• Title, Summary, Keyword: Affinity unit

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In vitro and in vivo application of anti-cotinine antibody and cotinine-conjugated compounds

  • Kim, Hyori;Yoon, Soomin;Chung, Junho
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.47 no.3
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    • pp.130-134
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    • 2014
  • The combination of a high-affinity antibody to a hapten, and hapten-conjugated compounds, can provide an alternative to the direct chemical cross-linking of the antibody and compounds. An optimal hapten for in vitro use is one that is absent in biological systems. For in vivo applications, additional characteristics such as pharmacological safety and physiological inertness would be beneficial. Additionally, methods for cross-linking the hapten to various chemical compounds should be available. Cotinine, a major metabolite of nicotine, is considered advantageous in these aspects. A high-affinity anti-cotinine recombinant antibody has recently become available, and can be converted into various formats, including a bispecific antibody. The bispecific anti-cotinine antibody was successfully applied to immunoblot, enzyme immunoassay, immunoaffinity purification, and pre-targeted in vivo radioimmunoimaging. The anti-cotinine IgG molecule could be complexed with aptamers to form a novel affinity unit, and extended the in vivo half-life of aptamers, opening up the possibility of applying the same strategy to therapeutic peptides and chemical compounds.

Construction and Characterization of a Single-Chain Immunoglobulin

  • Kim, Youn-Kyu;Choi, In-Hak;Ryu, Chun-Jeih;Hong, Hyo-Jeong
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.177-181
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    • 1997
  • We constructed a single-chain immunoglobulin in which the carboxyl end of the heavy chain variable domain is covalently joined to the amino terminus of the light chain variable domain via peptide linker and the carboxyl end of the light chain variable domain is linked to human ${\gamma}1$ Fc region through the hinge region. The molecule was expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells, assembled into a dimeric molecule and secreted into the culture medium. The dimeric molecule (2E11) was purified from the culture supernatant by affinity chromatography on Protein G-Sepharose column. The size of the unreduced or reduced protein was the expected molecular weight of approximately 120 or 60 kDa, respectively, as assessed by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The antigen-binding affinity of 2E11 was almost the same as that of a native antibody counterpart (CS131A), suggesting that the single-chain immunoglobulin may function like a native antibody.

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Purification and Substrate Specificity of Debaryomyces sp. ${\alpha}$-Galactosidase by Mannobiose-Sepharose Affinity Column Chromatograpy (Mannobiose-Sepharose 담체합성 및 Affinity column chromatograpy에 의한 Debaryomyces sp. 유래 ${\alpha}$-Galactosidase의 정제 및 기질 특이성)

  • Park, Gwi-Gun
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.49 no.3
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    • pp.180-185
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    • 2006
  • ${\alpha}$-Galactosidase was partially purified from the culture filtrate of Debaryomyces sp. by Mannobiose-Sepharose affinity column chromatography. The galactosidase exhibited maximum activity at pH 4.0 and $60^{\circ}C$, and was stable in the pH and temperature ranges of 3 to 4.5 and 30 to $50^{\circ}C$, respectively. The enzyme was inhibited by $Hg^{2+}\;and\;Ag^{2+}$. The enzyme activity was not affected considerably by treatment with other metal compounds. The enzyme hydrolyzed melibiose to galactose and glucose, raffinose to galactose and sucrose, and $Gal^3Man_3$ ($6^3-{\alpha}$-galactosyl-1,4-mannotriose) to galactose and mannotriose. On the contrary, it could not hydrolyze $Gal^3Man_4$ ($6^3-{\alpha}$-galactosyl-1,4-mannotetraose).

A Screening Method for Src Homology 3 Domain Binding Blockers Based on Ras Signaling Pathway

  • Ko, Woo-Suk;Yoon, Sun-Young;Kim, Jae-Won;Lee, Choong-Eun;Han, Mi-Young
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.30 no.5
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    • pp.303-307
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    • 1997
  • Grb2, which is composed of a Src homology 2 (SH2) domain and two Src homology 3 (SH3) domains, is known to serve as an adaptor protein in signaling for Ras activation. Thus, a blocker of the Grb2 interactions with other proteins can be a potential candidate for an anticancer drug. In this study, we have developed a high throughput screening method for SH3 domain binding ligands and blockers. Firstly, we made and purified the glutathione S-transferase (GST)-fusion proteins with the Grb2 SH2 and SH3 domains, and the entire Grb2. This method measures the binding of a biotin-labeled oligopeptide, derived from a Grb2/SH3 binding motif in the hSos, to the GST-fusion proteins, which are precoated as glutathione S-transferase fusion protein on a solid phase. When $1\;{\mu}g$ of each fusion protein was used to coat the wells, both N- and C- terminal SH3 the domains as well as the whole of Grb2 were able to interact with the biotin-conjugated ligand peptide, while the SH2 domain and GST alone showed no binding affinity. Although N- and C- terminal SH3 domains showed an increase of binding to the ligand peptide in proportion to the amount of peptide, the GST fusion protein with Grb2 demonstrated much higher binding affinity. GST-Grb2 coating on the solid phase showed a saturation curve; 66 and 84% of the maximal binding was observed at 100 and 300 ng/$100\;{\mu}l$, respectively. This binding assay system was peptide sequence-specific, showing a dose-dependent inhibition with the unlabeled peptide of SH3 binding motif. Several other peptides, such as SH2 domain binding motifs and PTB domain binding motif, were ineffective to inhibit the binding to the biotin-conjugated ligand peptide. These results suggest that our method may be useful to screen for new anticancer drug candidates which can block the signaling pathways mediated by SH3 domain binding.

