• Title, Summary, Keyword: Amino Acids

Search Result 4,956, Processing Time 0.051 seconds

Changes of Components Affecting Organoleptic Quality during the Ripening of Korean Traditional Soy Sauce -Amino Nitrogen, Amino Acids, and Color (한국 전통 간장의 숙성중 관능적 품질에 미치는 성분의 변화 -아미노산성질소, 아미노산 및 색도를 중심으로)

  • 김종규
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
    • /
    • v.30 no.1
    • /
    • pp.22-28
    • /
    • 2004
  • This study was performed to investigate the changes of amino nitrogen, total amino acids, free amino acids, and color of Korean traditional soy sauce (kan-jang) during the ripening and storage for 12 months and the characteristics of the changes. All of the preparation methods for soy sauce followed the recommendations of the Korea Food Research Institute. The components of soy sauce were analyzed at 0,6, and 12 months. The contents of amino nitrogen of soy sauce were significantly higher than that of soybeans or meju (soybean cakes) at the initial stage of storage (p<0.05), and decreased during the storage. The content of total amino acids of soybean sauce was significantly lower than that of soybeans, and the content of free amino acids was higher than that of soybeans (p<0.05). The contents of total and free amino acids decreased in soy sauce after 12 months of storage (p<0.05). The composition of total and free amino acids and their ratios of soy sauce were changed during the storage. The ratios of free to total amino acids of soybeans, meju, and soy sauce were 0.8%, 17.3%, and 53.1-59.8%, respectively. Glutamic acid, which represents the savory taste, was detected the most abundantly in soy sauce during the storage. The ratios of free to total amino acids of glutamic acid were 42.9-59.5% in soy sauce. Lightness of Hunter color of soy sauce decreased over time (p<0.05). This study indicates that the ratios of free to total amino acids of soy sauce were much higher than those of soybeans, although its contents of total amino acids were much lower than those of soybeans. This study also indicates that this comes from the preparation and fermentation of meju. It was suspected that the organoleptic characteristics of soy sauce derived from the amino nitrogen, amino acids, and color might be inferior over 1 year of storage time. However, more detailed research should be conducted to interpretate this characteristics more accurately.

A Study on the Analysis of Amino Acids in Korean Ginseng (韓國人蔘의 年根別 및 貯藏期間別 아미노酸分析)

  • Rhee, Seong-Hong;Zong, Moon-Shik
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
    • /
    • v.9 no.2
    • /
    • pp.37-53
    • /
    • 1983
  • The contents of amino acids were examined in the 3, 4, 5, and 6 year-old roots of fresh ginseng and the 1979, 1980, 1981, and 1982 years' products of white and red ginsengs. Samples extracted with 75% ethanol for free amino acids and hydrolyzed with 6N-HCL for total amino acids were analyzed by Amino Acid Analyzer (Hitachi model KLA-5). The results were summarized as follows: 1. Amino acids from extracted samples were 18 kinds of Tryptophan, Lysine, Histidine, Arginine, Aspartic acid, Threonine, Serine, Glutamic acid, Proline, Glycine, Alanine, Cystine, Valine, Methionine, Isoleucine, Leucine, Tyrosine, and Phenylalanine. 2. Amino acids detected in hydrolyzed samples were 17 kinds execpt Tryptophan of extracted ones. 3. Arginine was the highest quantity of amino acids in ginseng. 4. The content of Tryptophan was 0.5690 mg/g in the 6 year-old fresh ginseng and trace quantities in other samples. 5. The contents of amino acids were increased in fresh ginseng according to cultivation year. 6. The contents of amino acids in white ginseng were slightly decreased but those in red ginseng were not changed during the storage time. 7. The content ratio of free amino acids to total amino acids were 1:3.

