• Title, Summary, Keyword: Amino Acids Balance

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Protein Quality and Amino Acid Utilization in Chickens

  • Kim, Ji-Hyuk
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.87-100
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    • 2015
  • It is well known that dietary protein affects the growth performance and carcass composition of poultry. Over the last several decades, numerous studies have been carried out to investigate to optimize the level of dietary protein since the protein is an important and expensive constituent in poultry feed. It is generally accepted that dietary protein should represent a balance of amino acids supporting the requirements for growth and maintenance of birds. A protein with balanced essential amino acids that matches a bird's requirement and sufficient non-essential amino acid nitrogen to enable the synthesis of all of the non-essential amino acids, is referred to as an 'ideal protein'. Feeding of excess protein or amino acids may result in an amount of nitrogen emission. Most common method to reduce nitrogen emission is using diet formulation which has lower dietary crude protein level and higher concentration of amino acid supplements. However, there are conflicting reports whether low protein diets supplemented with synthetic amino acids can obtain the growth performance equal to high protein diets. Excessive nitrogen excretion caused by amino acid imbalance also may influence the environment of poultry house due to ammonia production from uric acid. These environmental conditions may increase the incidence of skin problem or respiratory diseases of chickens. Various strategies based on comprehensive understanding should be tested to optimize nitrogen utilization and reduce nitrogen emission while maintaining the performance in poultry production.

Effects of Amino Acid Balance of Dietary Casein and Soy Protein on the Plasma and Liver Cholesterol Levels in Young Chicks (사료중 Casein 및 대두단백질의 아미노산 균형이 병아리의 혈액 및 간조직내의 Cholesterol함량에 미치는 영향)

  • 김현숙;지규만;최인숙
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.43-54
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    • 1995
  • Effects of dietary protein sources and their amino acid compositions on the liver and plasma cholesterol levels in growing Single Comb white Leghorn male chicks were studied. A diet containing isolated soy protein (21% cp) was supplemented with 0.5% DL-methionine and 0.3% L-glycine. and another diet containing casein(21% cp) was supplemented with 1.5% L-arginine HCl, 0.4% DL-methionine. and 1.0% L-glycine. Plasma cholesterol level was markedly lower in groups force-fed the diets containing either soy protein or casein supplemented with amino acids compared to those found in birds fed corresponding diets without amino acids supplementation. The cholesterol lowering effect of the casein diet. when balanced with various supplemental amino acids appeared to be due to arginine instead of methionine or glycine. It is likely that amino acid balance rather than the composition of a specific amino acid is one of the major factors determining the effect of dietary protein sources on the blood cholesterol levels in chicks.

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Portal Absorption of Feed Oligo-peptides in Chickens

  • Wang, Lijuan;Ma, Qiugang;Cheng, Ji;Guo, Baohai;Yue, Hongyuan
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.9
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    • pp.1277-1280
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    • 2004
  • The effect of duodenal infusion with feed oligo-peptide solution on portal absorption of amino acids was investigated in poultry under unanaesthetized conditions. Four peptide solutions were used in the experiment: enzymatic hydrolysates from fish meal, soybean meal, cottonseed meal and rapeseed meal proteins with average molecular weights less than 3,000 Da and 1,000 Da, respectively. Intestinal absorptions of these oligo-peptide solutions were compared by determining the concentration of free amino acid (FAA) in portal blood after the duodenal administrations of oligo-peptide solutions. Absorptive intensity and balance were used to estimate the intestinal absorption rate of amino acids. The absorptive intensities of amino acids were highest for the fish and soybean meal oligo-peptides. The ratios of amino acids absorbed in the portal blood from fish and soybean meal oligo-peptides were more similar to the composition of the infused amino acids than that observed from the cottonseed and rapeseed meal oligo-peptides. A positive correlation was found between absorption rate and proportion of PAA in the oligo-peptides. The higher absorption rate could be contributed to the higher proportion of peptide bound amino acids (PAA). The results suggest that fish and soybean meal protein are significantly more easily hydrolyzed into oligo-peptides (p<0.05) in the gastrointestinal tracts of poultry and as such can be utilized more effectively by body tissues.

