• Title, Summary, Keyword: Anode type ion beam source

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Characteristics of Critical Pressure for a Beam Shape of the Anode Type ion Beam Source

  • Huh, Yunsung;Hwang, Yunseok;Kim, Jeha
    • Applied Science and Convergence Technology
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.61-65
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    • 2018
  • We studied the critical pressure characteristics of an anode type ion beam source driven by both charge repulsion and diffusion mechanism. The critical pressure $P_{crit}$ of the diffusion type ion beam source was linearly decreased from 2.5 mTorr to 0.5 mTorr when the gas injection was varied in 3~10 sccm, while the $P_{crit}$ of the charge repulsion ion beam source was remained at 3.5 mTorr. At the gas injection of 10 sccm, the range of having normal beam shape in the charge repulsion ion beam source was about 6.4 times wider than that in the diffusion type ion beam source. An impurity of Fe 2p (KE = 776.68 eV) of 12.88 at. % was observed from the glass surface treated with the abnormal beam of the charge repulsion type ion beam source. The body temperature of the diffusion type ion beam source was observed to increase rapidly at the rate of $1.9^{\circ}C/min$ for 30 minutes and to vary slowly at the rate of $0.1^{\circ}C/min$ for 200 minutes for an abnormal beam and normal beam, respectively.

Study of ion beam shaping of an anode-type ion source coupled with a Whenelt mask

  • Huh, Yunsung;Hwang, Yunseok;Kim, Jeha
    • Applied Science and Convergence Technology
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.66-70
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    • 2018
  • We fabricated an anode-type ion source driven by a charge repulsion mechanism and investigated its beam shape controlled by a Whenelt mask integrated at the front face of the source. The ion beam shape was observed to vary by changing the geometry of the Whenelt mask. As the angle of inclination of the Whenelt mask was varied from $40^{\circ}$ to $60^{\circ}$, the etched area at a thin film was reduced from 20 mm to 7.5 mm at the working distance of 286 mm, and the light transmittance through the etched surface was increased from 78% to 80%, respectively. In addition, for the step height difference, ${\Delta}$ between the inner mask and the outer mask of ${\Delta}=0$, -1 mm, and +1 mm, we observed the ion beam shape was formed to be collimated, diverged, and focused, respectively. The focal length of the focused beam was 269 mm. We approved experimentally a simple way of controlling the electric field of the ion beam by changing the geometry of the Whenelt mask such that the initial direction of the ion beam in the plasma region was manipulated effectively.

Study of Driving and Thermal Stability of Anode-type Ion Beam Source by Charge Repulsion Mechanism

  • Huh, Yunsung;Hwang, Yunseok;Kim, Jeha
    • Applied Science and Convergence Technology
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.47-51
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    • 2018
  • We fabricated an anode-type ion beam source and studied its driving characteristics of the initial extraction of ions using two driving mechanisms: a diffusion phenomenon and a charge repulsion phenomenon. For specimen exposed to the ion beam in two methods, the surface impurity element was investigated by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Upon Ar gas injection for plasma generation the ion beam source was operated for 48 hours. We found a Fe 2p peak 5.4 at. % in the initial ions by the diffusion mechanism while no indication of Fe in the ions released in the charge repulsion mechanism. As for a long operation of 200 min, the temperature of ion beam sources was measured to increase at the rate of ${\sim}0.1^{\circ}C/min$ and kept at the initial value of $27^{\circ}C$ for driving by diffusion and charge repulsion mechanism, respectively. In this study, we confirmed that the ion beam source driven by the charge repulsion mechanism was very efficient for a long operation as proved by little electrode damage and thermal stability.

