• Title, Summary, Keyword: AgNORs

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Clinical Significance of Argyrophilic Nucleolar Organizer Regions(AgNORs) In Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lung (편평세포폐암에서 Argyrophilic Nucleolar Organizer Regions(AgNORs)의 임상적의의)

  • Han, Seung-Beom;Jeon, Young-June;Lee, Sang-Sook
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.513-521
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    • 1995
  • Background: Nucleolar organizer regions(NORs) are chromosomal segments encoding for ribosomal RNA and associated with argyrophilic nonhistone protein. Ribosomal RNA genes ultimately direct ribosome and protein synthesis, and it has been suggested the numbers of NORs detected in the cell may reflect nuclear and cellular activity. This study was performed to evaluate the applicability of AgNORs to the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. Method: The one step silver methods(AgNORs) was used to stain NORs in the routinely processed, formalin fixed, paraffin embedded sections of 36 cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the lung obtained by surgical resection of primary tumor. In each specimen, 100 tumor cells and 100 normal cells adjacent to the tumor chosen at random were examined under an oil immersion lens at a magnification of ${\times}1000$. The mean number of AgNORs per nucleus was calculated for each specimen. Results: The mean number of AgNORs per nucleus(mAgNORs) of normal bronchial epithelium and squamous cell carcinoma of the lung was $1.74{\pm}0.25$ and $4.05{\pm}0.80$, respectively. The difference of mAgNOR between normal and tumor tissue was statistically significant(p<0.001). There was no statistical difference among tumors of different stages. The difference of mAgNOR between normal and tumor tissue was statistically significant in each TNM stage(p<0.05). Conclusion: Mean AgNOR count may be used as a useful marker for the differential diagnosis of benignancy and malignancy, and proliferative activity of the cell in squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. But there was no statistical difference in mean AgNOR count among tumors of different surgical stages. Further studies for the application of mAgNORs to the diagnosis of other histologic types and cytologic specimens of the lung cancer are needed.

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Identification of Nucleolus Organizer Regions of Korean Cattle Chromosomes by AgNOR Staining (AgNOR 염색법에 의한 한우 염색체의 Nucleolus Organizer Regions 양상 분석)

  • Jung , W.;Sohn, S.H.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.45 no.5
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    • pp.695-702
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    • 2003
  • Nucleolus Organizer Regions (NORs) are the specific chromosome sites where ribosomal genes are located and highly expressed. We have applied the AgNOR staining to identify the distribution of NORs in the chromosomes of Korean Cattle. We have also studied the NORs pattern on the cells originated from different breeds, tissues and sex. Peripheral blood from forty-four Korean Cattle and Holstein was cultured for chromosme preparation. The fibroblast culture from biopsied ear skins was also conducted for chromosome analysis. The distribution of NORs was analyzed by sequential Ag staining and G-banding on metaphases of the cells. In Korean Cattle, the NORs are localized on the telomeres of the five chromosome pairs number 2, 3, 4, 11 and 28. The number of NORs per metaphase ranged from 2 to 10 giving a mean value of 5.6. The number of NORs per cell varied among individuals and cells within same individual. The size of NORs also differed in NO-chromosomes. The number of NORs was significantly different between Korean Cattle and Holstein, fibroblasts and lymphocytes, and male and female. However, the distribution and frequency of NORs were similar among the cells regardless of breeds, tissues, and sex.

Comparison of Ag-NORs stain and [3H]thymidine incorporation in antiproliferative effect of caffeine on NIH3T3 cells (Ag-NORs 염색법과 [3H]thymidine incorporation법에 의한 caffeine의 NIH3T3 세포증식 억제효과 비교측정)

  • Kim, Sung-ho;Lee, Cha-soo
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.459-464
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    • 1990
  • Inhibitory effect of caffeine on NIH3T3 cell proliferation was studied by using [$^3H$]thymidine incorporation and a modified one-step silver staining technique. The latter technique shows argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region-associated proteins (Ag-NORs), which are seen in nuclei as black dots. The result was compared with the counts of [$^3H$] thymidine incorporation. The results were summarized as follows; 1. The Ag-NORs numbers of NIH3T3 cells were $6.81{\pm}1.38$ at 24 hrs, $7.13{\pm}1.26$ at 48 hrs, $8.50{\pm}2.04$ at 72 hrs after incubation. 2. The numbers of Ag-NORs were significantly decrease in caffeine treated groups (p<0.01). 3. The counts of [$^3H$] thymidine incorporation were similar to the result of using Ag-NORs staining technique. It is concluded that Ag-NOR is a rapid, simple and compatible method to quantitate cell proliferation as compared with [$^3H$]thymidine incorporation.

