호였다. 이 결과는 간호학의 기본과정 즉, 기초간호학이나 내 외과 간호학 실습만으로 소아과 간호학 실습을 위한 충분한 준비가 되지 못한다는 것을 뜻 할 수도 있다. 한편, 문헌연구에서 밝힌바와 같이 어리고 연약해 보이는 어린이들의 신체조건이 학생들의 간호활동을 어렵게 하는 경우도 될 수 있겠다. 2. 간호학생들의 어린이 환자와의 대화나 원만한 인간관계에서의 긴장감은 이 연구결과로 평가나 제언이 힘들다. 조사결과에서 학생들은 주로 어린이의 상태가 좋지 않은 경우에 심한 긴장감을 가졌고 일반적인 간호의 경우에는 별로 긴장감이 없었다. 이것은 질병의 상태나 화제, 이야기 할 때의 상황에 따라 긴장감의 여부가 달라질 수 있다는 결론이 되겠다. 3. 소아병실에서의 다양한 역활을 수행하는 것은 비교적 긴장감이 많이 생기는 간호활동으로 나타났다. 그러나 재미있는 사실은 학생들이 간호원으로서의 전문가적인 입장에서, 환자나 보호자를 가르칠때는 별로 문제가 없었으나 어린이 기르는 방법이나 어린이 이해면에서 좀 더 잘 안다고 생각되는 어머니가 지켜 볼때의 어린이 간호에는 긴장감을 가진다는 사실이다. 이것은 Jewett의 연구에서 밝힌바와는 상반되는 결과다. 그의 연구에서 학설들은 부모나 어머니들에 의해 전문가로서 인정받고 기대되는 경우가 제일 어려운 경험이 있다고 밝혔다. 4. 어린이 환자나 그들 부모의 간호에 대한 의뢰심은 학생들에게 심한 긴장감을 주는 경험이 있다. 특히 신체적 간호에 대해 의뢰하는 경우에는 더 심한 긴장감을 준다고 표현한다. 일반적으로 부모가 병실에 상주하는 경우에는 그들의 의뢰심이 심하며 이것은 학생들에게 감당하기 힘든 긴장과 어려움을 주게된다. 왜냐하면 성년기의 학생들은 그들 자신이 먼저 타인에게서 이해받기를 원하며 또 관용을 베풀어주기를 원하는데 그것을 남에게 주어야 하는 입장은 학생들을 긴장되게 하는 실습활동인 것이다. 5. 학생들은 그들이 배운 간호의 이상이나 가치가 실습지에서의 여러 경우와 맞지 않는 것을 보았을 때 극심한 긴장감을 갖는다고 밝혔다. 의사나 병원 행정의 사실이 자신의 이상과 맞지 않는다는 것보다는 간호원의 간호업무의 차이에서 더 비판적인 반응을 보였다. 대부분의 성년기 학생들은 그들의 이상적인 간호원상을 그들의 선배나 실무 간호원 중에서 찾으려는 시기에 그들의 간호활동이 이론과 다른 점이나 학생 자신의 소아과 간호의 가치와 다른 것을 보았을 때는 심한 반감과 긴장감을 갖게된다. 이 문제는 어린 사람이 윗 어른과 함께 동료의식을 갖고 일하기 어려운 한국적 사회구조 때문에 더 심하게 긴장감을 주는 경험인지도 모른다. 선배 간호원의 전문인으로서의 권위와 어린이 환자 보호자의 어른으로서의 권위 사이에서 자신의 이상과 가치의 추구는 용이하지 않으며 내적 갈등은 어쩔수 없는 일 일 것이다. 6. 대부분 높은 백분율의 긴장 반응은 죽음이나 환자의 사망에 관련된 간호활동 항목에서 나타났다. 이 연구의 대상 학생들은 2, 3학년에서 죽음에 대한 강의를 들었지만 이 연구 결과에 의하면 충분한 학습 경험이 주어진 것 같지 않다. 어떠한 경우의 죽음에라도 어린이 환자나 그 보호자들의 심리를 잘 이해하고 반응을 잘 관찰해서 적절한 간호를 해 줄 수 있는 다양한 방법의 학습 경험이 필요하다고 보겠다. 7. 학생들의 긴장도가 어린이 간호에 더 심한가, 보호자 간호에 더 심한가를 알기 위한 비교 결과는 비교적 비슷한 정도로 나타났다. 8. 학생들의 소아과 간호학 실습시의 긴장도는 과거의 병실 실습기간의 장, 단이나 가정에서의 어린인 간호의 경험과는 별 연관성이 없었다. 연구의 대상자가 적기 때문에 단정을 하기는 힘이 들지만 소아과 간호학 실습이 다른 병실의 실습과는 분리되어서 완전히 다르게 다루어 져야만 하며 간호교육자들의 주의 깊은 관심과 노력이 필요한 실습교육이 라 하겠다. 이상의 전반적인 고찰에 의하면 한국 성년기 간호학생들의 소아과 간호학 실습은 미국의 경우와 마찬가지로 긴장감을 주는 경험이다. 문화배경의 다른 점은 무시하고라도 Davis와 Oleson이 결론한 바와 같이 "간호대 학생은 어디를 막론하고 다 같은 성격과 문제를 가지고 있다. " 앞으로 보다 효과적인 학생들의 소아과 간호학 실습을 위한 연구를 위해 다음의 몇 가지를 본 연구의 결과를 가지고 제언한다. 1. 보다 여러 지역에서 다양한 교육 방법을 가진 학교의 학생을 대상으로 한 연구의 필요성. 2. 학생들이 실습 전 선입견이나 이미 들어서 생긴 긴장감의 개입 여부를 밝힐 수 있는 연구. 3. 학생 개인의 과거 경침이 긴장감 유발에 미치는 영향을 위한 연구 4. 이 연구의 결과를 입증할 수 있는 종단적 연구. 5. 이 연구에서 나타난 긴장감이 학습 행위에 미치는 영향을 알기 위한 관찰적 연구. 이 연구를 위해 많은 도움을 주셨던 보스턴대학의 Dr. Kennedy와 연세대학의 여러 선생님께 심심한 감사를 드립니다.