  • PDF

Studies on the Constituents of Higher Fungi of Korea (한국산 고등 균류의 성분에 관한 연구)

  • 이규선
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
    • /
    • v.23 no.3_4
    • /
    • pp.153-158
    • /
    • 1979
  • Free amino acids in extracts and total amino acids in hydrolysates of eight species of higher fungi were analyzed by an amino acid autoanalyzer. Twenty amino acids were analyzed in eight species of higher fungi. 1) of all free amino acids contained in higher fungi, alanine is the richest, and then comes glutamic acid, serine, arginine, proline and histidine in that order. Of all total amino acids contained in higher fungi, glutamic acid is the richest, and then comes proline, valine, aspartic acid, alanine, leucine in that order. Especially Russula fragilis and Lepiota procera contain large quantity of glutamic acid. 2) Gross contents of free amino acids in the extracts is high in order of Lepiota procera, Phylloporus rhodoxanthus, Russula fragilis, Tylopilus felleus and total amino acids in hydrolysates is high in Phylloporus rhodoxanthus, Lepiota procera, Russula fragilis, Lentinus lepideus. 3) Total amount of essential amino acids in the extracts was high in Lepiota procera, Phylloporus rhodoxanthus, Tylopilus felleus, Xylaria hypoxylon, Lentinus lepideus, Russula fragilis, Lactarius piperatus and Calocybe gambosa and in the hydrolysates of Phylloparus rhodoxanthus, Russula fragilis, Lepiota procera, Tylopilus felleus, Lentinus lepideus, Lactarius piperatus, Calocybe gambosa and Xylaria hypoxylon in that order, respectively.

  • PDF

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF FREE AMINO ACIDS IN HEALTHY AND VIRUS DISEASED CHINESE DATE TREE (Virus에 감염된 대추나무의 병엽과 건전엽에 있어서의 유이 amino산의 정성적 비교)

  • Hong, Soon-Woo;Hah, Yung-Chil
    • Journal of Plant Biology
    • /
    • v.4 no.1
    • /
    • pp.9-11
    • /
    • 1961
  • A comparative investigation of free amino acids content in healthy check and virus diseased leaves of Chinese date tree, Zyzyphus jujuqa Mill var. inermis Rhed, was carried out by authors throughout the growing season of 1959 and 1960 from June to October. The methods of qualitative analysis of free amino acids aplied in this experiment is followed by Moore and Stein. Free amino acids determined in this experiment are shown in Fig. 1 and Table 1. As the figure and the table are shown, three more amino acids such as glutamine, asparagine and histidine are detected in the diseased material. The additional amino acids which are known as diamines in diseased leaves are conspicuous. It is presumed that the diamine might be incresed by the self-reproduction of the virus in cooporation with certain enzymes which are carrying out the protein metabolism in the host protoplast in contrast with the healthy checks which is carrying out normal protein metabolism. From the histological poing of view, the facts of phloem degeneration or necrosis in diseased leaves, it seems to interrupt to move free amino acids from roots to leaves and it possibly takes place an excessive production of NH3 which is diaminated by the metabolism of nitrogen compounds in such conditioned leaves. Therefore, it is also presumed that additional diamino acids are accumulated in diseased leaves. There are no change of amino acids are accumulated in diseased leaves. There are no change of amino acids in both materials of this plant throughout the growing season qualitatively, and this result agress with the paper of Knight.

  • PDF

Remarkable impact of amino acids on ginsenoside transformation from fresh ginseng to red ginseng

  • Liu, Zhi;Wen, Xin;Wang, Chong-Zhi;Li, Wei;Huang, Wei-Hua;Xia, Juan;Ruan, Chang-Chun;Yuan, Chun-Su
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
    • /
    • v.44 no.3
    • /
    • pp.424-434
    • /
    • 2020
  • Background: Amino acids are one of the major constituents in Panax ginseng, including neutral amino acid, acidic amino acid, and basic amino acid. However, whether these amino acids play a role in ginsenoside conversion during the steaming process has not yet been elucidated. Methods: In the present study, to elucidate the role of amino acids in ginsenoside transformation from fresh ginseng to red ginseng, an amino acids impregnation pretreatment was applied during the steaming process at 120℃. Acidic glutamic acid and basic arginine were used for the acid impregnation treatment during the root steaming. The ginsenosides contents, pH, browning intensity, and free amino acids contents in untreated and amino acid-treated P. ginseng samples were determined. Results: After 2 h of steaming, the concentration of less polar ginsenosides in glutamic acid-treated P. ginseng was significantly higher than that in untreated P. ginseng during the steaming process. However, the less polar ginsenosides in arginine-treated P. ginseng increased slightly. Meanwhile, free amino acids contents in fresh P. ginseng, glutamic acid-treated P. ginseng, and arginine-treated P. ginseng significantly decreased during steaming from 0 to 2h. The pH also decreased in P. ginseng samples at high temperatures. The pH decrease in red ginseng was closely related to the decrease in basic amino acids levels during the steaming process. Conclusion: Amino acids can remarkably affect the acidity of P. ginseng sample by altering the pH value. They were the main influential factors for the ginsenoside transformation. These results are useful in elucidating why and how steaming induces the structural change of ginsenoside inP. ginseng and also provides an effective and green approach to regulate the ginsenoside conversion using amino acids during the steaming process.

