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Landscape Characteristics of the Sacred Dangsan Forests in the Neighborhood of Gyeokpo-ri, Buan-gun as a Potential World Heritage-Sacred Natural Site (세계유산 자연성지 잠재지로서의 부안군 격포리 일원 당산숲의 경관특성)

  • Choi, Jai-Ung;Kim, Dong-Yeob;Lee, Chang-Hwan
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.103-114
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    • 2015
  • UNESCO and IUCN established the term of 'Sacred Natural Sites' (areas of land or water having special spiritual significance to peoples and communities) for conservation of biological and cultural diversity. Dangsan forest, a traditional village forests of rural Korea is a representative 'Sacred Natural Site' with a history of more than several hundred years of Dangsan ritual. The Chungmak village, Gyeokpo-ri, Buan-gun is a small seashore village. It is an important place that has the largest ancient maritime ritual sites in Korea. Buan-gun have been tried to register the 'Chungmak-dong Ritual Site' for the World Heritage List. However, the fact that this 'Chungmak-dong Ritual Site'(5~6 century, Baekje of the Three-kingdom period) was located in the Dangsan forest, surrounding the shrine, is not much understood. In this study, the landscape characteristics and culture of the sacred Dangsan forest at Gyeokpo-ri, including Gyeokpo-ri, Dae-ri, Naesosa temple Seokpo-ri, Buan-gun and Dongho-ri, Gochang-gun were investigated. And, the potential of registering for World Heritage, 'Protected Area of Sacred Natural Sites' by linking the four site's Dangsan forests has been investigated. The sacred Dangsan forests in the neighborhood of Gyeokpo-ri have kept their landscape characteristics and retained Dangsan ritual. As a result of SWOT analysis for sacred natural sites, WT(weakness-threat) strategy has chosen as priority strategy. The reason is that there is few management scheme. The Dangsan forests at the neighborhood of Gyeokpo-ri need to be recognized by people in Korea, for their valuable landscape characteristics. The places should be managed and protected to remain as a sacred natural sites in order to be prepared for a World Heritage.

A Study on the Misu Heo Mok's Eunguhdang's in Yeoncheon for the Garden Restoration - Focusing on the Ten Evergreen's Garden and Oddly Shaped Stone Garden - (미수(眉叟) 허목(許穆)의 연천 은거당(恩居堂) 정원 복원을 위한 연구 - 십청원과 괴석원을 중심으로 -)

  • Rho, Jae-Hyun;Kim, Hwa-Ok;Park, Yool-Jin;Kim, Young-Sul;Park, Joo-Sung;Shin, Sang-Sup
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.21-35
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    • 2015
  • This study conducted a research on the position, construction of space and plants of Ten Evergreen's Garden(十靑園) and Oddly Shaped Stone Garden(怪石園) that are central gardens of Eunguhdang(恩居堂) in the poem 'Statement of Responsibility'(Heo Mok, 1595~1682) and Sochi(小痴) Heo Ryeon(許鍊)'s 'Taeyeongsipcheongwondo(漣川台嶺十靑園圖)' in order to bring light on the construction of space and characteristics of them as a garden of the deep pond, Eunguhdang that is a historic site of Misu Heo Mok(許穆, 1595~1682). The characteristics of Eunguhdang, and the meaning of it from the research are expected to be utilized as a basic data for future restoration of it. The results are as follow: In Eunghudang, there are the main building, a detached house, a separated building, and servants' quarters, and the garden consists of Ten Evergreen's Garden between the main building and a Byeolmyo(別廟), a backyard which leads to a green mountaintop, and Oddly Shaped Stone Garden including a pavilion in the front of the detached house. These gardens are thought to have utilized various oddly stones. From the analysis of existing documents such as 'Gwuimonwon(龜文園)' and several interviews, it is concluded that Gwuimunwon might have had Youngdoseo(龍圖墅) that imitated a stream, and Oddly Shaped Stone Garden might have had a garden which imitates Guimonwon standing for graffiti. The evergreen plants in Gwuimonwon correspond to the plants of Sipjangcheong(十長靑) in Youngdoseo, and through these facts, it is thought to have sought "The clean and cool". Furthermore, the diverse colors of flowering trees and flowers in Oddly Shaped Stone Garden and the surrounding of it is symbolizing dragon which is found in Gwuimonwon and that is contrasting with the evergreen plants in Gwuimonwon. The oddly shaped stones in the garden of Eunguhdang have a strange atmosphere which is felt across the whole buildings in Misu, and s a same aesthetic object that are thought to have created beauty of old greenery and antique appearance by utilizing oddly shaped stones. Misu is based on ever green plants seeking change with flowers along with stones that means spirit, body and bones, which is strengthening his intention.

