• Title, Summary, Keyword: Airway Congestion

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A Study on Congestion Change of Dual Airways between Korea-China (한·중 항로 복선화 전후 혼잡도 변화 연구)

  • Cho, Jin Ho;Baik, Ho Jong;Chang, Jo Won
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Aviation and Aeronautics
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.7-13
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    • 2020
  • A significant growth in local air traffic volume is leading to airway congestion and flight delays especially for Incheon-China and Incheon-Europe sectors. A key method to increase the airway capacity is to place a supplemental airway parallel to the existing one and in cooperation between the aviation authorities between China and Korea, a dual airway track was implemented on December 6, 2018. Here, we use airline A's flight data to analyze the congestion change effect of the new airway. Results show total delay time to Europe is reduced 51% (13.4 to 6.6 minutes) as the delay distribution for 16-30 minutes, 31 minutes and greater decreased from 23.2% to 8.2% and 8.7% to 1.0% respectively. The delay to China also decreased but the drop is not as significant as flights to Europe. This is caused by the difference in flight distance, traffic volume, and characteristics of flights landing and transiting China. Flights to Europe show a broad distribution in altitude allocation and reduction in aircraft separation demonstrating the effectiveness of a dual airway track.

Multidisciplinary correction of anterior open bite relapse and upper airway obstruction

  • Gracco, Antonio;Perri, Alessandro;Siviero, Laura;Bonettid, Giulio Alessandri;Cocilovo, Francesco;Stellini, Edoardo
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.47-56
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    • 2015
  • A 27-year-old man presented an anterior open bite relapse. He had low tongue posture positioned anteriorly at rest and during swallowing and reported chronic difficulty in nose breathing. Head cone-beam computed tomography revealed nasal septum deviation, right turbinate hypertrophy, and left maxillary sinus congestion, which were thought to contribute to the breathing problem, encourage the improper tongue posture, and thereby cause the relapse. Multidisciplinary treatment involving an otorhinolaryngologist, an orthodontist, and a periodontist resolved the upper airway obstruction and corrected the malocclusion. The follow-up examination after 3 years 5 months demonstrated stable results.

Nasal Diseases and Its Impact on Sleep Apnea and Snoring (코질환과 수면무호흡증)

  • Kim, Chang-Hee;Rhee, Chae-Seo
    • Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.17-21
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    • 2004
  • Nasal congestion is one of the most common symptoms of medical complaints. Snoring is caused by vibration of the uvula and the soft palate. Nasal obstruction may contribute not only to snoring and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) but also impair application of continuous nasal positive airway pressure (CPAP), which is the most widely employed treatment for OSA. Total or near-total nasal obstruction leads to mouth breathing and has been shown to cause increased airway resistance. However, the exact role of the nasal airway in the pathogenesis of OSA is not clear and there is no consensus about the role of nasal obstruction in snoring and sleep apnea. Some reports have failed to demonstrate any correlation between snoring and nasal obstruction. On the other hand, opposing reports suggest that nasal disease may cause sleep disorders and that snoring can be improved after nasoseptal surgery. Reduced cross-sectional area causes increased nasal resistance and predisposes the patient to inspiratory collapse of the oropharynx, hypopharynx, or both. Discrete abnormalities of the nasal airway, such as septal deformities, nasal polyps, and choanal atresia and with certain mucosal conditions such as sinusitis, allergic rhinitis and inferior turbinate hypertrophy can cause snoring or OSA. Thus, these sources of nasal obstruction should be corrected medically or surgically for the effective management of OSA and adjunctive for CPAP.

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Effect of Smoking on Nasal Resistance (흡연이 비저항에 미치는 영향)

  • Oh, Cheon-Hwan;Kim, Jang-Wook
    • Korean Journal of Bronchoesophagology
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.113-118
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    • 1999
  • Background & Objectives : Nasal resistance which is halfly responsible for airway resistance is known to be influenced by hypoxia, hypercapnia, exercise, pregnancy, alcohol, ammonia and smoking. Smoking is a common part of our sociocultural environment and we have many a times been introduced to its various adverse effects, which have usually been more focused on lung problems. The purpose of this study is to determine any relationship between smoking and nasal resistance and to evaluate it's effective sites. Materials and Methods : Acoustic rhinometry was performed in 25 smokers and 25 nonsmokers who had no nasal symptoms nor abnormal rhinoscopic findings, and used an acoustic rhinometry to measure the distance from nose-piece to the C-notch, cross sectional area at the C-notch, and volume of the nasal cavity from nose-piece to 7cm. The authors compared the data between the two groups. Results : The cross sectional area at the C-notch was significantly decreased(p<0.05) in smoking group. The distance to the C-notch and the volume of nasal cavity were decreased likely in smoking group but there were no significant difference(p>0.05). Conclusion : Smoking reduced the cross sectional area at the C-notch, so increased the nasal resistance. The underlying mechanisms seems to be decreased nasal mucosal reactivity and congestion of the nasal mucosa. The authors believe there should follow more studies on pathophysiologic mechanisms and the histopathologic changes which involve the effect of smoking on nasal structures.

