• Title, Summary, Keyword: Aluminum Tube

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Buckling behavior of shape-memory alloy tube (형상기억합금 튜브의 buckling 거동)

  • Choi, Jeom-Yong
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Technology of Plasticity Conference
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    • pp.378-381
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    • 2008
  • The buckling behavior of cylindrical shape-memory alloy and aluminum tube is investigated at room temperature using a split Hopkinson pressure bar and an Instron hydraulic machine with a specially designed recording system. The shape-memory alloy at superelastic property regime buckles gradually in quasi-static loading, and fully recovers upon unloading. However, the buckling of aluminum tube is sudden and catastrophic, and shows permanent deformation. This gradual buckling of shape-memory alloy is associated with the forward and reverse transformation of stress-induced martensite and seems to have a profound effect on the unstable deformation of tube structures made from shape-memory alloy.

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Aluminum Equivalent Filter As an Inexpensive Alternative to the Niobium Filter in Reducing Patient Dose (환자에게 주는 선량을 감소시켜주는 니오비움 필터의 대체물로서의 저렴한 알루미늄 필터)

  • Kim, Chang-Sean
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.3-12
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    • 1995
  • A 50 $\mu\textrm{m}$ thick niobium filter and its quantitatively determined aluminum equivalent filter were evaluated for effects on entrance skin dose, image quality, and x-ray tube loading for three different tube voltages in radiology. There was no significant difference in the reducion in entrance skin dose and increase in tube loading between two filters while keeping radiographic contrast on the film. For the clinical use of the aluminum equivalent filter as an alternative to the niobium filter in radiology, aluminum equivalent filter thickness at the mid energy range of radiology, 90 kVp, was measured and the filter was applied to the other kVp values, 73 and 125 kVps, to evaluate the effect on the entrance skin dose and tube loading. There was no significant difference between two filter cases at the selected kVp. The aluminum filter with equivalent thickness can be used as an inexpensive alternative to the niobium filter.

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Fabrication and Evaluation of 5 vol%CNT/Al Composite Material by a Powder in Sheath Rolling Method (분말시스압연법에 의한 5 vol%CNT/Al 복합재료의 제조 및 평가)

  • Hong, Dongmin;Kim, Woo-Jin;Lee, Seong-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
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    • v.23 no.11
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    • pp.607-612
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    • 2013
  • A powder in sheath rolling method was applied to the fabrication of a carbon nano tube (CNT) reinforced aluminum composite. A 6061 aluminum alloy tube with outer diameter of 31 mm and wall thickness of 2 mm was used as a sheath material. A mixture of pure aluminum powder and CNTs with a volume content of 5% was filled in the tube by tap filling and then processed to an 85% reduction using multi-pass rolling after heating for 0.5 h at $400^{\circ}C$. The specimen was then further processed at $400^{\circ}C$ by multi-pass hot rolling. The specimen was then annealed for 1 h at various temperatures that ranged from 100 to $500^{\circ}C$. The relative density of the 5vol%CNT/Al composite fabricated using powder in sheath rolling increased with increasing of the rolling reduction, becoming about 97% after hot rolling under 96 % total reduction. The relative density of the composite hardly changed regardless of the increasing of the annealing temperature. The average hardness also had only slight dependence on the annealing temperature. However, the tensile strength of the composite containing the 6061 aluminum sheath decreased and the fracture elongation increased with increasing of the annealing temperature. It is concluded that the powder in sheath rolling method is an effective process for fabrication of CNT reinforced Al matrix composites.

A Comparison of Flow Condensation HTCs of R22 Alternatives in the Multi-Channel Tube (다채널 알루미늄 평판관내 R22와 R134a의 흐름 응축 열전달 성능 비교)

  • 서영호;박기정;정동수
    • Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering
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    • v.16 no.6
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    • pp.589-598
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    • 2004
  • Flow condensation heat transfer coefficients (HTCs) of R22 and R134a were measured on a horizontal 9 hole aluminum multi-channel tube. The main test section in the refrigerant loop was made of a flat multi-channel aluminum tube of 1.4 mm hydraulic diameter and 0.53 m length. Refrigerant was cooled by passing cold water through an annulus surrounding the test section. Data were obtained in the vapor qualities of 0.1∼0.9 at mass flux of 200∼400 kg/$m^2$s and heat flux of 7.3∼7.7 ㎾/$m^2$ at the saturation temperature of 4$0^{\circ}C$. All popular correlations in single-phase subcooled liquid and flow condensation originally developed for large single tubes predicted the present data of the flat tube within 20% deviation when effective heat transfer area is used in determining experimental data. This suggests that there is little change in flow characteristics and patterns when the tube diameter is reduced down to 1.4 mm diameter range. Thermal insulation for the outer tube section surrounding the test tube for the transport of heat transfer fluid is very important in fluid heat-ing or cooling type heat transfer experimental apparatus.