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A Comparative Survey on Misconception and Desire for Physique of College Women in Taegu and Fukuoka (한.일 여대생의 자기 체형 인식 및 체형 불안도에 관한 비교 연구)

  • Hong, Jin-Pyo;Choi, Bong-Soon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.435-442
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    • 2000
  • This study was carried out to investigate misconception for physique and desire for physique of college women in Taegu(412 subjects) and Fukuoka(423 subjects). The data was collected by questionnaire interview and anthropometric measurement. The results were as follows : The mean age, height, weight, and BMI of Taegu subjects were $19.9{\pm}1.2$ years old, $159.6{\pm}4.9cm,\;51.2{\pm}6.0kg\;and\;20.1{\pm}2.2$, respectively. The mean age, height , weight, and BMI of Fukuoka subjects were $18.3{\pm}0.6$ year old, $157.5{\pm}5.0cm,\;53.3{\pm}6.9kg\;and\;21.5{\pm}2.5$, respectively. The average ideal height desired by subjects in Taegu was higher than their real mean height by 5.1cm ; while the average ideal weight desired by subjects was lower than real mean weight by 2.6kg. The average ideal height desired by subjects in Fukuoka was higher than their real mean height by 3.2cm ; while the average ideal weight desired by subjects was lower than real mean weight by 5.4kg. The percentage of Taegu subjects who desired to be slender, be fatty and maintain weight were 70.1%, 7.3%, and 22.6% respectively. The percentage of Fukuoka subjects who desired to be slender, be fatty and maintain weight were 85.3%,2.6% and 12.1% respectively. The rate of misconception for the actual physique was 56.5% in Taegu subjects, and 57.2% In fukuoka subjects. The over estimation rate was higher in subjects desired for slenderness than in others. The adolescent females having a fatty body image in self-consciousness indicated that they felt high social physique anxiousness. Finally, the rate of misconception and the degree of social physique anxiousness were higher in those who had a desire for slenderness.

