• Title, Summary, Keyword: Anatomical Proportions

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Anatomical Variants of Lister's Tubercle: A New Morphological Classification Based on Magnetic Resonance Imaging

  • Chan, Wan Ying;Chong, Le Roy
    • Korean Journal of Radiology
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    • v.18 no.6
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    • pp.957-963
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    • 2017
  • Objective: Lister's tubercle is used as a standard anatomical landmark in hand surgery and arthroscopy procedures. In this study, we aimed to evaluate and propose a classification for anatomical variants of Lister's tubercle. Materials and Methods: Between September 2011 and July 2014, 360 MRI examinations for wrists performed using 1.5T scanners in a single institution were retrospectively evaluated. The prevalence of anatomical variants of Lister's tubercle based on the heights and morphology of its radial and ulnar peaks was assessed. These were classified into three distinct types: radial peak larger than ulnar peak (Type 1), similar radial and ulnar peaks (Type 2) and ulnar peak larger than radial peak (Type 3). Each type was further divided into 2 subtypes (A and B) based on the morphology of the peaks. Results: The proportions of Type 1, Type 2, and Type 3 variants in the study population were 69.2, 21.4, and 9.5%, respectively. For the subtypes, the Type 1A variant was the most common (41.4%) and conformed to the classical appearance of Lister's tubercle; whereas, Type 3A and 3B variants were rare configurations (6.4% and 3.1%, respectively) wherein the extensor pollicis longus tendon coursed along the radial aspect of Lister's tubercle. Conclusion: Anatomical variations of Lister's tubercle have potential clinical implications for certain pathological conditions and pre-procedural planning. The proposed classification system facilitates a better understanding of these anatomical variations and easier identification of at-risk and rare variants.

Anatomical Proportions and Chemical and Amino Acid Composition of Common Shrimp Species in Central Vietnam

  • Ngoan, L.D.;Lindberg, J.E.;Ogle, B.;Thomke, S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.10
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    • pp.1422-1428
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    • 2000
  • This investigation was conducted to evaluate the shrimp flesh (SF) and shrimp by-product (SB) of the most abundant shrimp species (Metapenaeus affinis, Penaeus semisulcatus and Penaeus monodon) caught in Central Vietnam, with the emphasis on yield, gross and amino acid (AA) composition and effect of heat treatment. The results showed that the mean edible SF and SB (head and shells with tail) yields of the three shrimp species averaged 56.7 and 43.3%, respectively, of the total wet body weight, with the M. affinis generating the highest by-product yield (45.7%) and P. semisulcatus (40.6%) the lowest. Significant differences in dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and ash content were found between SF and SB. The DM content of SF (21.5%) was lower than of SB (24.9%) and the ash content (on a DM basis) of the SB in all shrimp species was more than three times that of the SF (p<0.05), whereas the CP content was almost twice as high in the SF as compared with the SB (p<0.05). The SB of the three species contained (on a DM basis) between 44.0 and 49.8% CP (p<0.05) and between 13.5 and 18.1% chitin (p<0.05). The Ca content of SB differed also between species (p<0.05). On average, the sum of AA in SB corresponded to 89.3% of the CP and essential AA accounted for about 50% of the total AA. The most abundant AA were arginine, aspartic and glutamic acids, which accounted for 33% of the total AA. Minor, but significant differences in some AA concentrations of SB between species were observed (p<0.05). With the exception of the DM and ether extract content, all other chemical constituents of entire shrimp, SF and SB were not significantly affected by heat treatment (p>0.05).

The Significance and Limits of Lee Quede's Anatomical Drawings (이쾌대 해부학 그림의 미술해부학적 성취와 한계)

  • Youn, Kwan Hyun
    • Anatomy & Biological Anthropology
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.71-76
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    • 2018
  • In 1951, in the midst of the Korean War, artist Lee Quede produced anatomical drawings to teach artistic anatomy to his student Lee Ju-yeong while interned in the Geoje prison camp. Comprising 2 books and spanning over 48 pages, 74 drawings were produced alongside explanations in a textbook format. The table of contents was ordered starting from body proportions, then the skeleton, the muscles, and the head. By part, there were 4 drawings of the trunk, 51 of the head, 7 of the arms, 9 of the legs, and 3 of the full body. Though the drawings of the head and face are both high in number and in detail, there were many errors in his depictions of the bones, and the boundaries between the structures of his muscle drawings were drawn so unclearly as to be indistinguishable. The essential forms, proportions and movement are included, but his disproportionate dedication to the head and the incoherent way that the book is arranged with no relevance to its table of contents leave something to be desired. It is regrettable that Lee Quede's return to North Korea meant that his drawings were not widely used, but despite this, I believe that these are invaluable documents in assessing the influence of Japanese artistic anatomy at the time, as well as the introductory circumstances of Korean artistic anatomy.

