• Title, Summary, Keyword: Alpha-synuclein

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Aggregation of α-Synuclein Induced by Oxidized Catecholamines as a Potential Mechanism of Lewy Body

  • Kim, Kyung-Sik;Kang, Jung-Hoon
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.26 no.8
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    • pp.1255-1259
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    • 2005
  • Lewy bodies (LBs) are neuronal inclusions that are closely related to Parkinson's disease (PD). The filamentous component of LB from patients with PD contains biochemically altered $\alpha$-synuclein. We have investigated the effect of the oxidized products of catecholamines on the modification of $\alpha$-synuclein. When $\alpha$-synuclein was incubated with the oxidized 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) or dopamine, the protein was induced to be aggregated. The oxidized catecholamine-mediated $\alpha$-synuclein aggregation was enhanced by copper ion. Radical scavengers, azide and N-acetyl cysteine significantly prevented the oxidized catecholamine-mediated $\alpha$-synuclein aggregation. The results suggest that free radical may play a role in $\alpha$-synuclein aggregation. Exposure of $\alpha$-synuclein to the oxidized products of catecholamines led to the formation of dityrosine. Antioxidant dipeptides carnosine, homocarnosine and anserine significantly protected $\alpha$-synuclein from the aggregation induced by the oxidized products of catecholamines.

Tissue Transglutaminase is Not Involved in the Aggregate Formation of Stably Expressed $\alpha$-Synuclein in SH-SY5Y Human Neuroblastoma Cells

  • Suh, Myung-Duk;Park, Chang-Ha;Kim, Sung-Soo;Kil, Myeng-Og;Lee, Geon-Hee;Johnson, Gail V. W.;Chun, Wan-Joo
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.27 no.8
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    • pp.850-856
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    • 2004
  • Intraneuronal deposition containing $\alpha$-synuclein is implicated in the pathogenesis of synuclein-opathies including Parkinsons disease (PD). Although it has been demonstrated that cytoplas-mic inclusions of wild type $\alpha$-synuclein are observed in the brain of PD patients and that $\alpha$-synuclein mutations such as A30P and A53T accelerate aggregate formation, the exact mech-anism by which $\alpha$-synuclein forms insoluble aggregates is still controversial. In the present study, to understand the possible involvement of tissue transglutaminase (tTG) in aggregate formation of $\alpha$-synuclein, SH-SY5Y cell lines stably expressing wild type or mutant (A30P or A53T) $\alpha$-synuclein were created and aggregate formation of $\alpha$-synuclein was observed upon activation of tTG. The data demonstrated that $\alpha$-synuclein negligibly interacted with tTG and that activation of tTG did not result in the aggregate formation of $\alpha$-synuclein in SH-SY5Y cells overexpressing either wild type or mutant $\alpha$-synuclein. In addition, $\alpha$-synuclein was not modi-fied by activated tTG in situ. These data suggest that tTG is unlikely to be a contributing factor to the formation of aggregates of $\alpha$-synuclein in a stable cell model.

Interaction of Human α-Synuclein with VTI1B May Modulate Vesicle Trafficking

  • Lee, Hak-Joo;Lee, Kyung-Hee;Im, Ha-Na
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.33 no.9
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    • pp.3071-3075
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    • 2012
  • Human ${\alpha}$-synuclein is the major component of the protein aggregates known as Lewy bodies or Lewy neurites, which define the intracellular lesions of Parkinson's disease. Despite extensive efforts, the physiological function of ${\alpha}$-synuclein has not yet been elucidated in detail. As an approach to defining its function, proteins that interacted with ${\alpha}$-synuclein were screened in phage display assays. The SNARE protein vesicle t-SNARE-interacting protein homologous 1B (VTI1B) was identified as an interacting partner. A selective interaction between ${\alpha}$-synuclein and VTI1B was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation and GST pull-down assays. VTI1B and ${\alpha}$-synuclein were colocalized in N2a neuronal cells, and overexpression of ${\alpha}$-synuclein changed the subcellular localization of VTI1B to be more dispersed throughout the cytosol. Considering the role played by VTI1B, ${\alpha}$-synuclein is likely to modulate vesicle trafficking by interacting with a SNARE complex.

