• Title, Summary, Keyword: Anaerobic nitrogen removal

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LITHOAUTOTROPHIC NITROGEN REMOVAL WITH ANAEROBIC GRANULAR SLUDGE AS SEED BIOMASS AND ITS MICROBIAL COMMUNITY

  • Ahn, Young-Ho;Lee, Jin-Woo;Kim, Hee-Chul;Kwon, Soo-Youl
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.173-180
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    • 2006
  • Autotrophic nitrogen removal and its microbial community from a laboratory scale upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor were characterized with dynamic behavior of nitrogen removal and sequencing result of molecular technique (DNA extraction, PCR and amplification of 16S rDNA), respectively. In the experiment treating inorganic wastewater, the anaerobic granular sludge from a full-scale UASB reactor treating industrial wastewater was inoculated as seed biomass. The operating results revealed that an addition of hydroxylamine would result in lithoautotrophic ammonium oxidation to nitrite/nitrate, and also hydrazine would play an important role for the success of sustainable nitrogen removal process. Total N and ammonium removal of 48% and 92% was observed, corresponding to nitrogen conversion of 0.023 g N/L-d. The reddish brown-colored granular sludge with a diameter of $1{\sim}2\;mm$ was observed at the lower part of sludge bed. The microbial characterization suggests that an anoxic ammonium oxidizer and an anoxic denitrifying autotrophic nitrifier contribute mainly to the nitrogen removal in the reactor. The results revealed the feasibility on development of high performance lithoautotrophic nitrogen removal process with its microbial granulation.

Treatment Characteristics of Wastewater with Flow Rate Variation in Anaerobic-Aerobic Activated Sludge Process

  • Lee Min-Gyu;Suh Kuen-Hack;Hano Tadashi
    • Environmental Sciences Bulletin of The Korean Environmental Sciences Society
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.11-17
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    • 1997
  • The treatment performances of anaerobic-aerobic activated sludge process were investigated under various operation conditions. The treatment system proposed in this study gave a relatively stable performance against hourly change of the flow rate and showed a satisfactory removal efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus compounds under experimental conditions. The average removal efficiency of total nitrogen gradually decreased as the influent total nitrogen concentration was increased. High C/N ratio of the wastewater was required for the complete removal of nitrogen. Glucose as a carbon source was more efficient than starch and the removal ability for all components become higher with the increase of the fraction of glucose.

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Simultaneous N-P Removal of Wastewater with Flow Variation by Anaerobic-Aerobic Activated Sludge Process(I) (혐기-호기 활성슬러지법에 의한 유량변동이 있는 폐수의 N-P 동시 제거에 관한 연구(I))

  • 이민규;서근학
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.4 no.5
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    • pp.509-516
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    • 1995
  • The treatment performances of anaerobic-aerobic activated sludge process were investigated under various operation conditions. The treatment system proposed in this study gave a relatively stable performance against hourly change of the flow rate and showed a satisfactory removal of nitrogen and phosphorus compounds under experimental conditions. The recycle ratio of mixed liquor from aerobic to anaerobic region and peak coefficient primarily controlled the extent of nitrogen removal. The recycle ratio had the optimum values which were determined by the microbial activities of nitrification and denitrification. The behavior of the treatment unit could be simulated by using the kinetic equations and reactor models which considered the treatment units as complete mixing tanks.

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Methane Production and Nitrogen Removal from Piggery Wastewater in the TPAD Coupled with BNR Process (질소제거공정과 결합한 2상 혐기성 소화공정에서 돈분폐수의 메탄생성 및 질소제거)

  • Park, Noh-Back;Park, Sang-Min;Choi, Woo-Young;Jun, Hang-Bae
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.18-25
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    • 2009
  • Nitrogen removal and methane production from piggery wastewater were investigated in two-phase anaerobic digestion (TPAD) coupled with biological nitrogen removal (BNR) process at $35^{\circ}C$. Methane production rate was about $0.7L/L{\cdot}day$ at organic loading rate (OLR) of $1.2g{\cdot}TCOD/L{\cdot}day$ in methanogenic UASB. Conversion efficiency of the removed TCOD into methane in UASB was as high as 72% and overall TCOD removal efficiency in this system was over 97%. Ammonia nitrogen were stably removed in BNR system and overall efficiency were 98%. With recirculation of the nitrified final effluent to TPAD, nitrogen oxides were completely removed by anaerobic denitrification in the acidogenic reactor, which did not inhibit the acidogenic activities. Overall TN removal efficiency in the TPAD-BNR system was as high as 94%.

