• Title, Summary, Keyword: Aluminum Tube

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A Study on Detection of a Critical Spot and the Securing Safety Method of CFRP Bicycle Forks by Finite Element Method (유한요소법을 이용한 CFRP 자전거 포크의 취약부 탐색 및 안전성 확보 방안 연구)

  • Lee, Su-Yeong;Lee, Nam Ju;Choi, Ung-Jae;Kim, Hong Seok;Shin, Ki-Hoon;Cheong, Seong-Kyun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Safety
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    • v.31 no.6
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    • pp.1-5
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    • 2016
  • A bicycle is one of the most popular sporting goods in view of a sport activity and a human health. Metallic materials such as steel, aluminum, etc. were mainly used to the bicycle fork in the past. Nowadays, the carbon fiber reinforced composite materials are widely used to the manufacturing of a bicycle fork to reduce the weight and to increase the efficiency. Safety is a most important design parameter of a bicycle fork even if the weight and cost reduction are important. Bicycle failure may happen at the critical spot of a bicycle fork and cause the accident. In this paper, the composite bicycle fork will be analyzed to secure the safety and detect a critical spot by using the finite element method with Tsai-Wu failure criterion. The stress data were obtained for the laminated composites with various number of plies and fiber orientation under the bending load. Thus, design concept of a bicycle fork was proposed to secure the safety of a bicycle. The finite element analysis results show that the connection area between a steer tube and a fork blade is critical spot, and 75 or more layers of 0 degree are needed to secure the safety of a bicycle fork.

A Study on the Image Quality of Mammography and the Average Glandular Dose (맘모그래피의 화질과 평균유선조직선량에 관한 검토)

  • Lee, In-Ja;Kim, Hak-Sung;Kim, Sung-Soo;Huh, Joon
    • Journal of radiological science and technology
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.47-55
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    • 2002
  • We came to the following conclusion as the results of experiment on the image quality of mammography and the average glandular dose using 4 apparatuses at 3 hospitals in Seoul. 1. Whereas the measurement of half value layer showed no differences among the apparatuses, the measurement by an attenuation curve method showed some differences by 5.9%. There were 9.1% differences in the measurement by aluminum conversion method. 2. The basic density of an automatic exposure control unit must be D = 1.40, but there was no automatic exposure unit adjusted precisely at any hospitals. The unit at the B hospital exceeded the allowable limit by ${\pm}0.15$. 3. In the photographing using an automatic exposure control unit and the management of an automatic film processor using a sensitometer, most automatic film processors were well kept. But in some cases the mean value of a fluctuation coefficient exceeded the allowable limit. There is a need for more cautious management. 4. The image quality of breast phantom photography was affected by the screen/film system among the hospitals. 5. The average glandular dose at a breast of 4.2 cm thickness depended on the tube voltage, In the case of Mo/Mo, it was measured $0.26{\sim}1.39\;mGy$ less than ACR standard 3.0 mGy.

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Generation Rate and Content Variation of Manganese in Stainless Steel Welding (스테인레스 강 용접중 발생하는 망간의 발생량 및 함량변화에 관한 연구)

  • Yoon, Chung Sik;Kim, Jeong Han
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.254-263
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    • 2006
  • Manganese has a role as both toxic and essential in humans. Manganese is also an essential component in the welding because it increases the hardness and strength, prevents steel from cracking of welding part and acts as a deoxidizing agent to form a stable weld. In this study, manganese generation rate and its content was determined in flux cored arc welding on stainless steel. Domestic two products and foreign four products of flux cored wires were tested in the well designed fume generation chamber as a function of input power. Welding fume was measured by gravimetric method and metal manganese was determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrophotometer. The outer shell of the flux cored wire tube and inner flux were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy to determine their metal compositions. Manganese generation rate($FGR_{mn}$) was increased as the input power increased. It was 16.3 mg/min at the low input power, 38.1 mg/min at the optimal input power, and up to 55.4 mg/min at the high input power. This means that $FGR_{mn}$ is increased at the work place if welder raise the current and/or voltage for the high productivity. The slope coefficient of $FGR_{mn}$ was smaller than that of the generation rate of total fume(FGR). Also, the correlation coefficient of $FGR_{mn}$ was 0.65 whereas that of FGR is 0.91. $FGR_{mn}$ was equal or higher in the domestic products than that of the foreign products although FGR was similar. From the electron microscopic analytical data, we concluded that outer shell of the wire was composed mainly of iron, chromium, nickel and less than 1.2 % of manganese. There are many metal ingredients such as iron, silica, manganese, zirconium, titanium, nickel, potassium, and aluminum in the inner flux but they were not homogeneous. It was found that both $FGR_{mn}$ and content of manganese was higher and more varied in domestic flux cored wires than those of foreign products. To reduce worker exposure to fumes and hazardous component at the source, further research is needed to develop new welding filler materials that improve the quality of flux cored wire in respect to these points. Welder should keep in mind that the FGR, $FGR_{mn}$ and probably the generation rate of other hazardous metals were increased as the input power increase for the high productivity.