t-Butyl Benzotriazol-1-yl Carbonate and Benzyl Benzotriazol-1-yl Carbonate. Now Reactive Amino Protective Reagents for t-Butoxycarbonylation and Benzyloxycarbonylation of Amines and Amino Acids

  • Kim, Sung-Gak;Chang, Heung
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
    • /
    • v.7 no.1
    • /
    • pp.70-73
    • /
    • 1986
  • New amino protective reagents, t-butyl benzotriazol-1-yl carbonate and benzyl benzotriazol-1-yl carbonate, for t-butoxycarbonylation and benzyloxycarbonylation of amines and amino acids have been developed. t-Butyl benzotriazol-1-yl carbonate reacts rapidly and cleanly with various amines and amino acids to afford N-Boc amines and N-Boc amino acids in high yields and benzyl benzotriazol-1-yl carbonate is also found to be very effective in the benzyloxycarbonylation of amino acids.

  • PDF

A Study on the Compositions of the Total Amino Acids and Free Amino Acids in Parts of Omija (Schizandra Chinensis Baillon) (오미자의 부위별 총 아미노산과 유리 아미노산 조성에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Joung-Sook;Lee, Sung-Woo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
    • /
    • v.4 no.2
    • /
    • pp.181-184
    • /
    • 1989
  • The compositions of total and free amino acids in parts of Omija were investigated. The most abundant amino acids in fruits, endocarps, and seeds were arginine (50.80%), lysine (14.37%), glutamic acid (14.22%), respectively. Since the amino acid scores of fruits, endocarps, and seeds were 9.4, 11.9, and 16.7, respectively, the limiting amino acid of each part were S-compound amino acids. In the composition of free amino acids, contents of lysine were highest one such as 51.78, 57.00 and 32.88% in fruits, endocarps and seeds, respectively. The contents of histidine from free amino acids were 23.62% in fruits, 22.37% in endocarps, and 26.41% in seeds.

  • PDF

Effect of Essential and Nonessential Amino Acids in North Carolina State University (NCSU)-23 Medium on Development of Porcine In vitro Fertilized Embryos

  • Hashem, Md. Abul;Bhandari, Dilip P.;Hossein, Mohammad Shamim;Jeong, Yeon Woo;Kim, Sue;Kim, Ji-Hye;Koo, Ok-Jae;Park, Seon Mi;Lee, Eu Gine;Park, Sun Woo;Kang, Sung Keun;Lee, Byeong Chun
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.20 no.5
    • /
    • pp.693-700
    • /
    • 2007
  • The present study was conducted to examine the effect of different levels of essential and nonessential amino acid in NCSU-23 medium on the in vitro-produced porcine embryo as it develops from the zygote to the blastocyst stage. Four experiments were performed, each with a completely randomized design involving 5 to 8 replications of treatments. In order to know the effect of nonessential amino acids in NCSU-23 medium, 0, 5, 10 and $20{\mu}/ml$ MEM were supplemented there to, (Exp. 1) and the medium was supplemented with same level of essential amino acids (Exp. 2). The combined effect of nonessential (0, 5, 10 and $20{\mu}/ml$ MEM) and essential amino acids (0, 5, 10 and $10{\mu}/ml$ MEM) in NCSU-23 medium (Exp. 3), first 72 h with non-essential amino acids (at 0, 5, 10 and $20{\mu}/ml$ MEM), and last 4 d with essential amino acids with the same level as NEAA (Exp. 4) were examined. The embryo development was monitored and the quality of blastocysts was evaluated by counting the number of total cells and determining the ratio of inner cell mass (ICM) to trophoectoderm (TE) cells. When Eagle's nonessential amino acids (MEM) added to NCSU-23 medium, it significantly increased the likelihood of development to the 2- to 4-cell stage and subsequent blastocyst development. Supplementation of different levels of essential amino acids in the NCSU-23 medium decreased cleavage rate, rate of morula and blastocyst development and the number of ICMs. In the case of the combined effect of essential and nonessential amino acids, better and significant results were found for blastocysts, hatching blastocysts and for ICM numbers which were also dose dependent. With respect to the biphasic effect of nonessential and essential amino acids, nonessential amino acids increased cleavage whereas essential amino acids increased the total cell number. Neither the nonessential nor the essential group of amino acids, on their own, affected blastocyst cell number or the differentiation of cells in the blastocyst. In conclusion, this study determined the role of nonessential and essential amino acids in the culture of the porcine embryo and showed that the embryo requires different levels of amino acids as it develops from the zygote to the blastocyst stage.