The effects of the surface defects on the hydroformability of extruded aluminum tubes (알루미늄 압출 관재의 표면 결함이 하이드로포밍 성형에 미치는 영향도에 관한 연구)

  • Kim D. H.;Kim B. J.;Park K. S.;Moon Y. H.
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Technology of Plasticity Conference
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    • pp.247-250
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    • 2005
  • The need for improved fuel efficiency, weight reduction has motivated the automotive industry to focus on aluminum alloys as a replacement for steel-based alloy. To cope with the needs for high structural rigidity with low weight, it is forecasted that substantial amount of cast components will be replaced by tubular parts which are mainly manufactured by the extruded aluminum tubes. The extrusion process is utilized to produce tubes and hollow sections. Because there is no weld seam, the circumferential mechanical properties may be uniform and advantageous for hydroforming. However the possibility of the occurrence of a surface defect is very high, especially due to the temperature increase from forming at high pressure when it comes out of the bearing and the roughness of the bearing, which cause the surface defects such as the dies line and pick-up. And when forming a extruded aluminum tube, the free surface of the tube becomes rough with increasing plastic strain. This is well known as orange peel phenomena and has a great effect not only on the surface quality of a product but also on the forming limit. In an attempt to increase the forming limit of the tubular specimen, in the present paper, surface asperities generated during the hydroforming process are polished to eliminate the weak positions of the tube which lead to a localized necking. It is shown that the forming limit of the tube can be considerably improved by simple method of polishing the surface roughness during hydroforming. And also the extent of the crack propagation caused by dies lines generated during the extrusion process is evaluated according to the deformed shape of the tube.

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Bending Behaviors of Stainless Steel Tube Filled with Al5Si4Cu4Mg Closed Cell Aluminum Alloy Foam (발포 Al5Si4Cu4Mg 알루미늄 합금이 충진된 304 스테인리스강 원통의 굽힘저항 특성)

  • Kim, Am-Kee;Lee, Hyo-Jin;Cho, Seong-Seock
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A
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    • v.27 no.10
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    • pp.1686-1694
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    • 2003
  • The foam-filled tube beams can be used for the front rail and firewall structures to absorb impact energy during frontal or side collision of vehicles. In the case of side collision where bending is involved in the crushing mechanism, the foam filler would be effective in maintaining progressive crushing of the thin-walled structures so that much impact energy could be absorbed. In this study, bending behaviors of the closed-cell-aluminum-alloy-foam-filled stainless steel tube were investigated. The various foam-filled specimens including piecewise fillers were prepared and tested. The aluminum-alloy-foam filling offered the significant increase of bending resistance. Their suppression of the inward fold formation at the compression flange as well as the multiple propagating folds led to the increase of load carrying capacity of specimens. Moreover, the piecewise foams would provide the easier way to fill the thin-walled shell structures without the drawback of strength.

Fabrication and Evaluation of Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Al Matrix Composite by a Powder-in-sheath Rolling Method (분말시스압연법에 의한 CNT 강화 Al기 복합재료의 제조 및 평가)

  • Lee, Seong-Hee;Hong, Dongmin
    • Journal of Korean Powder Metallurgy Institute
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.50-54
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    • 2014
  • A powder-in-sheath rolling method was applied to a fabrication of a carbon nano tube (CNT) reinforced aluminum composite. A STS304 tube with an outer diameter of 34 mm and a wall thickness of 2 mm was used as a sheath material. A mixture of pure aluminum powders and CNTs with the volume contents of 1, 3, 5 vol was filled in the tube by tap filling and then processed to 73.5% height reduction by a rolling mill. The relative density of the CNT/Al composite fabricated by the powder-in-sheath rolling decreased slightly with increasing of CNTs content, but exhibited high value more than 98. The grain size of the aluminum matrix was largely decreased with addition of CNTs; it decreased from $24{\mu}m$ to $0.9{\mu}m$ by the addition of only 1 volCNT. The average hardness of the composites increased by approximately 3 times with the addition of CNTs, comparing to that of unreinforced pure aluminum. It is concluded that the powder-in-sheath rolling method is an effective process for fabrication of CNT reinforced Al matrix composites.