The Anti-inflammatory Effect of Skipjack Tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) Oil in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 Cells and Mouse Models (LPS 유도 RAW 264.7 세포와 마우스 모델에서 참치(Katsuwonus pelamis) 유의 항염증 효과)

  • Kang, Bo-Kyeong;Kim, Min-Ji;Kim, Koth-Bong-Woo-Ri;Ahn, Na-Kyung;Choi, Yeon-Uk;Bark, Si-Woo;Pak, Won-Min;Kim, Bo-Ram;Park, Ji-Hye;Bae, Nan-Young;Ahn, Dong-Hyun
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.43 no.1
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    • pp.45-55
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    • 2015
  • This study was carried out to demonstrate the anti-inflammatory effect of tuna oil (TO) using LPS-induced inflammation responses and mouse models. First, nitric oxide (NO) and pro-inflammatory cytokines levels were suppressed up to 50% with increasing concentrations of TO without causing any cytotoxicity. Also, the expression of a variety of proteins, such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), was suppressed in a dosedependent manner by treatment with TO. Furthermore, TO also inhibited the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), including c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and p38 protein kinase (p38). Moreover, in in vivo testing the formation of ear edema was reduced at the highest dose tested compared to that in the control, and a reduction of ear thickness and the number of mast cells was observed in histological analysis. In acute toxicity test, no mortalities occurred in mice administrated 5,000 mg/kg body weight of TO over a two-week observation period. Our results suggest that TO has a considerable anti-inflammatory property through the suppression of inflammatory mediator productions and that it could prove to be useful as a potential anti-inflammatory therapeutic material.

Optimization Mixture Ratio of Petasites japonicus, Luffa cylindrica and Houttuynia cordata to Develop a Functional Drink by Mixture Design (혼합물 실험계획법에 의한 머위 및 부원료의 혼합비율 최적화)

  • Jeong, Hae-Jin;Lee, Kyoung-Pil;Chung, Hun-Sik;Kim, Dong-Seop;Kim, Han-Soo;Choi, Young-Whan;Im, Dong-Soon;Seong, Jong-Hwan;Lee, Young-Guen
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.329-335
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    • 2015
  • This study was performed to determine the optimal ratio of Petasites japonicus, Luffa cylindrica, and Houttuynia cordata, all of which are supposed to have anti-respiratory disease effects, such as against rhinitis. The experiment incorporated a mixture design and included 12 experimental points with center replicates for three different independent variables (Petasites japonicus 30~70%; Luffa cylindrica 10~30%; and Houttuynia cordata 10~30%). Based on this design, the mixture was extracted in hot water at 121℃ for 45 min and anti-allergy and anti-microbial activities were observed. The response surface and trace plot described for the anti-allergy activity showed Petasites japonicas was a relatively important factor. The correlation coefficient (R2) value 82.10% for the inhibition effect of degranulation was analyzed by the regression equation. The analysis of variance showed the model fit was statistically significant (p<0.05). The optimal ratio of the mixture was Petasites japonicus 0.75%, Luffa cylindrica 0.11%, and Houttuynia cordata 0.14%. The anti-microbial activity for each extraction of the mixture was valid on gram-positive, such as Staphylococcus aureus (KCCM 40881) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (KCCM 35494), while it was less effective on gram-negative, such as Escherichia coli (KCCM 11234) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (KCCM 11328).

Current Status of Cattle Genome Sequencing and Analysis using Next Generation Sequencing (차세대유전체해독 기법을 이용한 소 유전체 해독 연구현황)

  • Choi, Jung-Woo;Chai, Han-Ha;Yu, Dayeong;Lee, Kyung-Tai;Cho, Yong-Min;Lim, Dajeong
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.349-356
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    • 2015
  • Thanks to recent advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, diverse livestock species have been dissected at the genome-wide sequence level. As for cattle, there are currently four Korean indigenous breeds registered with the Domestic Animal Diversity Information System of the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations: Hanwoo, Chikso, Heugu, and Jeju Heugu. These native genetic resources were recently whole-genome resequenced using various NGS technologies, providing enormous single nucleotide polymorphism information across the genomes. The NGS application further provided biological such that Korean native cattle are genetically distant from some cattle breeds of European origins. In addition, the NGS technology was successfully applied to detect structural variations, particularly copy number variations that were usually difficult to identify at the genome-wide level with reasonable accuracy. Despite the success, those recent studies also showed an inherent limitation in sequencing only a representative individual of each breed. To elucidate the biological implications of the sequenced data, further confirmatory studies should be followed by sequencing or validating the population of each breed. Because NGS sequencing prices have consistently dropped, various population genomic theories can now be applied to the sequencing data obtained from the population of each breed of interest. There are still few such population studies available for the Korean native cattle breeds, but this situation will soon be improved with the recent initiative for NGS sequencing of diverse native livestock resources, including the Korean native cattle breeds.

