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Allelopathic and Autotoxic Effects of Alfalfa Plant and Soil Extracts

  • Chon, Sang-Uk
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.49 no.1
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    • pp.7-11
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    • 2004
  • Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plants have been reported to be autotoxic as well as allelopathic. Laboratory and greenhouse experiments through petri-dish and pot test were conducted to determine autotoxic effects of alfalfa leaf and soil extracts on the germination or early seedling growth of alfalfa, and to evaluate allelopathic effects of alfalfa leaf residues on alfalfa, barnyard grass, com, eclipta and soybean. Alfalfa seed germination was delayed depending on aqueous extract concentration, with no difference in final germination after 48 hours. Alfalfa root length was more sensitive to the autotoxic chemicals from leaf extracts than was germination or shoot length. Root growth of alfalfa was significantly inhibited at extract concentration of more than 1 g dry tissue/L (g $\textrm{L}^{-1}$). Hypocotyl growth, however, was not affected by all the concentrations of leaf extracts. Soil extracts from 4-yr-old alfalfa stand significantly reduced alfalfa root length by 66%, while soil extracts from 0,1, and 3yr-old stand stimulated root length up to 14-32% over the control. Residue incorporation with dry matters of alfalfa leaf at 100 g $\textrm{kg}^{-1}$ reduced seedling length of several crop and weed species, ranging from 53 to 87% inhibition. Addition of nutrient solution into alfalfa leaf extracts alleviated alfalfa autotoxic effect. This result indicates alfalfa leaf and soil extracts or residues could exert autotoxic as well as allelopathic substances into soil environments during and after establishment.

Effect of Dietary Alfalfa Meal on Egg Yolk Cholesterol Content and Productivity in Laying Hens (산란계 사료에 대한 Alfalfa Meal의 첨가가 난황 콜레스테롤 및 생산성에 미치는 영향)

  • 안병기;정태영;김종민;이상진;김삼수;정선부
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.125-136
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    • 1992
  • This study was conducted to estimate the effect of dietary alfalfa meal on the contents of egg yolk cholesterol, the levels of egg yolk pigmentation and the performance of laying hens. Alfalfa meal which was alternated wheat bran was supplied 0, 3.5 and 7%, respectively. Total 192 brown laying pullets of 47 weeks old were randomly assigned to the wire cages from July 23 to October 7, 1991 for 10 weeks. The results obtained were summarized as follows : 1. The egg production was highest at 3.5% alfalfa meal level during the entire period. But there was no significant difference among treatments. 2. Egg weight increased in treatments 3.5 and 7% alfalfa meal supplementation significantly. (P<0.01). 3. Even though there was no significant difference, the daily egg mass was the highest at 3.5% of alfalfa meal level. 4. Daily feed intake was the highest at 3.5% of alfalfa meal level. However, feed conversion rate was the lowest among treatments. 5. The feed cost per kg egg mass in the treatment of 3.5% alfalfa meal was significantly lower than the other treatments. (P<0.05). 6. Shell thickness and shell weight in terms of egg shell quality were increased as the levels of alfalfa meal were increased. But there was no significant difference among treatments. 7, The egg yolk Pigmentation was improved significantly as the level of alfalfa meal was increased (P<0.01). 8.899 yolk cholesterol contents were decreased in the treatments of 3.5 and 7% alfalfa meal supplementation compared with those in the treatment of wheat bran only(P >0.05). The results of this study indicate that 3.5% alfalfa meal level was most effective and economical in laying hen.