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Successful 20 hours Canine Allograft Preservation with new Solution Containing Triiodothyronine - Development of new lung preservation solution II - (삼요드티로닌을 포함한 폐보존액을 이용한 20시간 폐보존 - 새로운 폐 보존액의 개발 II -)

  • 성숙환;김영태;김주현
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.32 no.5
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    • pp.413-421
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    • 1999
  • Background: Ischemia reperfusion injury is known to contribute to the major causes of the early graft failure in lung transplantation. Triiodothyronine (T3) has been suggested to ameliorate ischemia reperfusion injury from both in vivo and in vitro experiments of various organs. Prospecting its beneficial effect for pulmonary allograft preservation, we made a new solution by adding T3 into the extracellular type dextran solution. Material and Method: Twelve adult mongrel dogs underwent left lung allotransplantation. Six donor dogs were flushed with the new solution(Group 1, n=6), and the remaining six were flushed with Euro-Collins solution to serve as controls(Group 2, n=6). Allografts were stored in each preservation solution for 20 hours at 4$^{\circ}C$. Left single lung transplantations were performed. The right pulmonary artery and the right main bronchus were clamped at 15 minutes after the reperfusion and maintained throughout the experiment to evaluate the transplanted left lung function. Result: Arterial carbon dioxide tension was better in group 1 than in group 2 throughout the experiment period and the difference was statistically significant at 2 hours after reperfusion(28.0${\pm}$3.0 mmHg and 53.1${\pm}$17.4 mmHg, p<0.05). The differences of arterial oxygen partial pressure, peak airway pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance showed no statistical significance. The malondialdehyde(MDA) level, measured from tissue obtained at 120 minutes after reperfusion showed no statistically significant difference. The tissue wet/dry ratio of group 1(649${\pm}$27 %) was significantly lower than that of group 2(686${\pm}$71 %, p<0.05). The microscopic examination revealed varying degrees of injury represented mainly by findings such as perivascular neutrophil infiltration, capillary hemorrhage and interstitial congestion. These findings were less severe in group 1 than those in group 2. Conclusion: The new solution demonstrated superior allograft preservation after 20 hour ischemia compared to Euro-Collins solution in canine single left lung transplantation model, these results suggest that T3 might be a promising agent for pulmonary allograft preservation.

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Effect of Thyroid Hormone on the Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in the Canine Lung (갑상선 호르몬이 잡견 폐장의 허혈-재관류 손상에 미치는 영향)

  • 김영태;성숙환
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.32 no.7
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    • pp.637-647
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    • 1999
  • Background: Ischemia-reperfusion injury is one of the major contributing causes of early graft failure in lung transplantation. It has been suggested that triiodothyronine (T3) may ameliorate ischemia-reperfusion injury to various organs in vivo and in vitro. Predicting its beneficial effect for ischemic lung injury, we set out to demonstrate it by administering T3 into the in situ canine ischemia-reperfusion model. Material and Method: Sixteen adult mongrel dogs were randomly allocated into group A and B. T3 $(3.6\mug/kg)$ was administered before the initiation of single lung ischemia in group B, whereas the same amount of saline was administered in group A. Ischemia was induced in the left lung by clamping the left hilum for 100 minutes. After reperfusion, various hemodynamic parameters and blood gases were analyzed for 4 hours while intermittently clamping the right hilum in order to allow observation of the injured left lung function. Result: Arterial oxygen partial pressure $(PaO_2)$ decreased 30 minutes after reperfusion and recovered gradually thereafter in both groups. In group B the decrease of $PaO_2$ was less marked than in group A. The recovery of $PaO_2$ was faster in group B than in group A. The differences between the two groups were statistically significant from 30 minutes after reperfusion $(125\pm34$ mmHg and $252\pm44$ mmHg, p<0.05) until the end of the experiment $(178\pm42$mmHg and $330\pm37$ mmHg, p<0.05). The differences in the arterial carbon dioxide pressure, airway pressure and lung compliance showed no statistical significance. The malondialdehyde (MDA) level, measured from the tissue obtained 240 minutes after reperfusion, was lower in group B $(0.40\pm0.04\mu$M) than in group A $(0.53\pm0.05\mu$M, p<0.05). The ATP level of group B $(0.69\pm0.07\mu$M/g) was significantly higher than that of group A $(0.48\pm0.07\mu$M/g, p<0.05). The microscopic exami nation revealed varying degrees of injury such as perivascular neutrophil infiltration, capillary hemorrhage and interstitial congestion. There were no differences in the microscopic findings between the two groups. CONCLUSION T3 has beneficial effects on the ischemic canine lung injury including preservation of oxygenation capacity, less production of lipid peroxidation products and a higher level of tissue ATP. These results suggest that T3 is effective in pulmonary allograft preservation.

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