A Scale-Up Test for Preparation of AlN by Carbon Reduction and Subsequent Nitridation Method (탄소환원질화법에 의한 AlN 제조 규모확대 시험결과)

  • Park, Hyung-Kyu;Kim, Sung-Don;Nam, Chul-Woo;Kim, Dae-Woong;Kang, Moon-Soo;Shin, Gwang-Hee
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Resources Recycling
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    • v.25 no.5
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    • pp.75-83
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    • 2016
  • AlN powder was prepared by carbon reduction and subsequent nitridation method through the scale-up experiments of 0.7 ~ 1.5 kg per batch. AlN powder was synthesized using the mixture of $Al_2O_3$ powder and carbon black at $1,550{\sim}1,750^{\circ}C$ for 0.5 ~ 4 hours under nitrogen atmosphere (flow rate of nitrogen gas: $10{\sim}40{\ell}/min$) at $2.0{\times}10^{-1}Torr$. Experimental results showed that $1,700{\sim}1,750^{\circ}C$ for the reaction temperature, 3 hr for reaction time, and $40{\ell}/min$ for the flow rate of nitrogen gas were the optimal conditions. Also, in order to remove carbon in the synthesized AlN, the remained carbon was removed at $650{\sim}750^{\circ}C$ for 1 ~ 2 hr using horizontal tube furnace. The results showed that 1 : 3.2 mol ratio of $Al_2O_3$ to carbon black, reaction temperature of $750^{\circ}C$, reaction time of 2 hours, rotating speed of 1.5 rpm under atmosphere condition were the optimal conditions. Under these conditions, high-purity AlN powder over 99% could be prepared: carbon and oxygen contents of the AlN powder were 835 ppm and 0.77%, respectively.

Reaction Characteristics of Kaolinite-based Additives and Alkali Salts (Kaolinite 계열의 첨가제와 알칼리염의 반응 특성)

  • Jun, HyunJi;Choi, Yujin;Shun, Dowon;Han, Keun-Hee;Bae, Dal-Hee;Rhee, Young-Woo
    • Clean Technology
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.221-227
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    • 2020
  • When the waste solid fuel (SRF, Bio-SRF) is burnt in a boiler, a problem occurs in the combustion process involving the alkali components (Na, K) contained in large amounts in the fuel. The alkaline component has a low melting point, which usually forms low melting point salt in the temperature of the furnace, with the resulting low melting point salts attaching to the heat pipe to form a clinker. Various additives are used to suppress clinker generation, and the additive based on the kaolinite has alkali-aluminum-silica to inhibit the clinker. In this study, the reactivity of the additives based on the kaolinite was compared. The additives utilized were R-kaolinite, B-kaolinite, and A-kaolinite. Also silica and MgO were sourced as the comparison group. The experimental group was employed as a laboratory-scale batch horizontal reactor. The additive and alkaline salts were reacted at a weight ratio of 1 : 1, and the reaction temperature was performed at 900 ℃ for 10 hours. The first measurement of HCl occurring during the experiment was performed 30 minutes after the detection tube was used, and the process was repeated every hour after the experiment. After the reaction, solid residues were photographed for characterization analysis by means of an optical microscope. The reaction characteristics of the kaolinite were confirmed based on the analysis results.

A Numerical Study on the Performance Analysis of a Solar Air Heating System with Forced Circulation Method (강제순환 방식의 공기가열식 태양열 집열기의 성능분석에 관한 수치해석 연구)

  • Park, Hyeong-Su;Kim, Chul-Ho
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.122-126
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    • 2017
  • The aim of this study was to develop a device for solving the heating problem of living space using heated air, utilizing a simple air heater type collector for solar energy. At the present time, this study assessed the possibility of a development system through theoretical calculations for the amount of available energy according to the size change of the air-heated solar energy collector. To produce and supply hot water using the heat energy of the sun, hot water at $100^{\circ}C$ or less was produced using a flat or vacuum tube type collector. The purpose of this study was to research the air heating type solar collector that utilizes heating energy with heating air above $75^{\circ}C$, by designing and manufacturing an air piping type solar collector that is a simpler type than a conventional solar collector system. The analysis results were obtained for the generated air temperature ($^{\circ}C$) and the production of air (kg/h) to determine the performance of air heating by an air-heated solar collector according to the heat transfer characteristics in the collector of the model when a specified amount of heat flux was dropped into a solar collector of a certain size using PHOENICS, which is a heat flow analysis program applying the Finite Volume Method. From the analysis result, the temperature of the air obtained was approximately $40.5^{\circ}C$, which could be heated using an air heating tube with an inner diameter of 0.1m made of aluminum in a collector with a size of $1.2m{\times}1.1m{\times}0.19m$. The production of air was approximately 161 m3/h. This device can be applied to maintain a suitable environment for human activity using the heat energy of the sun.