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Serodiagnosis of Extraintestinal Amebiasis: Retrospective Evaluation of the Diagnostic Performance of the Bordier® ELISA Kit

  • Beyls, Nicolas;Cognet, Odile;Stahl, Jean-Paul;Rogeaux, Olivier;Pelloux, Herve
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.56 no.1
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    • pp.71-74
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    • 2018
  • Soluble antigens from an axenic culture of Entamoeba histolytica were used to develop a commercial ELISA kit to quantify anti-E. histolytica antibodies in sera of patients with extraintestinal amebiasis in non-endemic settings. The diagnostic specificity and sensitivity of the test were assessed retrospectively using 131 human serum samples with amoebic serologic status available. They were selected according to their results in immunofluorescence (IFAT) and were separated in 2 sample categories: 64 sera with positive results by IFAT and 67 with negative results by IFAT. The sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA kit were assessed at 95.0% and 94.0% compared to the IFAT. The test can be useful to exclude a potential diagnosis of amebiasis and could be used as a screening method since ELISA is an automated technique.

Purification and Some Properties of Chitinase from Serratia marcescens JM (Serratia marcescens JM에 의한 Chitinase의 정제와 특성)

  • Lee, Sang Hwan;Yu, Euy-Kyung
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.72-80
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    • 1996
  • A chitinase-producing bacterium, Serratia marcescens JM, was isolated from a seashore muds. A chitinase was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation, affinity adsorption, hydroxylapatite and sephadex G-200 column chromatography. The chitinase obtained from Serratia marcescens JM was purified 42.2 folds with the overall yield of 7.1%. The purified chitinase showed a single band on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The molecular weight of the enzyme was 59,000 and the apparent kinetic parameters $K_m\;and\;V_{max}$ for the purified chitinase were 5.17 mg/mL and 39.8 unit/mL, respectively. The optimum pH and temperature of the purified chitinase were 7.0 and 50$^{\circ}C$, respectively and the purified enzyme was stable on pH 7.0 up to 50$^{\circ}C$. The enzyme were activated by $Cu^{2+},\;Ca^{2+}\;and\;Mg^{2+}$ and inhibited by $Hg^{2+}$ respectively. In addition, Cysteine increased the chitinase activity and EDTA, MIA, PCMB and SDS inhibited enzyme activities. Major cations, $MG^{2+},\;Ca^{2+},\;K^+\;and\; Na^+$ present in seawater slightly stimulated the chitinase activity.

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Identification and Classification of the Muscarinic Receptors in the Uterus (자궁 무스카린수용체의 확인 및 분류)

  • Lee, Shin-Woong;Lee, Jeung-Soo;Park, Young-Joo
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.220-229
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    • 1992
  • The muscarinic acetylcholine receptors of the dog unpregant uterus were characterized using $[^3H]quinuclidinyl$ benzilate(QNB) as a radioligand and the binding of muscarinic receptor agonists and antagonists in the uterus was compared to that in the urinary bladder which contains almost exclusively the M2 receptors in order to determine the receptor subtypes in the uterus. $[^3H]QNB$ binding to uterus and bladder was rapid, saturable and reversible. Scatchard analysis of the saturation data gave linear plots and the Hill coefficients were close to unit, which indicated that each preparation contained a single population of specific binding sites for $[^3H]QNB$. The KD values(120 pM) for QNB were almost identical in both organs, whereas the $B_{max}$ value of 256 fmol/mg protein in the uterus was significantly different from that of 563 fmol/mg protein in the bladder. Muscarinic agonists and antagonists inhibited in a competitive manner the $[^3H]QNB$ binding to the same extent in both organs. The competition binding studies using antagonists(atropine and pirenzepine) exhibited a single binding site and this site had a low affinity for pirenzepine with the Ki value of about 330 nM. However, high and low affinity binding sites were observed with carbachol, methacholine and oxotremorine. These binding studies with agonists and antagonists did not show any differences in drug affinities between uterus and bladder. These results indicate that the muscarinic receptors in the uterus are M2 receptors which have a low affinity for pirenzepine.