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Allelopathic Influence of Alfalfa and Vetch Extracts and Residues on Soybean and Corn (알팔파와 베치의 추출물 및 잔유물의 콩과 옥수수에 대한 타감작용)

  • Ki-June Kim;III-Min Chung;Kwang-Ho Kim;Joung-Kuk Ahn
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.295-305
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    • 1994
  • Greenhouse and laboratory studies were conducted to investigate the allelopathic potential of alfalfa and vetch residues on soybean and corn using various extract concentrations (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%, w/v) and residue rates (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1%, w/w). Aqueous extracts of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and vetch (Vicia spp.) exhibited an allelopathic effect on soybean and corn seed germination, seedling length and weight. The degree of inhibition significantly increased as the aqueous extract concentration increased. Alfalfa and vetch 20% extracts reduced soybean seed germination, seedling length and weight by 35%, 57%, 32% and 15%, 42%, 25% respectively, when compared to control. Corn germination, seedling length and weight was inhibited by 20%, 23%, 38% by alfalfa and 19%, 18%, 35% by 20% vetch extracts. Alfalfa and vetch extracts inhibited secondary root formation and branching as the extract concentration increased. Alfalfa and vetch 20% extracts inhibited by 41% and 32% secondary root numbers, respectively as compared to control. It was found that the aqueous extract of alfalfa resulted in greater reduction in germination, seedling length and weight of soybean than that of vetch. Alfalfa and vetch 1% residue rate inhibited soybean plant height by 30% and 10%, leaf area by 31% and 23%, and dry weight by 18% and 1%, nodule number by 27% and 20% also. Alfalfa and vetch residue significantly enhanced plant height, leaf area and dry weight of corn. The maximum stimulation occurred with 0.25% and 1% of alfalfa and vetch residue rates, respectively. Plant height, leaf area, and dry weight increased by 23%, 59%, 58% and 17%, 52%, 94% with alfalfa and vetch residues of 0.25% and 1%, respectively. This study demonstrates that there is an allelopathic potential resulting from alfalfa and vetch residues on soybean growth and yield. It also suggests that these residues may affect crop growth and development due to the inhibitory or stimulatory effects of allelochemicals existing in the residue.

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Intake , Digestibility , Nitrogen and Energy Utilization by Goats Consuming oak Browse Supplementedwith Alfalfa (Alfalfa를 첨가한 갈참수엽급여 산양의 섭취량 , 소화율과 질소 및 에너지이용에 관한 연구)

  • 이인덕;이중해;이형석
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.291-296
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    • 1995
  • This study was conducted to determine the influence of alfalfa supplementation on intake, digestibility nitrogen and energy utilization in Korean native goats fed oak browse. This experiment was conducted by total collection method in laboratory, 1994. Diets included 100% oak bmwse(control), 75% oak browse+ 25% alfalfa and 50% oak browse + 50% alfalfa. Alfalfa supplemented diets were slightly higher CP(PO.O5). lignin (P<0.05) and tannin(P<0.05) contents than those control diets. Increasing levels of alfalfa supplementation, dry matter intake slightly increased, but no differences were observed in all diets. Digestibility for dry matter and cellular constituents showed higher for alfalfa supplemented diets than control diets(P<0.05), but NDF and ADF digestibility were similar for all diets. Alfalfa supplemented diets furnished higher dietary N, apparently digested N and retained N than did the control diets(P<0.05). Consumed energy slightly increased with increasing levels of alfalfa supplementation(P>0.05). DE was high(P<0.05) in alfalfa supplemented diets. but ME was similar for all diets. As above results, oak browse diets alone did not supply N and energy in excess of NRC recommended allowance for goats. Hence, goats fed oak browse with supplementation of protein sources such as alfalfa will be need to provides adequate nutrients.

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Effect of Lime and Phosphate Application on Growth and Nitrogen Fixation of alfalfa in Low Acid Soil (약산성 토양에서 석회와 인산시용이 Alfalfa의 생장 및 질소고정에 미치는 영향)