A novel approach for manufacturing oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel cladding tubes using cold spray technology

  • Maier, Benjamin;Lenling, Mia;Yeom, Hwasung;Johnson, Greg;Maloy, Stuart;Sridharan, Kumar
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.51 no.4
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    • pp.1069-1074
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    • 2019
  • A novel fabrication method of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel cladding tubes for advanced fast reactors has been investigated using the cold spray powder-based materials deposition process. Cold spraying has the potential advantage for rapidly fabricating ODS cladding tubes in comparison with the conventional multi-step extrusion process. A gas atomized spherical 14YWT (Fe-14%Cr, 3%W, 0.4%Ti, 0.2% Y, 0.01%O) powder was sprayed on a rotating cylindrical 6061-T6 aluminum mandrel using nitrogen as the propellant gas. The powder lacked the oxygen content needed to precipitate the nanoclusters in ODS steel, therefore this work was intended to serve as a proof-of-concept study to demonstrate that free-standing steel cladding tubes with prototypical ODS composition could be manufactured using the cold spray process. The spray process produced an approximately 1-mm thick, dense 14YWT deposit on the aluminum-alloy tube. After surface polishing of the 14YWT deposit to obtain desired cladding thickness and surface roughness, the aluminum-alloy mandrel was dissolved in an alkaline medium to leave behind a free-standing ODS tube. The as-fabricated cladding tube was annealed at $1000^{\circ}C$ for 1 h in an argon atmosphere to improve the overall mechanical properties of the cladding.

Joint Design of Steel-Aluminum Power Steering Cylinder by using FE Analysis with Cohesive Zone Model (Cohesive Zone Model을 이용한 동력조향 유압실린더의 스틸-알루미늄 접착부 설계)

  • Lee, C.J.;Lee, S.K.;Ko, D.C.;Schafer, H.;Lee, J.M.;Kim, B.M.
    • Transactions of Materials Processing
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    • v.18 no.5
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    • pp.385-391
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    • 2009
  • An adhesively bonded power steering cylinder with a steel tube and an aluminum bracket was developed to reduce the weight of steering systems. To achieve the joint strength between the steel tube and of the aluminum bracket, the shape aluminum bracket re-designed by using the FE-analysis. Fracture behavior of the adhesive layer was considered by a cohesive zone model(CZM), which is based on the two-parameter fracture phenomenon with critical stress and fracture toughness. From the result of FE-analysis with CZM, re-designed power steering cylinder satisfied the desired joint strength for axial and torsion modes. And its joint strength was verified by the fracture test in each mode.

Hot Metal Extru-Bending Process for Curved Aluminum Tube Products with Circular or Rectangular Sections (원형 또는 사각 단면을 가지는 알루미늄 곡관 튜브제품의 열간금속압출굽힘가공)

  • Park D. Y;Jin I. T
    • Transactions of Materials Processing
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    • v.13 no.8
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    • pp.663-670
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    • 2004
  • The bending phenomenon has been known to be occurred by the difference of velocity at the die exit. The difference of velocity at the die exit section can be obtained by the different velocity of billets through the multi-hole container. The difference of velocity at the die exit can be controlled by the two variables, the one of them is the different velocity of extrusion punch through the multi-hole container, the other is the difference of hole diameter of muliti-hole container. In this paper the difference of hole diameter is applied. So it can bend during extruding products because of the different amount of two billets when billets would be bonded in the porthole dies cavity. And the bending curvature can be controlled by the size of holes. The experiments with aluminum material for the curved tube product had been done for circular or rectangular curved tube section. The results of the experiments show that the curved tube product can be formed by the extru-bending process without the defects such as distortion of section and thickness change of wall of tube and folding and wrinkling. The curvature of product can be controlled by shape of cross section and the difference of billet diameters. And it is known that the bonding and extruding and bending process can be done simultaneously in the die cavity by the experiments that rectangular hollow curved tubes could be extruded by porthole dies with four different size billets made of aluminum material. And it shows that bending phenomenon can happen during extruding with for different billets from the analysis by DEFORM-3D.