Cerebral ischemic injury decreases α-synuclein expression in brain tissue and glutamate-exposed HT22 cells

  • Koh, Phil-Ok
    • Laboraroty Animal Research
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.244-250
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    • 2017
  • ${\alpha}$-Synuclein is abundantly expressed in neuronal tissue, plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, and exerts a neuroprotective effect against oxidative stress. Cerebral ischemia causes severe neurological disorders and neuronal dysfunction. In this study, we examined ${\alpha}$-synuclein expression in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced cerebral ischemic injury and neuronal cells damaged by glutamate treatment. MCAO surgical operation was performed on male Sprague-Dawley rats, and brain samples were isolated 24 hours after MCAO. We confirmed neurological behavior deficit, infarction area, and histopathological changes following MCAO injury. A proteomic approach and Western blot analysis demonstrated a decrease in ${\alpha}$-synuclein in the cerebral cortices after MCAO injury. Moreover, glutamate treatment induced neuronal cell death and decreased ${\alpha}$-synuclein expression in a hippocampal-derived cell line in a dose-dependent manner. It is known that ${\alpha}$-synuclein regulates neuronal survival, and low levels of ${\alpha}$-synuclein expression result in cytotoxicity. Thus, these results suggest that cerebral ischemic injury leads to a reduction in ${\alpha}$-synuclein and consequently causes serious brain damage.

Regulation of m-Calpain Activity by α-Synuclein and Its C-terminal Fragment (α-syn61-140)

  • Lee, In-Hwan;Kim, Hyun-Jin;Lee, Choong-Hwan;Paik, Seung R.
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.27 no.7
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    • pp.1001-1004
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    • 2006
  • The m-calpain activity hydrolyzing a fluorogenic substrate of N-Succinyl-Leu-Leu-Val-Tyr-7-amino-4-methylcourmarin (LLVY-AMC) was significantly stimulated by more than two-fold in the presence of 5$\mu$M $\alpha$synuclein at $15{^{\circ}C}$. The stimulation was also confirmed with azocasein. The stimulation of the peptide hydrolyzing activity required structural intactness of $\alpha$-synuclein since the C-terminally or N-terminally modified proteins such as $\beta$-synuclein, $\alpha$-syn1-97, and $\alpha$-syn61-140 did not increase the proteolytic activity. Instead, however, the N-terminally truncated $\alpha$-syn61-140 was shown to drastically suppress the calpain activity. Since the N-terminal truncation was known to be the primary cleaving event of calpain-mediated proteolysis of $\alpha$-synuclein and the $\alpha$-syn61-140 has been demonstrated to be resistant against the calpain digestion, it has been proposed that the intracellular calpain activity could be regulated in a reciprocal manner by $\alpha$-synuclein and its proteolyzed C-terminal fragment. Based on the results, a possible physiological function of $\alpha$-synuclein has been suggested as a calpain regulator which contains both stimulatory and inhibitory activities.

Valproic Acid Regulates α-Synuclein Expression through JNK Pathway in Rat Primary Astrocytes