Amino Acid, Amino Acid Metabolite, and GABA Content of Three Domestic Tomato Varieties

  • Ahn, Jun-Bae
    • Culinary science and hospitality research
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.71-77
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    • 2016
  • To determine the nutritional value of domestic tomatoes, the levels of amino acids, amino acid metabolites, and the bioactive compound ${\gamma}-aminobutyric-acid$ (GABA) were analyzed in three domestic tomato varieties (Rafito, Momotaro, and Medison). Eighteen free amino acids were found, and total free amino acid content was 3,810.21~4,594.56 mg/100 g (dry weight). L-glutamic acid (L-Glu) was the most abundant amino acid, ranging from 1,866.60 mg/100 g for Momotaro to 2,417.45 mg/100 g for Medison. The next most abundant amino acids were L-glutamine (L-Gln) and L-aspartic acid (L-Asp). The three tomato varieties had a good balance of all the essential amino acids except tryptophan. Total essential amino acid content was 274.26~472.71 mg/100 g (dry weight). The following amino acid metabolites were found: L-carnitine (L-Car), hydroxylysine (Hyl), o-phosphoethanolamine (o-Pea), phosphoserine (p-Ser), ${\beta}-alanine$ (${\beta}-Ala$), N-methyl-histidine (Me-His), ethanolamine (EtNH2),and L-citrulline(L-Cit). Large quantities of GABA were found in all three varieties: 666.95-868.48 mg/100g (dry weight). These results support the use of these tomato varieties as nutritious food materials.

Comparison of the Efficiency of Absorbed Nitrogen Use from Different Protein Sources in Diets Having Similar Amino Acid Balance

  • Lee, K.U.;Boyd, R.D.;Austic, R.E.;Ross, D.A.;Han, In K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.11 no.6
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    • pp.725-731
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    • 1998
  • Nine crossbred female pigs fitted with the bladder catheters were used to investigate the effects of dietary protein form on the efficiency of absorbed nitrogen for nitrogen retention in growing pigs. Combinations of the main protein sources were corn-soybean meal (CSM; slow + slow absorption rate form), corn-hydrolyzed casein (CAS; slow + rapid absorption rate form) and corn-porcine plasma (CPL; slow + intermediate absorption rate form). All experimental diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous (CP 11%) and isocaloric (3.5 Mcal/kg) and synthetic amino acids were added to the diet as required to maintain an equivalent amino acid profile among diets. Fecal digestibility of nitrogen was not different among treatments (p > 0.10). Ingested nitrogen was absorbed with an apparent efficiency of 82% to 84%. Mean nitrogen retention in pigs fed the CSM diet was as high as for pigs fed the CPL diet (0.74 g N/kg $BW^{0.75}$ per d), which was higher than the N retention rate in pigs fed CAS diet (0.68 g/kg $BW^{0.75}$ per d; P < 0.05). Apparent biological values (ABV = 100 ${\times}$ N retention/absorbed nitrogen) were 63.3%, 58.0% and 61.6% for CSM, CAS, and CPL groups, respectively (p < 0.05). There was no difference in mean energy digestibility among treatments. The efficiency of absorbed lysine utilization was significantly different among treatments (p < 0.05). Pigs fed the CAS diet were inferior to counterparts on the other diets in utilizing absorbed lysine. The ratios of free (and small peptide-bound) to protein-bound amino acids in CSM diet differed considerably from the CAS diet. This may affect the efficiency of amino acids utilization for nitrogen retention if hydrolyzed and intact amino acid pools reach the blood at different times.