Other Functional and Neurological Dysphonia (기타 기능성 발성장애 및 신경성 발성장애)

  • Lee, Seung Won
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Laryngology, Phoniatrics and Logopedics
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.82-85
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    • 2014
  • Functional dysphonia is a specific voice disorder refers to dysphonia without abnormal anatomical vocal fold findings at larynx. The proportions of this disorder are estimated up to 40% of dysphonia patients at ENT clinics. In this article, we will discuss about other functional dysphonia and neurological dysphonia except for muslce tension dysphonia and spasmodic dysphonia. For details, will describe about phonatory charateristics and treatment options about paradoxical vocal fold motion disorder, mutational dysphonia, essential vocal tremor, conversion dysphonia, and vocal tremor related with parkinson's disease.

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The Acoustic Changes of Voice after Uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (구개인두성형술 후 음성의 음향학적 변화)

  • Hong, K.H.;Kim, S.W.;Yoon, H.W.;Cho, Y.S.;Moon, S.H.;Lee, S.H.
    • Speech Sciences
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.23-37
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    • 2001
  • The primary sound produced by the vibration of vocal folds reaches the velopharyngeal isthmus and is directed both nasally and orally. The proportions of the each component is determined by the anatomical and functional status of the soft palate. The oral sounds composed of oral vowels and consonants according to the status of vocal tract, tongue, palate and lips. The nasal sounds composed of nasal consonants and nasal vowels, and further modified according to the status of the nasal airway, so anatomical abnormalities in the nasal cavity will influence nasal sound. The measurement of nasal sounds of speech has relied on the subjective scoring by listeners. The nasal sounds are described with nasality and nasalization. Generally, nasality has been assessed perceptually in the effect of maxillofacial procedures for cleft palate, sleep apnea, snoring and nasal disorders. The nasalization is considered as an acoustic phenomenon. Snoring and sleep apnea is a typical disorders due to abundant velopharynx. The sleep apnea has been known as a cessation of breathing for at least 10 seconds during sleep. Several medical and surgical methods for treating sleep apnea have been attempted. The uvulopalatopharyngoplasty(UPPP) involves removal of 1.0 to 3.0 cm of soft palate tissue with removal of redundant oropharyngeal mucosa and lateral tissue from the anterior and sometimes posterior faucial pillars. This procedure results in a shortened soft palate and a possible risk following this surgery may be velopharyngeal malfunctioning due to the shortened palate. Few researchers have systematically studied the effects of this surgery as it relates to speech production. Some changes in the voice quality such as resonance (nasality), articulation, and phonation have been reported. In view of the conflicting reports discussed, there remains some uncertainty about the speech status in patients following the snoring and sleep apnea surgery. The study was conducted in two phases: 1) acoustic analysis of oral and nasal sounds, and 2) evaluation of nasality.

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A Comparison of Body Types Between Korean and Mongolian Women within the 18 to 24 Age Group(Part I) (18~24세 한국과 몽골여성 체형비교(제1보))

  • Kwon, Soon-Jung;Hong, Jung-Min
    • Fashion & Textile Research Journal
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    • v.6 no.5
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    • pp.625-633
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    • 2004
  • A comparison between the body types of Korean and Mongolian women was made and analyzed to provide a foundation for securing the Mongolian fashion market. 404 adults within the 18 to 24 age group were studied. From the results of comparing 27 items of direct anthropometric measurements, 15 items were shown to have significant differences. Mongolian women were larger in values for 13 items than were Korean women except two items, which are back waist length and arm length. From the results of comparing 25 items of index values, 19 items were shown to have significant differences. The comparison of the anatomical proportions showed that the lower half of Mongolian women's bodies were longer and their shoulder and hips were wider than those of Korean women. Based on these direct anthropometric measurements and index values, Korean and Mongolian women were categorized into 4 Types; Type 1 is average body type with tall height and longer lower half of the body. Type 2 is slimmer body type with average height. Type 3 is average body type with shorter height. Lastly, type 4 is obese body type with average height.