  • Kim, Jung Nam;Kim, Min Kyeong;Cho, Kyu Suk;Choi, Chang Soon;Park, Seung Hwa;Yang, Sung-Il;Joo, So Hyun;Park, Jin Hee;Bahn, Geonho;Shin, Chan Young;Lee, He-Jin;Han, Seol-Heui;Kwon, Kyoung Ja
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.222-228
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    • 2013
  • Although the role of ${\alpha}$-synuclein aggregation on Parkinson's disease is relatively well known, the physiological role and the regulatory mechanism governing the expression of ${\alpha}$-synuclein are unclear yet. We recently reported that ${\alpha}$-synuclein is expressed and secreted from cultured astrocytes. In this study, we investigated the effect of valproic acid (VPA), which has been suggested to provide neuroprotection by increasing ${\alpha}$-synuclein in neuron, on ${\alpha}$-synuclein expression in rat primary astrocytes. VPA concentration-dependently increased the protein expression level of ${\alpha}$-synuclein in cultured rat primary astrocytes with concomitant increase in mRNA expression level. Likewise, the level of secreted ${\alpha}$-synuclein was also increased by VPA. VPA increased the phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and JNK and pretreatment of a JNK inhibitor SP600125 prevented the VPA-induced increase in ${\alpha}$-synuclein. Whether the increased ${\alpha}$-synuclein in astrocytes is involved in the reported neuroprotective effects of VPA awaits further investigation.

[ ${\alpha}$ ]Synuclein Induces Unfolded Protein Response Via Distinct Signaling Pathway Independent of ER-membrane Kinases

  • Kang, Shin-Jung;Shin, Ki-Soon;Kim Kwon, Yun-Hee
    • Animal cells and systems
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.115-120
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    • 2006
  • Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by selective degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Mutations in ${\alpha}$-synuclein have been causally linked to the pathogenesis of hereditary PD. In addition, it is a major component of Lewy body found in the brains of sporadic cases as well. In the present study, we examined whether overexpression of wild type or PD-related mutant ${\alpha}$-synuclein induces unfolded protein response (UPR) and triggers the known signaling pathway of the resulting endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in SH-SY5Y cells. Overexpression of wild type, A30P, and A53T ${\alpha}$-synuclein all induced XBP-1 mRNA splicing, one of the late stage UPR events. However, activation of ER membrane kinases and upregulation of ER or cytoplsmic chaperones were not detected when ${\alpha}$-synuclein was overexpressed. However, basal level of cytoplsmic calcium was elevated in ${\alpha}$-synuclein-expressing cells. Our observation suggests that overexpression of ${\alpha}$-synuclein induces UPR independent of the known ER membrane kinase-mediated signaling pathway and induces ER stress by disturbing calcium homeostasis.

Hyperglycemia aggravates decrease in alpha-synuclein expression in a middle cerebral artery occlusion model

  • Kang, Ju-Bin;Kim, Dong-Kyun;Park, Dong-Ju;Shah, Murad-Ali;Kim, Myeong-Ok;Jung, Eun-Jung;Lee, Han-Shin;Koh, Phil-Ok
    • Laboraroty Animal Research
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.195-202
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    • 2018
  • Hyperglycemia is one of the major risk factors for stroke. Hyperglycemia can lead to a more extensive infarct volume, aggravate neuronal damage after cerebral ischemia. ${\alpha}$-Synuclein is especially abundant in neuronal tissue, where it underlies the etiopathology of several neurodegenerative diseases. This study investigated whether hyperglycemic conditions regulate the expression of ${\alpha}$-synuclein in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced cerebral ischemic injury. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with streptozotocin (40 mg/kg) via intraperitoneal injection to induce hyperglycemic conditions. MCAO were performed four weeks after streptozotocin injection to induce focal cerebral ischemia, and cerebral cortex tissues were obtained 24 hours after MCAO. We confirmed that MCAO induced neurological functional deficits and cerebral infarction, and these changes were more extensive in diabetic animals compared to non-diabetic animals. Moreover, we identified a decrease in ${\alpha}$-synuclein after MCAO injury. Diabetic animals showed a more serious decrease in ${\alpha}$-synuclein than non-diabetic animals. Western blot and reverse-transcription PCR analyses confirmed more extensive decreases in ${\alpha}$-synuclein expression in MCAO-injured animals with diabetic condition than these of non-diabetic animals. It is accepted that ${\alpha}$-synuclein modulates neuronal cell death and exerts a neuroprotective effect. Thus, the results of this study suggest that hyperglycemic conditions cause more serious brain damage in ischemic brain injuries by decreasing ${\alpha}$-synuclein expression.