Effect of ammonium nitrogen in anaerobic biofilter using live-stock-wastewater (축산폐수의 혐기성 고정법에 있어서 암모니아성 질소의 영향)

  • Eom, Tae-Kyu;Lim, Jung-Won
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.43-53
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    • 1997
  • In this research, the synthetic livestock wastewater was prepared to study the characteristics of organic matter removal, the change of VFA production, and the amount of gas production with respect to the change of ammonium nitrogen concentration in the waste using anaerobic fixed bed process, which is an anaerobic biofilm process. The HRT and operation temperature were 1 day and $35{\pm}1^{\circ}C$, respectively. Also, the characteristics of organic matter removal and the inhibitory effect on microorganism in the anaerobic process were studied on the organic loading and ammonium nitrogen concentration. The results obtained were as follows: For COD loading of $10kg/m^3$-day and five levels of ammonium nitrogen concentration ranging from 1,000 to 5,000 mg/L, organic removal efficiencies were about 81, 74, 67, 58, and 51%, and gas productions were 3,860, 3,520, 3,240, 3,020, and 2,790 ml/l-day, respectively. Average methane contents in the gas produced on COD loading of $10kg/m^3$-day was about 76%. Throughout the whole period of experiment, remaining VFA (as COD base) in the effluent was over 90% of remaining COD. This result indicated the inhibitory effect of high concentration of ammonium nitrogen through the facts that accumulated VFA was almost COD and organic removal efficiency decreased also with the increase of ammonium nitrogen. Especially, that implys which high concentration of ammonium nitrogen not only inhibits methane forming bacteria, but also acid forming bacteria.

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The BNR-MBR(Biological Nutrient Removal-Membrane Bioreactor) for nutrient removal from high-rise building in hot climate region

  • Ratanatamskul, C.;Glingeysorn, N.;Yamamoto, K.
    • Membrane Water Treatment
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.133-140
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    • 2012
  • The overall performance of BNR-MBR, so-called Anoxic-Anaerobic-Aerobic Membrane Bioreactor ($A^3$-MBR), developed for nutrient removal was studied to determine the efficiencies and mechanisms under different solid retention time (SRT). The reactor was fed by synthetic high-rise building wastewater with a COD:N:P ratio of 100:10:2.5. The results showed that TKN, TN and phosphorus removal by the system was higher than 95%, 93% and 80%, respectively. Nitrogen removal in the system was related to the simultaneous nitrification-denitrification (SND) reaction which removed all nitrogen forms in aerobic condition. SND reaction in the system occurred because of the large floc size formation. Phosphorus removal in the system related to the high phosphorus content in bacterial cells and the little effects of nitrate nitrogen on phosphorus release in the anaerobic condition. Therefore, high quality of treated effluent could be achieved with the $A^3$-MBR system for various water reuse purposes.

The Effects of Changing of Hydraulic Retention Time and Charging Media on the Removal of Nitrogen and Phosphorus in the Up-flow Anaerobic/Anoxic Reactor and Water-mill for Sewage Treatment (상향류식 혐기성조, 무산소조 및 수차호기조를 이용한 하수처리시 수리학적 체류시간의 변화와 메디아 충진이 질소 및 인 제거에 미치는 영향)

  • Shin, Myoung-Chul;Lee, Young-Shin
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.64-70
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    • 2009
  • The aims of this study is to examine the effects of the changes in HRT(Hydraulic Retention Time) and media charge in a water-mill, among other operation factors, on the nitrogen and phosphorus removal in order to use up-flow anaerobic reactors, anoxic reactors and water-mill aerobic reactors for sewage treatment. The extension of HRT improved the nitrogen removal efficiency, however the removal pattern was constant regardless of HRT. The removal of phosphorus was constant (80%-90%) regardless of the change in HRT. The removal rate with change in influx load varied such that at the OLR (Organic Load Rate) of 1-3 kg/d, the T-N removal efficiency was 80.7%-88.9% and the T-P removal efficiency was 82.9%-89.3% while at the NLR (Nitrogen Loading Rate) of 0.108-0.156 kg/d the removal efficiencies were 80.7-88.9% (T-N) and 82.9-89.3% (T-P). The analyses of the nitrogen and phosphorous removal characteristics with the C/N and C/P ratio showed that the mean T-N removal rate was 88% at the C/N ratio of 1.2-2.6, and that the mean T-P removal rate was 86% at the C/P ratio of 7.2-14.1. Also, the analysis of nitrogen and phosphorous removal characteristics were analyzed in relation to media charge. The comparison between with and without media charge in the water-mill showed that while the nitrogen removal efficiencies were 86-94% and 85-89% respectively, the difference of phosphorous removal efficiencies were between the two conditions was not significant, thus it suggested that the media charge has less effect on the removal efficiency of phosphorous compared to that of nitrogen.