A Clinical Analysis on Outpatients with Ear Diseases of Korean Medicine Ophthalmology, Otolaryngology & Dermatology Department at Daejeon Korean Medicine Hospital - From March, 2013 to February, 2019- (대전한방병원 한방안이비인후피부과로 내원한 귀 질환 환자 특성 분석 -2012년 3월부터 2019년 2월까지-)

  • Jea, Ha-Kyung;An, Jae-Hyun;Kim, Su-Yeong;Jung, Hyun-A
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology and Dermatology
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.23-42
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    • 2020
  • Objectives : This study is designed to analyze the outpatients who received medical treatments for ear diseases in ophthalmology & otolaryngology & dermatology clinic of Daejeon Korean Medical Hospital from March, 2013 to February, 2019. Methods : We classified the otology outpatients who received medical treatments in ophthalmology & otolaryngology & dermatology clinic of Daejeon Korean Medical Hospital from March, 2012 to February, 2019 according to gender, year, age, season, anatomical parts, and main diagnosis. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 25.0. Results : 1. The number of outpatients with ear diseases were 880; 505 female and 375 male. The number of female patients were approximately 1.7 times higher. 2. The average age of the outpatients with ear diseases were 50.0. The number of middle-aged (40-50s) patients were 439, which is almost half the number(49.9%) of the whole patients. 3. By analyzing the number of patients classified by year, we found out that the number of the outpatients with ear diseases has increased gradually for the past 7 years. 4. In the analysis of the number of patients classified by the anatomical parts of the ear, the inner ear diseases group were the largest, amounting to 79.3% of the whole patients. 5. In the analysis of the number of patients classified by main diagnosis, Tinnitus turns out to be the largest group with 338 patients, followed by sudden sensorineural hearing loss, dizziness, otalgia, Meniere's syndrome, otitis, auditory tube dysfunction, BPPV. 6. No statistical-significant difference were shown in the analysis of the number of patients classified by season. Conclusions : It turns out that patients with ear diseases had increased by the years, and middle aged patients (40-50s) were the largest among the age groups. Most of the patients came for the inner-ear diseases, and tinnitus, sudden sensorineural hearing loss took up the largest proportions.

Comparison of Heart Proportions Compressed by Chest Compressions Between Geriatric and Nongeriatric Patients Using Mathematical Methods and Chest Computed Tomography: A Retrospective Study

  • Yoo, Kyung Hun;Oh, Jaehoon;Lee, Heekyung;Lee, Juncheol;Kang, Hyunggoo;Lim, Tae Ho;Song, Soon Young;Kim, Solji
    • Annals of Geriatric Medicine and Research
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.130-136
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    • 2018
  • Background: Current guidelines recommended that chest compression depths during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) should be at least one-fifth of the external chest anteriorposterior (AP) diameter. The chest AP diameter increases because of dorsal kyphosis, senile emphysema, and poor lung compliance associated with aging. This study aimed to compare the proportion of the heart compressed by chest compression (based on the ejection fraction [EF]) in geriatric and nongeriatric patients. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of the chest computed tomography findings obtained between January 2010 and August 2016 and measured the chest anatomical parameters such as the perpendicular external and internal chest AP diameters with the heart AP diameter. Based on values of these parameters, EFs with 50- and 60-mm depths were obtained. In addition, we investigated and compared the proportion of 50- and 60-mm depths and heart AP to external chest AP diameter between the 2 groups. Results: We randomly selected and analyzed 100 of 1,921 geriatric and 100 of 22,090 nongeriatric populations from a database. The $means{\pm}standard$ deviations of EFs with 50- and 60-mm depths for geriatric and nongeriatric people were $37.1%{\pm}12.1%$ vs. $43.2%{\pm}13.8%$ and $47.5%{\pm}12.8%$ vs. $54.6%{\pm}14.8%$, respectively (all p<0.001). The proportion of 50- and 60-mm depths and heart AP to external chest AP diameter were significantly different between the 2 groups (all p<0.05). Conclusion: Chest compression depths based on current guidelines are not sufficient for geriatric patients during CPR; hence, deeper chest compressions would be considered.