Effect of Customized Fertilizer Application and Soil Properties on Amino Acids Composition in Rice Grain

  • Sung, Jwakyung;Lee, Yejin;Chun, Hyenjung;Ha, Sangkeun;Sonn, Yeonkyu;Lee, Jongsik
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.48 no.5
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    • pp.464-468
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    • 2015
  • Our government has performed to support the nation-wide application of customized fertilizer based on soil-testing results and crop nutrient balance in order to promote the environment-friendly agriculture and to respond the global environment guide-line since 2010. This study was performed at the selected local paddy fields (Hwaseong-si, Uiseong-gun and Miryang-si) with different soil chemical properties in 2012. The contents of amino acids measured showed an increasing trend with fertilization, and glutamic acid was the most abundant amino acid followed by aspartic acid, leucine and alanine. However, valine, isoleusine, tyrosine and lysine were not significantly affected by fertilization. The significant differences in grain N, expressed as a crude protein, and amino acids dose was observed between experimental sites (p<0.001), treatments (p<0.01 to 0.001) and interaction of both factors (p<0.01 to 0.001). In our experiment the following order of carbon skeleton backbones to produce amino acids was observed irrespective of experiment sites and fertilization: ${\alpha}$-ketoglutarate > oxalate > pyruvate > 3-phosphoglycerate > phosphoenolpyruvate. In conclusion, customized fertilizer had no difference in amino acids compared to the conventional-NPK practice which was higher than in no fertilization, and also the normal paddy represented slightly higher amino acids compared to the reclaimed. Further study based on the present results is required to investigate what is main factor to amino acids between genetic and environmental factors.

Effect of corn gluten and its hydrolysate consumptions on weight reduction in rats fed a high-fat diet

  • Kim, Joo-Hee;Park, Ju-Yeon;Hong, So-Young;Kim, Mi-Kyung
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.3 no.3
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    • pp.200-207
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    • 2009
  • This study examined the effects of com gluten (CG) and its hydrolysate consumptions on weight reduction in rats fed a high-fat diet. Eight-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=40) were fed a high-fat diet (40% calorie as fat) for 4 weeks. They were then randomly divided into four groups and fed the isocaloric diets with different protein sources for 8 weeks. The protein sources were casein (control group), intact CG (CG group), CG hydrolysate A (CGHA group, 30% of protein as peptides and 70% as free amino acids) and CG hydrolysate P (CGHP group, 93% of protein as peptides and 7% as free amino acids). Body weight gain, adipose tissue weights, nitrogen balance, absorptions of energy, protein and fat, lipid profiles in plasma, liver and feces and hepatic activities of camitine palmitoyl transferase (CPT), fatty acid synthase (FAS), malic enzyme (ME) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) were assessed. The CGHA diet had the highest amount of BCAAs, especially leucine, and most of them existed as free amino acid forms. The CGHA group showed significant weight reduction and negative nitrogen balance. Protein absorption and apparent protein digestibility in the CGHA group were significantly lower than those in other groups. Adipose tissue weights were the lowest in the CGHA group. Activity of CPT tended to be higher in the CGHA group than in other groups and those of FAS, ME and G6PDH were significantly lower in the CGHA group than in other groups. In conclusion, the CGHA diet which had relatively high amounts of free amino acids and BCAAs, especially leucine, had a weight reduction effect by lowering adipose tissue weight and the activities of FAS, ME and G6PDH in experimental animals, but it seemed to be a negative result induced by lowering protein absorption, increasing urinary nitrogen excretion and protein catabolism.

Physicochemical Properties of Domestic Cherry Tomato Varieties (국내산 방울토마토의 이화학적 특성)

  • Ahn, Jun-Bae
    • Culinary science and hospitality research
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    • v.23 no.7
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    • pp.42-49
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    • 2017
  • This study was conducted to determine the nutritional value of domestic cherry tomato varieties (Summerking, Qutiquti, and Minichal). The levels of amino acids, amino acid derivatives, and ${\gamma}-aminobutyric-acid$ (GABA) were analyzed using ion chromatography. In domestic cherry tomatoes, eighteen free amino acids were found including L-glutamic acid (L-Glu), L-glutamine (L-Gln), and L-aspartic acid (L-Asp). L-Glu was the most abundant amino acid, ranging from 1,533.17 mg/100 g to 1,920.65 mg/100 g (dry weight). The next abundant amino acids were L-Gln, ranging from 784.68 mg/100 g to 1,164.36 mg/100 g and L-Asp, ranging from 320.73 mg/100 g to 387.22 mg/100 g. Domestic cherry tomatoes contained eight essential amino acids except tryptophan and the total essential amino acid content was 297.30~432.43 mg/100 g (dry weight), which was 8.92~10.61% of total free amino acid. Several amino acid derivatives were found: L-carnitine (L-Car), hydroxylysine (Hyl), o-phosphoethanolamine (o-Pea), phosphoserine (p-Ser), ${\beta}-alanine$ (${\beta}-Ala$), N-methyl-histidine (Me-His), ethanolamine ($EtNH_2$), and L-citrulline (L-Cit). L-Car, transporting long-chain fatty acid into mitocondrial matrix, was the most abundant amino acid derivative in all domestic cherry tomatoes. A high level of GABA (313.18~638.57 mg/100 g), known as a neurotransmitter, was also found in all three domestic cherry tomatoes. These results revealed that domestic cherry tomatoes have a good balance of nutrient and bioactive compounds. Therefore, cherry tomatoes can be used as a functional food material.