Adrenomedullin Deficiency Increases the Susceptibility of Liver Fibrosis Induced by CCl4 (아드레노메둘린 결핍은 사염화탄소로 유도된 간경화 감수성을 상승시킴)

  • Ji, Ae-Ri;Hwang, Meeyul;Kim, Ah-Young;Lee, Eun-Mi;Lee, Eun-Joo;Lee, Myeong-Mi;Sung, Soo-Eun;Kim, Sang-Hyeob;Park, Jin-Kyu;Jeong, Kyu-Shik
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.463-472
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    • 2015
  • Adrenomedullin (AM) is a peptide expressed in all body tissues, and its related receptors are increased in liver fibrosis. In this study, we evaluated the effect of AM deficiency on liver fibrogenesis induced by $CCl_4$ using AM heterozygous (HT) mice. The animals received a single injection of $CCl_4$ or olive oil for the acute experiment, and received $CCl_4$ or olive oil three times a week for 6 weeks for the chronic experiment. Fibrosis was accessed using histopathological analysis and the western blot. The AM HT mice showed mild pericentrilobular degeneration when compared to the AM wild type (WT) mice. In the acute experiment, there was no significant difference between the AM WT and AM HT mice. However, in the chronic experiment, the $CCl_4$-treated AM HT mice showed more severe liver fibrosis than that of the CCl4-treated AM WT mice. The AST and ALT levels of the AM HT $CCl_4$ group were higher than those of the AM WT CCl4 group. Additionally, the collagen deposition, $\alpha$- SMA protein and TGF-$\beta$ protein were increased in the AM HT $CCl_4$ group when compared to the AM WT $CCl_4$ group. The AM HT mice also exhibited severe lipid peroxidation through the GSH decrement. Taken together, our data suggest that AM deficiency increases the susceptibility to liver fibrosis induced by $CCl_4$, indicating a novel therapeutic target for patients with liver fibrosis.

Comparative Study of Litsea japonica Leaf and Fruit Extract on the Anti-inflammatory Effects (까마귀쪽나무 열매와 잎의 항염증 효과 비교 연구)

  • Namkoong, Seung;Jang, Seon-A;Sohn, Eun-Hwa;Bak, Jong Phil;Sohn, Eunsoo;Koo, Hyun Jung;Yoon, Weon-Jong;Kwon, Jung-Eun;Jeong, Yong Joon;Meng, Xue;Han, Hyo-Sang;Kang, Se Chan
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.145-152
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    • 2015
  • The present study aimed to investigate comparative anti-inflammatory effects of Litsea japonica fruit and leaf extract considering the balance of safety and efficacy. Dose response studies were performed to determine the inhibitory effects of 70% EtOH extract of leaf (L70%) on the pro-inflammatory enzymes expression, COX-2/PGE2 and NO/iNOS, and pro-inflammatory cytokines production, IL-$1{\beta}$, IL-6, and TNF-$\alpha$ in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. We also examined comparative effects of 30 and 70% EtOH extract of fruits (F30% and F70%) at low concentration ($10{\mu}g/ml$ ) in the same conditions. L70% at 50 and $100{\mu}g/ml$ showed inhibitory effects on almost all the inflammatory mediators we examined except for COX-2 regulation, but there were no effects at $10{\mu}g/ml$. Since $100{\mu}g/ml$ of L70% have 18.2% cytotoxicity, we compared the effects of fruit extract, F30% and F70% at $10{\mu}g/ml$ on the regulation of NO/iNOS, PGE2, IL-$1{\beta}$, IL-6, and TNF-$\alpha$ and obtained that fruit extacts are more efficacious and safe than leaf. This study suggests that the 30% EtOH fraction of L. japonica fruit could be a good candidate for development as a functional food supplement in the prevention of inflammatory disorders.

Use of vitamin and mineral supplements and related variables among university students in Seoul (서울 일부지역 대학생의 비타민·무기질 보충제 섭취 실태 및 관련요인에 관한 연구)

  • Choi, Jung-Hwa;Je, Youjin
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.48 no.4
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    • pp.352-363
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: Despite the popularity of dietary supplements, little data are available on their use by university students. The purpose of this study was to examine the use of vitamin mineral supplements and to identify factors related to supplement use among university students. Methods: University students (N = 345) in Seoul were surveyed. Survey questions included descriptive demographics, types of vitamin and mineral supplements used, health related lifestyle factors, mini dietary assessment, and knowledge and behaviors related to supplement use. Results: Of university students surveyed, 41% consumed vitamin and mineral supplements. Among the supplement users, multivitamins were the most commonly used dietary supplements (68.6%), followed by vitamin C (31.4%) and calcium (17.1%). In particular, the use of vitamin C and iron supplements was more common in females than males (p < 0.05). For the number of supplements taken daily, 32.1% of supplement users consumed 2 or more supplements; 20% of supplement users had almost no knowledge of the supplements being taken. Based on the results of multivariable logistic regression analysis, supplement use was associated with higher interest in their own health, non-smoker, and supplement use by family (p < 0.05). In addition, supplement use was slightly associated with healthy dietary behavior such as consuming a variety of foods (p = 0.05) and current disease status (p = 0.05). Conclusion: University students with relatively healthy lifestyles appear to take vitamin and mineral supplements, but they had little knowledge of the supplements. Given high prevalence of dietary supplement use among university students, nutrition education regarding supplement use is needed.