Transduced Tat-α-Synuclein Protects against Oxidative Stress In vitro and In vivo

  • Choi, Hee-Soon;Lee, Sun-Hwa;Kim, So-Young;An, Jae-Jin;Hwang, Seok-Il;Kim, Dae-Won;Yoo, Ki-Yeon;Won, Moo-Ho;Kang, Tae-Cheon;Kwon, Hyung-Joo;Kang, Jung-Hoon;Cho, Sung-Woo;Kwon, Oh-Shin;Choi, Jin-Hi;Park, Jin-Seu;Eum, Won-Sik;Choi, Soo-Young
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.253-262
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    • 2006
  • Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder and is characterized by the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Although many studies showed that the aggregation of $\alpha$-synuclein might be involved in the pathogenesis of PD, its protective properties against oxidative stress remain to be elucidated. In this study, human wild type and mutant $\alpha$-synuclein genes were fused with a gene fragment encoding the nine amino acid trans activator of transcription (Tat) protein transduction domain of HIV-l in a bacterial expression vector to produce a genetic in-frame WT Tat-$\alpha$-synuclein (wild type) and mutant Tat-a-synucleins (mutants; A30P and A53T), respectively, and we investigated the protective effects of wild type and mutant Tat-$\alpha$-synucleins in vitro and in vivo. WT Tat-$\alpha$-synuclein rapidly transduced into an astrocyte cells and protected the cells against paraquat induced cell death. However, mutant Tat-$\alpha$-synucleins did not protect at all. In the mice models exposed to the herbicide paraquat, the WT Tat-$\alpha$-synuclein completely protected against dopaminergic neuronal cell death, whereas mutants failed in protecting against oxidative stress. We found that these protective effects were characterized by increasing the expression level of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in the neuronal cells and this expression level was dependent on the concentration of transduced WT Tat-$\alpha$-synuclein. These results suggest that transduced Tat-$\alpha$-synuclein might protect cell death from oxidative stress by increasing the expression level of HSP70 in vitro and in vivo and this may be of potential therapeutic benefit in the pathogenesis of PD.

Decreased Expression of α-Synuclein, Nogo-A and UCH-L1 in Patients with Schizophrenia: A Preliminary Serum Study

  • Demirel, Omer Faruk;Cetin, Ihsan;Turan, Senol;Saglam, Tarik;Yildiz, Nazim;Duran, Alaattin
    • Psychiatry investigation
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.344-349
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    • 2017
  • Objective ${\alpha}$-synuclein, Nogo-A and Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1) have neuromodulatory roles for human brain. Therefore, abnormalities of these molecules are associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. Although some serum studies in the other disorders have been made, serum study of ${\alpha}$-synuclein, Nogo-A and UCH-L1 is not present in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Therefore, our aim was to compare serum levels of ${\alpha}$-synuclein, Nogo-A and UCH-L1 of the patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Methods Forty-four patients with schizophrenia who is followed by psychotic disorders unit, and 40 healthy control were included in this study. Socio-demographic form and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was applied to patients, and sociodemographic form was applied to control group. Fasting bloods were collected and the serum levels of ${\alpha}$-synuclein, Nogo-A and UCH-L1 were measured by ELISA method. Results Serum ${\alpha}$-synuclein [patient: 12.73 (5.18-31.84) ng/mL; control: 41.77 (15.12-66.98) ng/mL], Nogo-A [patient: 33.58 (3.09-77.26) ng/mL; control: 286.05 (136.56-346.82) ng/mL] and UCH-L1 [patient: 5.26 (1.64-10.87) ng/mL; control: 20.48 (11.01-20.81) ng/mL] levels of the patients with schizophrenia were significianly lower than healthy controls (p<0.001). Conclusion Our study results added new evidence for explaining the etiopathogenesis of schizophrenia on the basis of neurochemical markers.