Simultaneous Carbon and Nitrogen Removal Using an Integrated System of High-Rate Anaerobic Reactor and Aerobic Biofilter (고효율 혐기성반응조 및 호기성여상 조합시스템에 의한 질소·유기물 동시 제거)

  • Sung, Moon Sung;Chang, Duk;Seo, Seong Cheol;Chung, Bo Rim
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.55-65
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    • 1999
  • AF(anaerobic filter)/BAF(biological aerated filter) system and UASB(upflow anaerobic sludge blanket)/BAF system, of which system effluents were recirculated to the anaerobic reactors in each system, were operated in order to investigate the performance in simultaneous removal of organics and nitrogen in high-strength dairy wastewater. Advanced anaerobic treatment processes of AF and UASB were evaluated on applicability as pre-denitrification reactors, and BAF was also evaluated on the performance in oxidizing the remaining organics and ammonia nitrogen. At system HRTs of 4.0 to 4.5 days and recirculation ratios of one to three, the AF/BAF system could achieve more than 99% of organics removals and 64 to 78% of total nitrogen removals depending upon the recirculation ratio. Although the UASB/BAF system also showed more than 99% of organics removals, total nitrogen removals in the UASB/BAF system were 53 to 66% which are lower than those in the AF/BAF system at the corresponding recirculation ratios. Optimum recirculation ratios considering simultaneous removal of organics and nitrogen and cost-effectiveness, were in the range of two to three. The upflow AF packed with crossflow module media, as a primary treatment of the anaerobic reactor/BAF system, showed better performances in denitrification, SS removals, and gas production than the UASB. Higher loading rate of suspended solids from the UASB increased the backwashing times in the following BAF. Especially, at a recirculation ratio of three in the UASB/BAF system, the increase in head loss due to clogging in the BAF caused frequent backwashing, at least once d day. The BAF showed the high nitrification efficiency of average 99.2% and organics removals more than 90% at organics loading rate less than $1.4KgCOD/m^3/d$ and $COD/NH_3-N$ ratio less than 6.4. It was proved that the simplified anaerobic reactor/BAF system could maximize the organics removal and achieve high nitrogen removal efficiencies through recirculation of system effluents to the anaerobic reactor. The AF/BAF system can, especially, be a cost effective and competitive alternative for the simultaneous removal of organics ana nitrogen from wastewaters.

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Enbancement of Treatement Efficiency in a Biological Nutrient Removal Process by addition of Volatile Fatty Acids (휘발성 지방산의 주입을 통한 생물학적 영양염류 제거공정의 효율증진에 관한 연구)

  • Choung, Yoon Kyoo;Ko, Kwang Baik;Kim, Sue Jin;Yim, Seong Keun
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.73-82
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    • 1996
  • The removal efficiencies of organic substrates, nitrogen and phosphorus in the anaerobic-aerobic biological phosphorus removal process were investigated by addition of acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid which are normal volatile fatty acids contained in anaerobic digester supernatants. Substrate utilization coefficients for the phosphorus release and uptake were also estimated. The effect of a VFA, which showed higher phosphorus removal efficiency than the other VFAs did, was also studied in an anaerobic-aerobic-anoxic biological nutrient removal process. For the anaerobic-aerobic process added by VFA, the phosphorus removal efficiencies were up to about 68%, 55% and 61% for the reactors of acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid added, respectively, which indicates the efficiencies were increased by about 8-21%, comparing to that of 47% for the reactor with no VFA added. There were no significant difference in removal efficiencies for organic substrate and $NH_3-N$ without regard to addition of VFA. However, the removal efficiency of total nitrogen was increased in the case of VFA added, since $NO_3-N$ was less produced. For the anaerobic-aerobic-anoxic process added VFA, the removal efficiencies for $NH_3-N$ and $PO{_4}^{3-}-P$ were increased by 5% and 13%, respectively, comparing with them in the reactors not added VFA.

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A Study on the Behaviour of Organics and Nitrogen Using Upflow Anaerobic Reactor When Acid Fermenter is Added (상향류식 혐기성반응조와 산발효조의 병합처리시 유기물질과 질소거동에 관한 연구)

  • Oh, Dae-Min;Lee, Young-Shin
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.325-331
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    • 2009
  • This study was aimed to behaviour of organics and nitrogen on the upflow anaerobic reactor when a acid fermenter is added. Up flow anaerobic reactor (UAR) reaction will result which operates, COD removal efficiencies of reactor with nitrate loading rate 0.11, 0.66g/L/d were over 77%, but one with 1.0g/L/d was 73.5%. Especially, on NLR 0.11g/L/d, COD removal was 77% and nitrate removal efficiency was 93% simultaneously. The other side upflow anaerobic reactor and acid fermenter (UAR+AF) reaction will result witch operates, COD removal efficiencies of reactor with nitrate loading rate 0.11, 0.66g/L/d were over 85%, but one with 1.0g/L/d was 80%. Especially, on NLR 0.11g/L/d, COD removal was 85% and nitrate removal efficiency was 98% simultaneously. Also, without in reaction condition increase of influent nitrate concentration resulted in the linear decrease of nitrate removal efficiency and nitrate removal efficiency at influent nitrate-nitrogen 800mg/L was 50%. Alkalinity was increased theoretically by denitrification at low nitrate-N concentration, however, it was not increased theoretically at high nitrate-No 40% nitrate-N of UAR was denitrified until 70% height of reactor and 90% nitrate-N of UAR+AF was denitrified until 30% height of reactor Upflow anaerobic reactor was to occur accumulate acid, which TVA/Alkalinity is 0.3$\sim$0.47. Increase of NLR resulted increase of effluent alkalinity and TVA production