A Study of the Changes of Breast Uptake in Menstrual Cycle on 18F-FDG PET/CT (월경 주기에 따른 18F-FDG PET/CT에서 유방 섭취 변화에 관한 고찰)

  • Tak, Yeojin;Park, Min Soo;Lee, Juyoung;Park, Hoon-Hee
    • Journal of radiological science and technology
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.31-38
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    • 2015
  • $^{18}F-FDG$ PET/CT has been known a useful modality to diagnose high-glucose-using cells such as cancer cells by glucose metabolism of FDG. Mainly, FDG takes on cancer and inflammatory cells; however, there have been FDG uptakes on normal tissues by individual physiological characteristics, occasionally. Especially, in fertile females, unusual FDG uptake of breast changes as the menstrual cycle, and disturb diagnosis. Therefore, the study aimed to evaluate the change of breast FDG uptake in menstrual cycle on $^{18}F-FDG$ PET/CT. 160 females ($34{\pm}3.5$ years old) who do not undergo a gynecologic anamnesis and have regular menstrual cycle over the previous 6 months were examined. They were divided 4 groups (each 40 patients) as flow phase, proliferative phase, ovulatory phase and secretory phase using Pregnancy Calculator 0.14. and history taking. Discovery Ste (GE Healthcare, Milwaukee, Mi, USA) was used a s PET/CT. We analyzed SUVs on accumulated region on breast, and 3 nuclear medicine specialists did the Blind test. SUVs on the Breast were flow phase ($1.64{\pm}0.25$), proliferative phase ($0.93{\pm}0.28$), ovulatory phase ($1.66{\pm}0.26$) and secretory phase ($1.77{\pm}0.28$). It showed high uptake value in secretory, flow phase and ovulatory phase (p<0.05). In gross analysis, the accumulation of breast was divided into 3 grades as comparing with lung and liver. The breast's uptake was equal to lung (Grade I); between lung and liver (Grade II); equal to or greater than liver (Grade III). The results showed high uptake value in secretory, flow phase and ovulatory phase (p<0.05). In fertile females, FDG uptake of breast changed as menstrual cycle, and it available to diagnose breast disease. Therefore, we consider reducing false-negative finding of breast disease, by doing examination on appropriate period through history taking about individual menstrual cycle.

Analysis of Hydrocarbon Trap in the Southwestern Margin of the Ulleung Basin, East Sea (동해 울릉분지 남서주변부의 탄화수소 트랩 분석)

  • Lee, Minwoo;Kang, Moo-Hee;Yoon, Youngho;Yi, Bo-Yeon;Kim, Kyong-O;Kim, Jinho;Park, Myong-ho;Lee, Keumsuk
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.48 no.4
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    • pp.301-312
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    • 2015
  • A commercial gas field was found in the southwestern continental shelf of the Ulleung Basin, East Sea in the late 1990s. To develop additional gas field, an exploration well was drilled through the coarse infill of submarine canyon near the gas field, but it was uneconomic to develop hydrocarbons. Using newly acquired deep seismic reflection and previous well data, we have identified additional geological structure which has hydrocarbon potentials below submarine canyons in the southwestern margin of the basin. Based on the interpretation of the deep seismic reflection and well data, the sequences of the study area can be classified into the syn-rift megasequence(MS1), post-rift megasequence(MS2), syn-compressional megasequence(MS3), and post-compressional megasequence(MS4) in relation to the tectonic events. MS1, deposited simultaneously with the basin formation before the middle Miocene, is characterized by chaotic seismic facies with low- to moderate-amplitude and low frequency reflections. MS2 comprises laterally continuous, low- to moderate-amplitude reflections, showing progradational stacking patterns due to high rates of sediment supply during basin expansion in the middle Miocene. MS3 is mainly composed of continuous reflections with high amplitude and moderate- to high-frequency which are interpreted as coarse-grained sediments. The coarse-grained sediments of MS3 sequence is widely truncated by several submarine canyons which filled with fine-grained sediment of MS4 to form a stratigraphic trap of hydrocarbon. Therefore, the reservoir and seal of the hydrocarbon trap in the study area are coarse-grained sediment of MS3 and submarine canyon filled with fine-grained sediment of MS4, respectively. A flat-spot seismic anomaly, which may indicate the presence of hydrocarbon, is observed within the stratigraphic trap.