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Medium Optimization and Application of Affinity Column Chromatography for Trypsin Production from Recombinant Streptomyces griseus

  • Chi, Won-Jae;Song, Ju-Hyun;Oh, Eun-A.;Park, Seong-Whan;Chang, Yong-Keun;Kim, Eung-Soo;Hong, Soon-Kwang
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.19 no.10
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    • pp.1191-1196
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    • 2009
  • The production of Streptomyces griseus trypsin (SGT) by S. griseus IFO13350 transformed with the expression vector pWHM3-TR1R2, containing sprT encoding SGT and the two positive regulatory genes sgtR1 and sgtR2, was investigated in various media. Cultivation in Ferm-0 gave 1.4 times more trypsin activity than in C5/L medium. In addition, replacement of 2% glucose and 1% skim milk in Ferm-0 with 2% dextrin and 1% tryptone (designated Ferm-II) enhanced trypsin activity 4.1-fold. To simplify the purification process, the supernatant from the S. griseus transformant cultured in Ferm-II medium was fractionated with ammonium sulfate (25-55%), then subjected to Hitrap Benzamidine FF affinity column chromatography. The specific activity of SGT purified by one-step chromatography was 69,550 unit/mg protein and the overall purification yield was above 8%, indicating that this method is more effective than those previously reported. Purified SGT was most active at pH 8.0 and $50^{\circ}C$, and it maintained activity between pH 7.0 and 9.0 and at temperatures up to $70^{\circ}C$. These enzymatic properties are very similar to those of authentic eukaryotic trypsin purified from bovine pancreas.

Where art thou "the great hiatus?"- review of Late Ordovician to Devonian fossil-bearing strata in the Korean Peninsula and its tectonostratigraphic implications

  • Lee, Dong-Chan;Choh, Suk-Joo;Lee, Dong-Jin;Ree, Jin-Han;Lee, Jeong-Hyun;Lee, Seung-Bae
    • Geosciences Journal
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.913-931
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    • 2017
  • We review paleontologic evidence from the Upper Ordovician to Devonian strata in the Korean Peninsula and discuss their tectonostratigraphic origin. The Upper Ordovician-Devonian fossil-bearing strata are largely distributed in North Korea, and tectonostratigraphically in the southern margin of the Pyeongnam Basin and in the northern part of the Imjingang Belt. The fossils have been regarded as evidence that the "great hiatus" of the middle Paleozoic is not a prevalent phenomenon across the Sino-Korean Block. Examination of selected fossils with stratigraphic and paleogeographic significance reveals that the fossils from the Sangsori, Koksan and Wolyangri series and the Rimjin System are of the Late Ordovician to Devonian and display affinity to those of the coeval strata of South China. In addition, the fossils included within clasts of the Songrim Conglomerate, the basal unit of the Jurassic Taedong System, are of the Silurian to Devonian, which also display affinity to South China. The faunal and floral affinity suggests that the Upper Ordovician to Devonian strata in North Korea most likely formed in a basin(s) of or peripheral to the South China Block, which indicates that the strata are allochthonous, contrary to the traditional interpretation of their autochthonous origin by North Korean geologists. The Permo-Triassic collision between the two Chinese cratons which resulted in the amalgamation of three massifs of the Korean Peninsula is considered to be responsible for the accretion and juxtaposition of the Upper Ordovician to Devonian strata onto the Sino-Korean Block. The autochthonous origin of the strata suggests the absence of the "great hiatus" at least in North Korea, whereas the allochthonous origin its presence across the Sino-Korean Block.

Characterization of Aspartate Aminotransferase Isoenzymes from Leaves of Lupinus albus L. cv Estoril

  • Martins, Maria Luisa Louro;De Freitas Barbosa, Miguel Pedro;De Varennes E Mendonca, Amarilis Paula Alberti
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.220-227
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    • 2002
  • Two aspartate aminoransferase (EC 2.6.1.1) isoenzymes (AAT-1 and AAT-2) from Lupinus albus L. cv Estoril were separated, purified, and characterized. The molecular weight, pI value, optimum pH, optimum temperature, and thermodynamic parameters for thermal inactivation of both isoenzymes were obtained. Studies of the kinetic mechanism, and the kinetics of product inhibition and high substrate concentration inhibition, were performed. The effect of some divalent ions and irreversible inhibitors on both AAT isoenzymes was also studied. Native PAGE showed a higher molecular weight for AAT-2 compared with AAT-1. AAT-1 appears to be more anionic than AAT-2, which was suggested by the anion exchange chromatography. SDS-PAGE showed a similar sub-unit molecular weight for both isoenzymes. The optimum pH (between 8,0 and 9.0) and temperature ($60-65^{\circ}C$) were similar for both isoenzymes. In the temperature range of $45-65^{\circ}C$, AAT-2 has higher thermostability than AAT-1. Both isoenzymes showed a high affinity for keto-acid substrates, as well as a higher affinity to aspartate than glutamate. Manganese ions induced an increase in both AAT isoenzymes activities, but no cooperative effect was detected. Among the inhibitors tested, hydroxylamine affected both isoenzymes activity by an irreversible inhibition mechanism.