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The Prevalence of Obesity and Underweight in Adolescents in Incheon Area and the Relationship between Serum Cholesterol Level and Obesity (인천지역 청소년의 비만도와 혈청 콜레스테롤치와의 관계)

  • Kim, Myung Hyun;Kim, Tae Wan;Hong, Young Jin;Son, Byong Kwan;Pai, Soo Hwan;Chang, Kyung Ja;Kim, Soon Ki
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.174-182
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    • 2002
  • Purpose : The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of obese and underweight adolescents in Incheon area and to examine the relationship between serum cholesterol level and obesity, then to assess the nutritional condition of adolescents. Methods : With a questionnaire regarding their demographic characteristics, blood samples were obtained from apparently healthy students aged 12 to 24 years by venipuncture at April and May, 2000. We measured the obesity index using standard body weight and the body mass index(BMI) according to the criteria established by the Korean Pediatric Society in 1998. Obesity was defined as BMI more than 95 percentile, and underweight less than 15 percentile by age and sex. Results : A total of 1,456 students(M : F=685 : 771) aged 12 to 24 years were included in this study. The prevalence of obesity by standard body weight in adolescents in Incheon were 11.7% : mild obesity 6.5%, moderate 4.6%, and severe 0.5%. By BMI, the prevalence of obesity was 6.4% in males and 6.2% in females. In males, the prevalence of obesity in rural areas was 8.5%, lower than in urban areas(14.3%). The prevalence of underweight by obesity index was 34.1% in rural areas and 22.9% in urban areas. In females, the prevalence of obesity was 12.5% in rural areas and 19.6% in urban areas. There were no significant differences between the two regions(P=0.529). The prevalence of obesity increased with age till 16.3% of peak prevalence in 16 years of age, and then decreased. In males, the prevalence of obesity in academic and vocational school were 13.7% and 9.7%, respectively(P=0.116). In females of the academic and vocational school, the prevalence of obesity was 6.8% and 18.0%, respectively(P=0.001). In obese adolescents, serum total cholesterol was over 200 mg/dL in 6.2%. Conclusion : This study revealed that the prevalence of obesity in adolescents was about 12% and that the prevalence of underweight adolescents was considerably high. We think nutritional assessment and intervention are warranted for adolescent students.

Mumps- and Rubella-specific IgG Levels in Adolescents (청소년기의 연령증가에 따른 볼거리 및 풍진 항체가 변동)

  • Cheon, Hae Won;Shin, Young Kyoo;Lee, Kang Woo;Choung, Ji Tae;Tockgo, Young Chang
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.128-135
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    • 1998
  • Purpose : This study was intended to measure seropositivities and the level of mumps- and rubella-specific IgG of MMR vaccinees from 12 to 17 years of age in Korea. Materials and Methods : From May 1996 to July 1996 we obtained sera from students of 1 middle and 2 high schools in Seoul, who were MMR vaccinees from 12 to 17 years of age and had no evidence of immunodeficiency. These 216 study population include 110 males and 106 females. Mumps- and rubella-specific IgG antibody levels were measured by ELISA. Cut-off values for seropositivity were 20 U(Gamma Unit) in mumps and over 0.17 in rubella. Results : 1) As age increased, seropositivities to mumps increased, being 68.4% in 12 year, 79.3% in 13 year, 72.2% in 14 year, 82.0% in 15 year, 87.5% in 16 year, 87.0% in 17 year, which however has no statistical significance. 2) As age increased, the level of mumps-specific IgG antibody(mean+standard deviation, GU) increased, being $52.0{\pm}49.2$ in 12 year, $65.9{\pm}51.4$ in 13 year, $71.1{\pm}66.0$ in 14 year, $67.8{\pm}53.6$ in 15 year, $82.8{\pm}67.8$ in 16 year, $92.0{\pm}68.9$ in 17 year, which however has no statistical significance. 3) As age increased, seropositivities of rubella-specific IgG increased significantly, being 26.3% in 12 year, 20.7% in 13 year, 50.0% in 14 year, 67.2% in 15 year, 66.7% in 16 year, 65.2% in 17 year(P<0.001). 4) As age increased, rubella-specific IgG increased significantly, being $0.13{\pm}0.145$ in 12 year, $0.087{\pm}0.101$ in 13 year, $0.194{\pm}0.168$ in 14 year, $0.260{\pm}0.187$ in 15 year, $0.305{\pm}0.213$ in 16 year, $0.325{\pm}0.221$ in 17 year(P<0.001). There was positive correlation between age and rubella-specific IgG titer(rubella-specific $IgG=0.0517{\times}age-0.5586$, r=0.3752, P<0.001). Conclusion : In adolescent, seropositivities and the level of mumps-specific IgG remained relatively high, but approximately 20% of study population showed seronegativity. Seropositivities and the level of rubella-specific IgG showed the lowest level at 13 years of age and were increased with age after 14 years of age. Further evaluation may be needed to elucidate the cause of these changes of rubella-specific IgG.