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마우스 및 랫트의 정상조직과 종양성 병변에서의 Nucleolar Organizer Regions (NORs)

  • 김성호;김태환;장자준
    • Environmental Mutagens and Carcinogens
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.135-145
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    • 1990
  • Silver-binding nucleolar organizer regions (Ag-NORs)염색법을 이용하여 in vivo 및 in vitro에서 발암과정과 관련된 세포증식능을 검토하였다. A/J마우스에 benzo (a) pyrene을 투여하여 유발된 폐선종, 폐선암 및 Sprague-Dawley랫트에 dimethylbenz (a) anthracene투여에 의해 발생된 유선의 선암세포에서 Ag-NORs의 염색상태를 정상 조직과 비교하여 또한 정상마우스 섬유모세포인 NIH3T3에서의 Ag-NORs의 수 및 DNA 증식 억제물질인 caffeine에 의한 변화를 관찰하였다. 은친화성 NOR과련 단백질은 핵내 흑색의 반점으로 나타났으며 정상 폐조직의 세포당 Ag-NORs 수치는 0.87+0.01였으며 양성종양인 폐선종세포 및 악성종양인 폐선암세포에서는 각각 2.33+0.02, 2.56+0.45 정상 유선조직의 세포당 Ag-NORs수치는 1.21+0.16였으며 악성종양인 선암세포는 3.91+0.11로써 종양성 병변에서 유의한 증가를 보였다 (P<0.005).

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Development of Anticancer Agents from Korean Medicinal Plants. Part 9. Antitumor Evaluation of Taraxaci Herba Extracts by Colormetric Methods. (한국산 생약으로부터 항암물질의 개발 (제9보). 비색분석법에 의한 포공령 추출물의 항암평가)

  • 한두석;이명호;최규은;백승화
    • Environmental Mutagens and Carcinogens
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.104-108
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    • 1998
  • In the present study, we have evaluated cytotoxic effects of Taraxaci Herba extract in human oral epitheloid carcinoma cells. An antitumor activity was measured by colorimetric assays using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and sulforhodamine protein B (SRB). The light microscopic study showed morphological changes, Ag-NOR (argyrophylic nucleolar organizer region) number and PAS positive reaction or the treated cells. These results obtained are as follows : MTT and SRB quantities were significantly decreased in cultured KB cells treated with 10$^{-2}$ /mg/ml and 10$^{-3}$ /mg/ml concentrations. The number of Ag-NORs were significantly decreased in cultured KB cells treated with 10$^{-2}$ /mg/ml and 10$^{-3}$ /mg/ml concentrations and the rate of Ag-NORs was shifted to left side (one Ag-Nounucleus was increased and five Ag-NORs/nucleus were decreased) by the high concentration. PAS reaction of cultured KB cells treated with 10$^{-2}$ /mg/ml and 10$^{-3}$ /mg/ml concentrations was negative. These results suggest that Taraxaci Herba retains a potential antitumor activity.

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Study on the Inhibitory Effects of Diallyl Sulfide and/or Diallyl Disulfide in the Rat Hepntocarcinogenesis (Diallyl Sulfide와 Diallyl Disulfide에 의한 랫드의 간암발생 억제효과에 관한 연구)

  • 김배환;이영순
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.3 no.4
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    • pp.279-287
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    • 1995
  • This study examined the anti-cancer effects of diallyl sulfide(DAS) and/or diallyl disulfide(DDS), major components of garlic oil, with the DEN-PH model in rats, by the numbers and areas per cm$^2$ of induced glutathion S-transferase placental form(GST-P) positive foci and silver-stained nucleolar organizer regions(Ag-NORs) counts per nuclei in liver as indicator. Sprague-Dawley(SD) rats were given the diethylnitrosamine(DEN, 200 mg/kg, i.p.) as initiator and 2 weeks later, in experiment 1, rats were treated with DAS(200 mg/kg, i.g.) and/or DDS(50 mg/kg, i.g.) for 6 weeks, respectively and concomitantly and also were given the same dose of DAS and/or DDS prior to DEN treatment for 2 weeks, and in experiment II, rats were treated with potential cancer promoter, 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF, 20 mg/kg, i.g.). The DAS and/or DDS were treated prior to 2-AAF for 8 weeks, respectively and concomitantly. Then the anti-promoting effects of DAS and/or DDS were assessed. All rats were subjected to the two-thirds partial hepatectomy(PH) at week 3 and sacrificed at week 8. In experiment I, DAS and/or DDS treatment only prior to DEN showed inhibition of the development of GST-P positive foci. In experiment II, DAS and/or DDS treatment prior to 2-AAF promotion showed obvious inhibition of the development of GST-P positive foci in numbers and areas and AgNORs counts. In conclusion, We found DAS and/or DDS had the preventive effects on the hepatocarcinogenesis in rats and the concomitant treatment had some additive effects compared with the each treatment and AgNORs counts correlated well with the preneoplastic hepatic lesion.