Rumen Degradability and Small Intestinal Digestibility of the Amino Acids in Four Protein Supplements

  • Wang, Y.;Jin, L.;Wen, Q.N.;Kopparapu, N.K.;Liu, J.;Liu, X.L.;Zhang, Y.G.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.241-249
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    • 2016
  • The supplementation of livestock feed with animal protein is a present cause for public concern, and plant protein shortages have become increasingly prominent in China. This conflict may be resolved by fully utilizing currently available sources of plant protein. We estimated the rumen degradability and the small intestinal digestibility of the amino acids (AA) in rapeseed meal (RSM), soybean meal (SBM), sunflower seed meal (SFM) and sesame meal (SSM) using the mobile nylon bag method to determine the absorbable AA content of these protein supplements as a guide towards dietary formulations for the dairy industry. Overall, this study aimed to utilize protein supplements effectively to guide dietary formulations to increase milk yield and save plant protein resources. To this end, we studied four cows with a permanent rumen fistula and duodenal T-shape fistula in a $4{\times}4$ Latin square experimental design. The results showed that the total small intestine absorbable amino acids and small intestine absorbable essential amino acids were higher in the SBM (26.34% and 13.11% dry matter [DM], respectively) than in the SFM (13.97% and 6.89% DM, respectively). The small intestine absorbable Lys contents of the SFM, SSM, RSM and SBM were 0.86%, 0.88%, 1.43%, and 2.12% (DM basis), respectively, and the absorbable Met contents of these meals were 0.28%, 1.03%, 0.52%, and 0.47% (DM basis), respectively. Among the examined food sources, the milk protein score of the SBM (0.181) was highest followed by those of the RSM (0.136), SSM (0.108) and SFM (0.106). The absorbable amino acid contents of the protein supplements accurately reflected protein availability, which is an important indicator of the balance of feed formulation. Therefore, a database detailing the absorbable AA should be established.

A Comparison of Food Components between Korean and Imported Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) (국내산과 외국산 퀴노아의 식품성분 비교)

  • Sim, Ki Hyeon
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.32 no.5
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    • pp.442-453
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    • 2019
  • The purpose of this study was to compare differences in the main food components between Korean and imported quinoa from Peru, the U.S., and Thailand. Proximate composition of Korean quinoa showed highest crude protein and crude ash, while Korean quinoa had lowest moisture. Total amino acid content was higher in Korean quinoa than in imported quinoa. Fatty acid content was highest in quinoa cultivated in the U.S. and Wonju. Quinoa cultivated in Wonju was rich in palmitic acid, lignoceric acid, linoleic acid, eicosadienoic acid, erucic acid, and nervonic acid. Mineral content was higher in Korean quinoa than in imported quinoa. Quinoa cultivated in Wonju showed highest contents of P, Mg, Zn, while quinoa cultivated in Hongcheon showed the highest content of Na. Citric acid was found the major organic acid in quinoa. Citric acid content was highest in quinoa imported from the U.S. and lowest in quinoa cultivated in Hongcheon. Among free sugar, raffinose and glucose contents were highest in quinoa cultivated in Hongcheon, The results of this study show Korean quinoa has high contents of protein, amino acids, fatty acids, minerals and free sugar, offering essential amino acids in an excellent balance.