• Title, Summary, Keyword: Alpine Musk Deer (Moschus sifanicus)

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Quantified Analyses of Musk Deer Farming in China: A Tool for Sustainable Musk Production and Ex situ Conservation

  • Meng, Xiuxiang;Gong, Baocao;Ma, Guang;Xiang, Leilei
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.24 no.10
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    • pp.1473-1482
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    • 2011
  • Adult male musk deer (Moschus spp.) secrete musk, a widely used ingredient in traditional Asian medicine and the international perfume industry. Musk deer are endangered due to historic over-utilization of musk and habitat loss. Musk deer farming, provides an important way of conserving musk deer and ensuring a sustainable musk supply. For over 50 years musk deer farming has been conducted in China with the endangered Alpine musk deer (Moschus sifanicus) the predominant farmed musk deer species. To date, few studies have examined the musk production of captive musk deer. This study analyzed musk-extraction data collected from 1997 to 2009 at Xinglongshan Musk Deer Farm, Gansu, China. The musk-extraction ratio (MER) of captive male musk deer was 90.30% (n = 732), while the annual average musk extraction (AME) per animal was $7.90{\pm}0.17\;g$ with the range from 0.00 g to 34.20 g (n = 732). The origin of the deer had an influence on AME and MER production, with male wild-captured (WC) individuals recording higher values (AME, $8.76{\pm}0.27\;g$, n = 272; MER, 93.75%, n = 272) than those of captive breeding (CB) males (AME: $7.39{\pm}0.22\;g$, n = 460; MER: 88.26%, n = 460). The origin of an individual's parents, however, did not influence AME and MER. Age also influenced musk production with the MER of 1.5-year-old males being 87.5% with an average musk production of $8.27{\pm}0.47\;g$ (n = 96). The peak period for musk production was from 1.5 to 8.5 years of age. The results of our study demonstrate musk deer farming could work as an effective measure to protect musk deer and provide sustainable musk resources, however, the musk production including MER and AME could be improved through optimizing the managing and breeding system in endangered musk deer farming.

Review of the taxonomy and CITES species lists in musk deer (CITES 분류에 의한 사향(麝香)의 기원 동물 분류 및 특성에 대한 고찰)

  • Chang, Mun Seog;Kim, Do Rim;Kim, Hyun Chul;Park, Seong Kyu
    • Herbal Formula Science
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.323-333
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    • 2016
  • Objectives : The purpose of this study was to investigate musk deer in taxonomic status and genus species. We investigated the characteristic of musk deer for medicinal usages. Methods : To identifications of musk deer on the taxonomic status and genus species, the literary investigation were conducted on the Korean, China, and Japan pharmacopoeia and published herbal books, CITES Species Lists too. Results : Musk deer placement in a separate family status is the Moschidae. M. chrysogaster Hodgson and M. sifanicus Przewalski was the same species. So, Alpine musk deer revised M. chrysogaster Hodgson[=M. sifanicus Przewalski]. Geographic distribution of M. moschiferus L. divided Sibirica group and himalaica group. Group himalaica contains three subspecies: Korean musk deer(M. moschiferus parvipes Hol.), Chinese musk deer(M. chrysogaster Hodgson), and Himalayan musk deer(M. leucogaster Hodgson). The genetic divergence between M. moschiferus L. and other species was clearly distinguished from the others. M. berezovskii Flerove was less than the others. However, the divergence among M. chrysogaster Hodgson, M. fuscus Li, and M. leucogaster Hodgson were quite low. Musk deers are mostly distributed around the high-plateau. Moschus were from Nepal, Bhutan, Russia, China. Forest musk deer(M. berezovskii Flerove) farming was conducted in China from 1950s. In the Korean hebal pharmacopoeia, Moschus include l-muscone($C_{16}H_{30}O$ : 238.40) over 2% for quantitative test. Conclusions : There are three species of musk deer, Siberian musk deer(M. moschiferus L.), forest musk deer(M. berezovskii Flerove), and Alpine musk deer(M. chrysogaster Hodgson) for medicinal usages.

Behavioral Aspects of Captive Alpine Musk Deer during Non-mating Season: Gender Differences and Monthly Patterns

  • Meng, Xiuxiang;Zhao, Changjie;Hui, Cenyi;Luan, Xiaofeng
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.24 no.5
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    • pp.707-712
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    • 2011
  • The objective of the present study was to determine gender-related and month-related behavioral differences in captive alpine musk deer. The study was conducted at Xinglongshan Musk Deer Farm (XMDF) of Xinglongshan National Nature Reserve in Gansu Province of western China. The integrated method of focal sampling and all occurrence recording was utilized to quantify the behavioural patterns of 45 captive alpine musk deer (Moschus sifanicus) during non-mating season (from August $1^{st}$ to October $25^{th}$), and the behavioural durations of 12 behavioural patterns such as standing-gazing were recorded. The behavioural modes were compared to explore the potential differences between females and males, and the monthly behavioural modes for males and females were analyzed. Our results showed that the captive female deer in XMDF could compensate the energy lost in pregnancy, parturition and lactation through improving its ingestive efficiency. In order to be more sensitive to the changing environment, females expressed more standing-gazing (SG: $67.38{\pm}12.69\;s$) and moving (MO; $27.41{\pm}5.02\;s$), but less bedding (BE: $42.32{\pm}11.35\;s$) than male deer (SG: $56.43{\pm}9.19\;s$; MO: $19.23{\pm}4.64\;s$; BE: $96.14{\pm}15.71\;s$). Furthermore, females perform more affinitive interaction (AI: $7.89{\pm}4.81\;s$) but less ano-genital sniffing (AS: $0.24{\pm}0.13\;s$) and agonistic behaviour (CI: $0.57{\pm}0.26\;s$) than males (AI: $1.45{\pm}1.09\;s$; AS: $0.45{\pm}0.29\;s$; CI: $1.42{\pm}0.67\;s$). The females expressed ingestion more in October ($132.31{\pm}27.47\;s$) than in August ($28.80{\pm}18.44\;s$) and September ($45.1{\pm}10.84\;s$), and the males performed Ano-genital sniffing (AS: $1.79{\pm}1.14\;s$) and self-directed behaviour (SD: $12.61{\pm}5.03\;s$) significantly more in October than in August (AS: 0 s; SD: $0.62{\pm}0.17\;s$) and September (AS: $0.02{\pm}0.01\;s$; SD: $0.17{\pm}0.15\;s$). Moreover, male musk deer increased the intension of ano-genital sniffing, agonistic behaviour and tail rubbing behaviour, which were related to sexual activities.