Natural Inhibitors for $CO_2$ Hydrate Formation (천연 물질을 이용한 이산화탄소 하이드레이트 형성 억제)

  • Sa, Jeong-Hoon;Lee, Bo Ram;Park, Da-Hye;Han, Kunwoo;Chun, Hee Dong;Lee, Kun-Hong
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
    • /
    • /
    • pp.122.1-122.1
    • /
    • 2011
  • The motivation for this work was the potential of hydrophobic amino acids such as glycine, L-alanine, and L-valine to be applied as thermodynamic hydrate inhibitors (THIs). To confirm their capabilities in inhibiting the formation of gas hydrates, three-phase (liquid-hydrate-vapor) equilibrium conditions for carbon dioxide hydrate formation in the presence of 0.1 to 3.0 mol% amino acid solutions were determined in the range of 273.05 to 281.45 K and 14.1 to 35.2 bar. From quantitative analyses, the inhibiting effects of the amino acids (on a mole concentration basis) decreased in the following order: L-valine > L-alanine > glycine. The application of amino acids as THIs has several potential advantages over conventional methods. First, the environmentally friendly nature of amino acids as compared to conventional inhibitors means that damage to ecological systems and the environment could be minimized. Second, the loss of amino acids in recovery process would be considerably reduced because amino acids are non-volatile. Third, amino acids have great potential as a model system in which to investigate the inhibition mechanism on the molecular level, since the structure and chemical properties of amino acids are well understood.

  • PDF

Stability Test and Quantitative and Qualitative Analyses of the Amino Acids in Pharmacopuncture Extracted from Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans

  • Cho, GyeYoon;Han, KyuChul;Yoon, JinYoung
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
    • /
    • v.18 no.1
    • /
    • pp.44-55
    • /
    • 2015
  • Objectives: Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans (S. subspinipes mutilans) is known as a traditional medicine and includes various amino acids, peptides and proteins. The amino acids in the pharmacopuncture extracted from S. subspinipes mutilans by using derivatization methods were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) over a 12 month period to confirm its stability. Methods: Amino acids of pharmacopuncture extracted from S. subspinipes mutilans were derived by using O-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) & 9-fluorenyl methoxy carbonyl chloride (FMOC) reagent and were analyzed using HPLC. The amino acids were detected by using a diode array detector (DAD) and a fluorescence detector (FLD) to compare a mixed amino acid standard (STD) to the pharmacopuncture from centipedes. The stability tests on the pharmacopuncture from centipedes were done using HPLC for three conditions: a room temperature test chamber, an acceleration test chamber, and a cold test chamber. Results: The pharmacopuncture from centipedes was prepared by using the method of the Korean Pharmacopuncture Institute (KPI) and through quantitative analyses was shown to contain 9 amino acids of the 16 amino acids in the mixed amino acid STD. The amounts of the amino acids in the pharmacopuncture from centipedes were 34.37 ppm of aspartate, 123.72 ppm of arginine, 170.63 ppm of alanine, 59.55 ppm of leucine and 57 ppm of lysine. The relative standard deviation (RSD %) results for the pharmacopuncture from centipedes had a maximum value of 14.95% and minimum value of 1.795% on the room temperature test chamber, the acceleration test chamber and the cold test chamber stability tests. Conclusion: Stability tests on and quantitative and qualitative analyses of the amino acids in the pharmacopuncture extracted from centipedes by using derivatization methods were performed by using HPLC. Through research, we hope to determine the relationship between time and the concentrations of the amino acids in the pharmacopuncture extracted from centipedes.