Packaging Technology for the Optical Fiber Bragg Grating Multiplexed Sensors (광섬유 브래그 격자 다중화 센서 패키징 기술에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Sang Mae
    • Journal of the Microelectronics and Packaging Society
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.23-29
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    • 2017
  • The packaged optical fiber Bragg grating sensors which were networked by multiplexing the Bragg grating sensors with WDM technology were investigated in application for the structural health monitoring of the marine trestle structure transporting the ship. The optical fiber Bragg grating sensor was packaged in a cylindrical shape made of aluminum tubes. Furthermore, after the packaged optical fiber sensor was inserted in polymeric tube, the epoxy was filled inside the tube so that the sensor has resistance and durability against sea water. The packaged optical fiber sensor component was investigated under 0.2 MPa of hydraulic pressure and was found to be robust. The number and location of Bragg gratings attached at the trestle were determined where the trestle was subject to high displacement obtained by the finite element simulation. Strain of the part in the trestle being subjected to the maximum load was analyzed to be ${\sim}1000{\mu}{\varepsilon}$ and thus shift in Bragg wavelength of the sensor caused by the maximum load of the trestle was found to be ~1,200 pm. According to results of the finite element analysis, the Bragg wavelength spacings of the sensors were determined to have 3~5 nm without overlapping of grating wavelengths between sensors when the trestle was under loads and thus 50 of the grating sensors with each module consisting of 5 sensors could be networked within 150 nm optical window at 1550 nm wavelength of the Bragg wavelength interrogator. Shifts in Bragg wavelength of the 5 packaged optical fiber sensors attached at the mock trestle unit were well interrogated by the grating interrogator which used the optical fiber loop mirror, and the maximum strain rate was measured to be about $235.650{\mu}{\varepsilon}$. The modelling result of the sensor packaging and networking was in good agreements with experimental result each other.

Quantitative Analysis of Digital Radiography Pixel Values to absorbed Energy of Detector based on the X-Ray Energy Spectrum Model (X선 스펙트럼 모델을 이용한 DR 화소값과 디텍터 흡수에너지의 관계에 대한 정량적 분석)

  • Kim Do-Il;Kim Sung-Hyun;Ho Dong-Su;Choe Bo-young;Suh Tae-Suk;Lee Jae-Mun;Lee Hyoung-Koo
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.202-209
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    • 2004
  • Flat panel based digital radiography (DR) systems have recently become useful and important in the field of diagnostic radiology. For DRs with amorphous silicon photosensors, CsI(TI) is normally used as the scintillator, which produces visible light corresponding to the absorbed radiation energy. The visible light photons are converted into electric signal in the amorphous silicon photodiodes which constitute a two dimensional array. In order to produce good quality images, detailed behaviors of DR detectors to radiation must be studied. The relationship between air exposure and the DR outputs has been investigated in many studies. But this relationship was investigated under the condition of the fixed tube voltage. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the DR outputs and X-ray in terms of the absorbed energy in the detector rather than the air exposure using SPEC-l8, an X-ray energy spectrum model. Measured exposure was compared with calculated exposure for obtaining the inherent filtration that is a important input variable of SPEC-l8. The absorbed energy in the detector was calculated using algorithm of calculating the absorbed energy in the material and pixel values of real images under various conditions was obtained. The characteristic curve was obtained using the relationship of two parameter and the results were verified using phantoms made of water and aluminum. The pixel values of the phantom image were estimated and compared with the characteristic curve under various conditions. It was found that the relationship between the DR outputs and the absorbed energy in the detector was almost linear. In a experiment using the phantoms, the estimated pixel values agreed with the characteristic curve, although the effect of scattered photons introduced some errors. However, effect of a scattered X-ray must be studied because it was not included in the calculation algorithm. The result of this study can provide useful information about a pre-processing of digital radiography.

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The Study of Affecting Image Quality according to forward Scattering Dose used Additional Filter in Diagnostic Imaging System (부가필터 사용 시 전방 산란선량에 따른 화질 영향에 대한 연구)

  • Choi, Il-Hong;Kim, Kyo-Tae;Heo, Ye-Ji;Park, Hyong-Hu;Kang, Sang-Sik;Noh, Si-Cheol;Park, Ji-Koon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology
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    • v.10 no.8
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    • pp.597-602
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    • 2016
  • Recent clinical field utilizes the aluminium filter in order to reduce the low-energy photons. However, the usage of the filter can cause adverse effect on the image quality because of the scattered dose that is generated by X-ray hardening phenomenon. Further, usage of filter with improper thickness can be a reason of dose creep phenomenon where unnecessary exposure is generated towards the patient. In this study, the author evaluated the RMS and the RSD analysis in order to have a quantitative evaluation for the effect of forward scattering dose by the filter on the image. as a result of the study, the FSR and the RSD was increased together with the increasing of thickness of the filter. In this study the RSD means the standard deviation of the mean value is relatively size. It can be understood that the signal-to-noise ratio decreases when the average value is taken as a signal and the standard deviation is judged as a noise. The signal-to-noise ratio can understanding as index of resolution at image. Based on these findings, it was quantitatively verified that there is a correlation of the image quality with the FSR by using an additional filter. The results, a 2.5 mmAl which is as recommended by NCRP in the tube voltage of 70 kVp or more showed the 14.6% on the RSD when the filter was not in used. these results are considered able to be utilized as basic data for the study about the filter to improve the quality of the image.