  • 최기춘;전우복
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.88-92
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    • 1994
  • This study was carried out to investigate the effects of lime(0, 250, 500 and 1,000 kg/lOa) and phosphate (0, 17 and 34 kg/lOa) applications on growth and nitrogen fixation of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). The phosphate applications improved(p<0.05) shoot, root and root nodule dry weight of Alfalfa and acetylene reduction activity of alfalfa with increasing levels of phosphate in the soil pH 6.2 at 7 and 12 weeks(ear1y bloom) after sowing, but these were not influnced with lime applications. Total nitrogen content of each part of alfalfa was increased with lime application, but was not significantly different by levels of lime application at 7 weeks after sowing. Application of phosphate did not affect total nitrogen content of each part of alfalfa. Total nitrogen contents of each part of alfalfa were not significantly different between lime and non-lime application at 12 weeks(ear1y bloom) after sowing but were decreased(p<0.05) with phosphate application(p< 0.05). These results suggest that lime(250 kg/lOa) and phosphate(34 kg/lOa) applications are effective for the growth and the nitrogen fixation of alfalfa at the soil pH 6.20.

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Effect of Alfalfa Plant Extracts on Germination and Early Seedling Growth of Forages

  • Chon, Sang-Uk;Choi, Seong-Kyu;Park, Sang-Won
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.45 no.5
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    • pp.310-315
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    • 2000
  • Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plants have been reported to contain water-soluble substances that are autotoxic as well as allelopathic. Laboratory experiment through a petri-dish assay with imbibed seeds was conducted to evaluate both autotoxic and allelopathic effects of alfalfa leaf extracts on the germination and early seedling growth of alfalfa, red clover, crested wheatgrass, and Russian wildrye. Alfalfa seed germination was delayed dependent on extract concentration, with no difference in final germination at 72 hours. Root growth of alfalfa was stimulated up to 14% above control at very low concentrations of both leaf and stem extracts of alfalfa and was significantly reduced at extract concentration of more than 0.5g dry tissue/L (${gL}_{-1}$). Leaf extracts were generally more autotoxic for root growth than were stem extracts. Hypocotyl growth was not affected by all the concentrations of both leaf and stem extracts. Root length of legumes was more sensitive to the autotoxic chemicals from leaf extracts than was germination or shoot length. Hypocotyl growth of two legume plants and plant height of two grasses were not influenced by extracts. Seed germination and root growth of legumes were more inhibited by aqueous extracts of alfalfa leaf than were those of grasses. This result indicates autotoxic effect of alfalfa leaf extracts seems to be greater than allelopathic effect.

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Effects of Surface-Applied Dairy Slurry on Herbage Yield and Stand Persistence: II. Alfalfa, Orchardgrass, Tall Fescue and Alfalfa-Orchardgrass

  • Min, D.H.;Vough, L.R.;Chekol, T.;Kim, D.A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.12 no.5
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    • pp.766-771
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    • 1999
  • The first paper of this series compared the effects of rates and frequencies of application of dairy slurry on herbage yields and stand persistence of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L.), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)-grass mixtures managed as a 4-cutting system. This paper compares the effects of rates and frequencies of application of dairy slurry on herbage yield and stand persistence of alfalfa, orchardgrass, tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), and alfalfa-orchardgrass mixture managed as a 5-cutting system. The results presented here are part of a larger study having a primary objective of comparing alfalfa, various grasses, and alfalfa-grass mixtures for utilizing nutrients from dairy slurry applied to established stands. A randomized complete block design with treatments in a split plot arrangement with four replicates was used. The main plots consisted of 9 fertility treatments: 7 slurry rate and frequency of application treatments, one inorganic fertilizer treatment, and an unfertilized control. The sub-plots were the forage species. Manure used for the study was composed from stored solids scraped from the alleyways of a free-stall dairy barn. Water was added to from a slurry having about 8 % solids. Slurry was pumped from the liquid spreader tank into 10.4 L garden watering cans for manual application to the plots. Herbage yields of alfalfa, tall fescue, and alfalfa-orchardgrass were generally not affected by slurry application rates and were not significantly different from the inorganic fertilizer treatment. Tall fescue significantly outyielded all other forage species at all manure and the inorganic fertilizer treatments in the second year when rainfall during the growing season was unusually high. Grasses generally had a greater response to manure applications than alfalfa and alfalfa-orchardgrass. Increasing rates of manure did not increase herbage yields of alfalfa and alfalfa-orchardgrass. Herbage yields within each species were not affected by frequency of application of the same total rate. Stand ratings of alfalfa, orcahrdgrass and alfalfa-orchardgrass were significantly lower for the very high manure application rate compared to the control treatment. Based upon the results of this study, multiple annual applications of slurry manure can be made onto these species at rates up to $1,700kg\;total\;N\;ha^{-1}\;yr^{-1}$ without detrimental effects on herbage yield and stand persistence.