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Assessment of modifiable lifestyle factors for obese children and adolescents through questionnaires (소아청소년 비만상담에서 설문지를 이용한 중재 가능한 행동요인 탐색)

  • Seo, Jeong Wan;Jung, Ji A;Park, Hye Sook;Ko, Jae Sung;Kim, Yong Joo;Kim, Jae Young;Ryoo, Eell;Bae, Sun Hwan;Sim, Jae Geon;Yang, Hye Ran;Choe, Byung Ho;Cho, Ky Young
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.51 no.6
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    • pp.576-583
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    • 2008
  • Purpose : The identification of specific behaviors conducive to overeating or inactivity is the cornerstone of obesity management. The Committee on Nutrition of the Korean Pediatric Society developed parent and self-reporting questionnaires about eating behavior and physical activity in 2006. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the questionnaires in assessing modifiable lifestyle factors related to obesity. Methods : A retrospective chart review was performed for 177 children (6-11 years old) and 134 adolescents (12-16 years old) from 10 hospitals between May 2006 and January 2007 who had completed parent or self-reporting questionnaires. Cases were divided into normal and overweight groups at or above the age-gender-specific 85th percentile based on 2007 Korean national growth charts. Results : Compared to children, the adolescents tended to have a significantly more sedentary lifestvle and inappropriate dietary behaviors significantly (P<.05). Overweight mothers were significantly associated with overweight children and adolescents (P<.05). Being overweight was significantly associated with a family history of adult diseases for children and adolescents (P<.05). Inappropriate eating behaviors (strong appetite, eating fast, eating until they were full, binge eating, favoring greasy foods) were associated with being overweight in children and adolescents. Sedentary activity such as TV viewing and using a computer were significantly associated with overweight in children and adolescents (P<.05). Conclusion : Intervention to modify obesity-related lifestyle factors is needed before adolescence. These questionnaires are useful in identifying modifiable lifestyle factors and in individual counseling for overweight children and adolescents in pediatric clinics.

Case study of Music & Imagery for Woman with Depression (우울한 내담자를 위한 MI(Music & Imagery) 치료사례)

  • Song, In Ryeong
    • Journal of Music and Human Behavior
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.67-90
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    • 2008
  • This case used MI techniques that give an imagery experience to depressed client's mental resource, and that makes in to verbalism. Also those images are supportive level therapy examples that apply to positive variation. MI is simple word of 'Music and Imagery' with one of psychology cure called GIM(Guided Imagery and Music). It makes client can through to the inner world and search, confront, discern and solve with suitable music. Supportive Level MI is only used from safety level music. Introduction of private session can associate specification feeling, subject, word or image. And those images are guide to positive experience. The First session step of MI program is a prelude that makes concrete goal like first interview. The Second step is a transition that can concretely express about client's story. The third step is induction and music listening. And it helps to associate imagery more easily by used tension relaxation. Also it can search and associate about various imagery from the music. The last step is process that process drawing imagery, talking about personal imagery experience in common with therapist that bring the power by expansion the positive experience. Client A case targets rapport forming(empathy, understanding and support), searching positive recourse(child hood, family), client's emotion and positive support. Music must be used simple tone, repetition melody, steady rhythm and organized by harmony music of what therapist and client's preference. The client used defense mechanism and couldn't control emotion by depression in 1 & 2 sessions. But the result was client A could experience about support and understanding after 3 sessions. After session 4 the client had stable, changed to positive emotion from the negative emotion and found her spontaneous. Therefore, at the session 6, the client recognized that she will have step of positive time at the future. About client B, she established rapport forming(empathy, understanding and support) and searching issues and positive recognition(child hood, family), expression and insight(present, future). The music was comfortable, organizational at the session 1 & 2, but after session 3, its development was getting bigger and the main melody changed variation with high and low of tune. Also it used the classic and romantic music. The client avoids bad personal relations to religious relationship. But at the session 1 & 2, client had supportive experience and empathy because of her favorite, supportive music. After session 3, client B recognized and face to face the present issue. But she had avoidance and face to face of ambivalence. The client B had a experience about emotion change according depression and face to face client's issues After session 4. At the session 5 & 6, client tried to have will power of healthy life and fairly attitude, train mental power and solution attitude in the future. On this wise, MI program had actuality and clients' issues solution more than GIM program. MI can solute the issue by client's based issue without approach to unconsciousness like GIM. Especially it can use variety music and listening time is shorter than GIM and structuralize. Also can express client's emotion very well. So it can use corrective and complement MI program to children, adolescent and adult.