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Karyotype of Jeju Horse; G-, C- and NOR-banding (제주재래마의 핵형분석; G-, C- 및 NOR-banding)

  • Park, Jin-Sik;Cho, Byung-Wook;Sohn, Sea-Hwan
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.51 no.5
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    • pp.361-368
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    • 2009
  • This study was carried out to establish the standard karyotype of Jeju horse by G-, C- and AgNOR-banding patterns. Blood samples were collected from 37 Jeju horses and 24 Thoroughbred that had been raised at the National Institute of Subtropical Agriculture in Jeju. The lymphocytes were cultured in vitro and then chromosomes prepared. The diploid chromosome number of Jeju horse is 64, which consists of 31 pairs of autosomes and X, Y sex chromosomes. The Jeju horse has 13 pairs of metacentric/submetacentric and 18 pairs of acrocentric autosomes. The X chromosome is the fifth largest submetacentric, while the Y chromosome is one of the smallest acrocentric chromosomes. The G-banding pattern of Jeju horse chromosomes showed a light band at centromeres in all autosomes, and also exhibited a typical and identical banding pattern in each homologous chromosome. Overall chromosomal morphology and positions of typical landmarks of the Jeju horse were virtually identical to those of International Committee for the Standardization of the Domestic Horse Karyotype. C-bands of Jeju horse chromosomes appeared on centromeres of almost all autosomes, but chromosome 8 showed a heterochromatin heteromorphism. The NORs in Jeju horse chromosomes showed polymorphic patterns within breed, individuals and cells. By the AgNOR staining, the NORs were located at the terminal of p-arm on chromosome 1 and near centromeres on the chromosome 26 and 31. The mean number of NORs per metaphase was 4.68 in Jeju horse.

The Significance of AgNOR Count in Body Fluid - Differential between reactive mesothelial cells & malignant cells - (체액도말에서의 AgNOR수의 유의성 - 반응성 중피세포와 악성세포의 감별 -)

  • Paik, Seung-Sam;Hong, Eun-Kyung;Jang, Se-Jin;Park, Moon-Hyang;Lee, Jung-Dal
    • The Korean Journal of Cytopathology
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.129-134
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    • 1997
  • To distinguish reactive mesothelial cells from malignant cells in body fluid, we applied silver staining of nucleolar organizer regions(AgNORs) to ethanol fixed cytologic preparations. Fifty aspirated samples of benign(22 cases) and malignant(26 cases) body fluids were studied using the one step silver staining method. Two cytologically atypical samples were also included in the study. In malignant cases the mean AgNOR count was $3.56{\pm}0.81$, while in benign cases the mean AgNOR count was $2.02{\pm}0.33$. The difference of AgNOR counts between these two groups were statistically significant(p<0.001). The mean of atypical cases was 2.91. Both were diagnosed as malignant in follow-up cytology. In malignant effusions, there is statistically significant difference in AgNOR counts between cells forming complex papillae or clusters and singly scattered cells(p<0.05), $3.29{\pm}0.95\;and\;3.83{\pm}0.55$, respectively. We concluded that AgNOR count appears to be useful as a diagnostic tool especially when the cytologic differentiation is difficult.

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The carcinogenicity study of Folpet in rats (랫드에서 Folpet의 발암성에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Yong-soon;Cho, Jae-jin;Kang, Kyung-sun;Kim, Bae-hwan;Nam, Ki-hoan;Seo, Kwang-won;Kang, Seong-keun;Lim, Yun-kyu;Heo, Kang-jun
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.609-617
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    • 1994
  • This study was performed for assessing carcinogenicity of Folpet using medium-term carcinogenicity bioassay. Sprague-Dawley rats aged six weeks divided into four grout's and were initially given an intraperitoneal injection of diethylnirosamine at 200mg/kg body weight. Two weeks later, group 1(negative control) was treated with basal diet. A Folpet was given per oral administration to group 2(100 ppm) and goup 3(1,000 ppm). Group 4 was fed on water containing 0.05% phenobarbital sodium as a promtor for six weeks. At three weeks after beginning of the experiment, partial hepatectomy was performed in all rats. The tumor-promoting effects were examined by the numbers and areas per $cm^2$ of induced glutathion S-tranferase placetal form(GST-P) positive foci in liver, and silver stained nucleolar organizer regions(AgNORs) which have recently introduced as one of the indicators for the cell proliferative activity. As the results, Folpet didn't have tumor-promoting effects on GST-P positive foci developement and AgNORs during promoting stage after initiation, whereas phenobarbital sodium treatment group showed promoting effect. It was concluded that Folpet didn't have promoting effect at 500, 1,000 ppm using this midium-term carcinogenicity bioassay model.

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