Morphological Observations of Ovaries in Relation to Infertility in Slaughtered Cows in Kyungnam Province 2. Incidences and Morphological Findings of Ovarian Cysts (경남지방의 도태우에 불임과 관련된 난소의 형태학적 관찰 2. 난소낭종의 발생과 낭종형태에 대하여)

  • 곽수동;표병민;양재훈;김철호;서득록;고필옥;강정부
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.153-158
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    • 2002
  • Ovaries from total 192 slaughtered cows(154 Korean native cows and 38 Holstein cows) were collected during the slaughtering process in Kimhae, Changyoung and Yangsan abattoirs in Kyungnam province from January 2001 to January 2002. In order to investigate incidence of the ovarian cysts, anatomical, histological observations were performed and also TUNEL methods and PCNA antibody by immunogistochemical methods for diagnostic accuracy of cysts in a few ovaries were applied. Apoptotic positive cells by TUNEL method appeared not or a few in cystic walls but appeared more number in normal large follicular walls and the proliferative positive cells by PCNA antibody appeared numerous in normal large follicular walls but not or a few in cystic walls. The incident rates of ovarian cysts were 19.5% in Korean native cows and 18.4% in Holstein cows. The incident rates of ovarian cysts in Holstein cows were lower than that of Koran native cows. The incident rates of follicular cysts and luteal cysts in Korean native cows were 11.7% and 7.8% respectively. The incident rates of follicular cysts and luteal cysts in Holstein cows were 10.5% and 7.9%, respectively. Higher incidence proportions of ovarian cysts according to seasons in Korean native cows were ordered as spring (29.8%), autumn (21.4%) winter (14.3%) and summer (6.7%). Rates of cows with single cyst and multiple cysts were 63.3%(19 heads /30 heads) and 36.7%(11 heads/30 heads) in 30 cystic Korean native cows, respectively. Cystic cows with corpus luteums were 50.0%(15 heads) in 30 Korean native cows and 42.9%(3 heads) in 7 dairy cows, respectively. Among 15 cystic Korean native cows with corpus luteums, rates of cows with single corpus luteum were 66.7%(10 heads) and rates of multiple corpus luteum were 33.3%(5 heads ), respectively. The average diameter of cysts and corpus luteums in cystic ovaries were 21.0$\times$17.1 mm and 18.1$\times$13.8 mm in 30 Korean native cows and 20.6$\times$17.7 mm and 19.3 $\times$ 14.9 mm in 7 Holstein cows, respectively. So the average sizes of cysts in cystic ovaries were larger than those of corpus luteums.

Calyx-End Browning in Various Persimmon (Diospyros kaki) Cultivars and Anatomical Observations in Flesh Tissues (단감의 품종별 과정부 갈변률과 과육조직의 해부학적 관찰)

  • Na, Yang-Gi;Kim, Wol-Soo;Park, Hee-Seung;Choi, Hyun-Sug;Choi, Kyeong-Ju;Lee, Youn;Lee, You-Seok
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.109-120
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    • 2011
  • Calyx-end browning in sweet persimmon (Diospyros kaki) fruits is the postharvest disorder during the storage and shows different proportions by the cultivars. This study was to evaluate fruit texture characteristics at harvest and to learn how browning in fruits affects the cell structures in different cultivars. Persimmon cultivars included 'Fuyu', 'Jiro', 'Uenishiwase', 'Daiandangam', and 'Ro-19', which were harvested at the end of October in 2003 and investigated after 100 days storage. Fruit texture varied with different cultivars. 'Jiro' and 'Ro-19' fruits did not have browning symptoms while 'Daiandangam' fruits had approximately 80% browning of them. There were no visual differences for the cell structure in fruit peels between fruits without browning, such as 'Jiro' and 'Ro-19', and fruits with browning, such as 'Fuyu', 'Uenishiwase', and 'Daiandangam'. The most outer layers in a 'Jiro' fruit peel arranged one to two epidermis which could not induce browning in the tissues, while 'Fuyu' had two to three layers, inducing a browning symptom. Although there were no differences for the tissue structure between browning and normal fruits, browning fruits did not have apparent cell organelle and proceeded degradation of cell walls in the flesh.