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Four-year change and tracking of serum lipids in Korean adolescents (강화지역 청소년의 4년간 혈청 지질의 변화와 지속성)

  • Lee, Kang-Hee;Suh, Il;Jee, Sun-Ha;Nam, Chung-Mo;Kim, Sung-Soon;Shim, Won-Heum;Ha, Jong-Won;Kim, Suk-Il;Kang, Hyung-Gon
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.45-59
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    • 1997
  • It has been known that there is a tracking phenomenon in the level of serum lipids. However, no study has been performed to examine the change and tracking of serum lipids in Korean adolescents. The purpose of this study is to examine the changes of serum lipids in Korean adolescents from 12 to 16 years of age, and to examine whether or not there is a tracking phenomenon in serum lipids level during the period. In 1992 serum lipids(total cholesterol(TC), triglyceride(TG), LDL cholesterol(LDL-C), HDL cholesterol(HDL-C)) were measured in 318 males, 365 females who were 12 years of age in Kangwha county, Korea. These participants have been followed up to 1996 and serum lipids level were examined in 1994 and 1996. Among the participants 162 males and 147 females completed all three examinations in fasting state. To examine the effect of eliminating adolescents with incomplete data, we compared serum lipids, blood pressure and anthropometric measures at baseline between adolescents with complete follow-up and adolescents who were withdrawn. To examine the change of serum lipids we compared mean values of serum lipids according to age in males and females. Repeated analysis of variance was used to test the change according to age. We used three methods to examine the existence of tracking. First, we analyzed the trends in serum lipids over 4-year period within quartile groups formed on the basis of the first-year serum lipids level to see whether or not the relative ranking of the mean serum lipids among the quartile groups remained in the same group for 4-year period. Second, we quantified the degree of tracking by calculating Spearman's rank correlation coefficient between every tests. Third, the persistence extreme quartile method was used. This method divides the population into quartile groups according to the initial level of blood lipids and then calculates the percent of the subjects who stayed in the same group at follow-up measurement. The decreases in levels were noted during 4 years for TC, LDL-C, primarily for boys. The level of HDL-C decreased between baseline and first follow-up for both sexes. Tracking, as measured by both correlation coefficients and persistence extreme quartiles, was evident for all of the lipids. The correlation coefficients of TC between baseline and 4 years later in boys and girls were 0.55 and 0.68, respectively. And the corresponding values for HDL-C were 0.58 and 0.69. More than 50% of adolescents who belonged to the highest quartile group in TC, HDL-C and LDL-C at the baseline were remained at the same group at the examination performed 2 years later for both sexes. The probabilities of remaining at the same group were more than 35% when examined 4 years later. The tracking phenomenon of TG was less evident compared with the other lipids. Percents of girls who stayed at the same group 2 years later and 4 years later were 42.9% and 25.7%, respectively. It was evident that serum lipid levels tracked in Korean adolescents. Researches with longer follow-up would be needed in the future to investigate the long-term change of lipids from adolescents to adults.

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