Efficient Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Alfalfa Using Secondary Somatic Embryogenic Callus (알팔파의 이차 캘러스를 이용한 Agrobacterium에 의한 효율적인 형질 전환)

  • 이병현;원성혜;이효신;김기용;조진기
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.13-18
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    • 2000
  • An efficient method for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of forage crop alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) was established using secondary somatic embryogenic calli. Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHAlOl and a binary vector pIG121-Hm which has selection markers for kanamycin and hygromycin have been shown to be an efticient materials for alfalfa transformation. The secondary somatic embryogenic calli originated from hypocotyl explants of alfalfa were efficient infection materials for Agrobacterium EHAlOl and normally germinated into plantlets. The introduced gene (GUS) was constitutively expressed in all tissues of transgenic alfalfa with different expression levels. These results indicate that the use of pIG121-Hm vector, Agrobacterium EHAlOl and improved culture system of callus facilitate the transformation of alfalfa. (Key words : Agrobacterium, Alfalfa, Gene transfer, Transformation)

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Effect of Seed Leachates of 'Vernal' Alfalfa on Inhibition of Alfalfa Germination and Root Growth

  • Chon, Sang-Uk
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.134-138
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    • 2000
  • Most parts of alfalfa plant have been reported to contain autotoxic substances that inhibit seed germination and early seedling growth, however, the chemical(s) is not still studied much. Effect of seed leachates of 'Vernal' alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) was evaluated for inhibition of alfalfa germination and root growth through bioassay. Alfalfa seeds were extracted in 1 L deionized water for 1 h after soaking and the leachates caused to reduce root length of alfalfa significantly as the soaking time increased. Crude seeds at 4 g L$L^{-1}$ exudated autotoxins that reduce significantly root length by 34 % compared to the control, when the seeds soaked in deionized water for 24 h. However, the extracts did not affect final germination as well as speed of germination. Extracts from ground seeds significantly reduced speed of germination (GT 50) and root length. The results indicate that release of autotoxic substances from seeds during seed imbibition was increased with increase of soaking time and seed amount, and that autotoxicity was more occurred in ground seeds than in crude seeds.

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Effect of Alfalfa Extract, It's Concentration and Absorbents on Germination and Growth of Alfalfa (알팔파 추출물, 추출농도 및 흡착제 처리가 알팔파 발아와 생육에 미치는 영향)

  • Ill Min, Chung;Ki-June Kim
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.40 no.5
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    • pp.619-628
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    • 1995
  • Crude aqueous extracts from dried leaves, stems, roots, and flowers from both field grown and greenhouse grown alfalfa plants inhibited alfalfa seed germination and seedling growth. The degree of inhibition was greater in the field grown plant extracts. Flowers extract of field grown plant most inhibited alfalfa germination and seedling growth. In the concentration study, the highest concentration of extract (9.0%, w/v) significantly inhibited total alfalfa seed germination by 50% as compared to control. In partitioning study using pot hydroponic culture of plant biomass into leaves, stems, root, LAR products of LWR and SLA exhibited significant variation among four species. This result support that the inhibitory effect of autotoxic substances presenting in alfalfa tissue may be possible interference with the patitioning of biomass into leaf component relative to the total biomass produced by the alfalfa plant. Toxicity of extract was not reduced by adding activated charcoal, Dowex-50W, amberlite to the extract. Toxic substances existing in most plant tissues but mainly above ground foliage are water soluble and stable and may persist in old alfalfa fields. Thus, it is recommended to remove as much as possible of the above growth parts, especially vegetative stage, before one tries to re-establish alfalfa in former field of alfalfa.

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