Experimental Results of New Ion Source for Performance Test

  • Kim, Tae-Seong;Jeong, Seung-Ho;Jang, Du-Hui;Lee, Gwang-Won;In, Sang-Yeol
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.269-269
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    • 2012
  • A new ion source has been designed, fabricated, and installed at the NBTS (Neutral Beam Test Stand) at the KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) site. The goalis to provide a 100 keV, 2MW deuterium neutral beam injection as an auxiliary heating of KSTAR (Korea Super Tokamak Advanced Research). To cope with power demand, an ion current of 50 A is required considering the beam power loss and neutralization efficiency. The new ion source consists of a magnetic cusp bucket plasma generator and a set of tetrode accelerators with circular copper apertures. The plasma generator for the new ion source has the same design concept as the modified JAEA multi-cusp plasma generator for the KSTAR prototype ion source. The dimensions of the plasma generator are a cross section of $59{\times}25cm^2$ with a 32.5 cm depth. The anode has azimuthal arrays of Nd-Fe permanent magnets (3.4 kG at surface) in the bucket and an electron dump, which makes 9 cusp lines including the electron dump. The discharge properties were investigated preliminarily to enhance the efficiency of the beam extraction. The discharge of the new ion source was mainly controlled by a constant power mode of operation. The discharge of the plasma generator was initiated by the support of primary electrons emitted from the cathode, consisting of 12 tungsten filaments with a hair-pin type (diameter = 2.0 mm). The arc discharge of the new ion source was achieved easily up to an arc power of 80 kW (80 V/1000 A) with hydrogen gas. The 80 kW capacity seems sufficient for the arc power supply to attain the goal of arc efficiency (beam extracted current/discharge input power = 0.8 A/kW). The accelerator of the new ion source consists of four grids: plasma grid (G1), gradient grid (G2), suppressor grid (G3), and ground grid (G4). Each grid has 280 EA circular apertures. The performance tests of the new ion source accelerator were also finished including accelerator conditioning. A hydrogen ion beam was successfully extracted up to 100 keV /60 A. The optimum perveance is defined where the beam divergence is at a minimum was also investigated experimentally. The optimum hydrogen beam perveance is over $2.3{\mu}P$ at 60 keV, and the beam divergence angle is below $1.0^{\circ}$. Thus, the new ion source is expected to be capable of extracting more than a 5 MW deuterium ion beam power at 100 keV. This ion source can deliver ~2 MW of neutral beam power to KSTAR tokamak plasma for the 2012 campaign.

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Field emission properties of diamond-like carbon films deposited by ion beam sputtering (이온빔 스퍼터링으로 제작된 다이아몬드성 카본 필름의 전계 방출 특성)

  • 안상혁;이광렬;전동렬
    • Journal of the Korean Vacuum Society
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.36-42
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    • 1999
  • Field emission behaviors from diamond-like carbon films were investigated. The films were deposited on n-type Si wafer by ion beam sputtering method using 3 cm Kaufman type ion source. Regardless of the film thicknesses and atomic bond structure, the emission current was much enhanced by electrical breakdown between anode and the film surface. The effective work function was estimated to be about 0.1 eV. In order to identify the emission site, tungsten tip was scanned the damaged region damaged region but localized to a specific site. Analysis using Auger electron spectroscopy and SEM shows that SiC compound was not a sufficient condition for the electron emission. This result showed that the enhanced emission was mainly due to the changes in the chemical bond of the damaged region rather than the enhanced electric field caused by the morphological change.

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Structural Behavior of Mixed $LiMn_2O_4-LiNi_{1/3}Co_{1/3}Mn_{1/3}O_2$ Cathode in Li-ion Cells during Electrochemical Cycling

  • Yun, Won-Seop;Lee, Sang-U
    • Proceedings of the Materials Research Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.5-5
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    • 2011
  • The research and development of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) and electric vehicle (EV) are intensified due to the energy crisis and environmental concerns. In order to meet the challenging requirements of powering HEV, PHEV and EV, the current lithium battery technology needs to be significantly improved in terms of the cost, safety, power and energy density, as well as the calendar and cycle life. One new technology being developed is the utilization of composite cathode by mixing two different types of insertion compounds [e.g., spinel $LiMn_2O_4$ and layered $LiMO_2$ (M=Ni, Co, and Mn)]. Recently, some studies on mixing two different types of cathode materials to make a composite cathode have been reported, which were aimed at reducing cost and improving self-discharge. Numata et al. reported that when stored in a sealed can together with electrolyte at $80^{\circ}C$ for 10 days, the concentrations of both HF and $Mn^{2+}$ were lower in the can containing $LiMn_2O_4$ blended with $LiNi_{0.8}Co_{0.2}O_2$ than that containing $LiMn_2O_4$ only. That reports clearly showed that this blending technique can prevent the decline in capacity caused by cycling or storage at elevated temperatures. However, not much work has been reported on the charge-discharge characteristics and related structural phase transitions for these composite cathodes. In this presentation, we will report our in situ x-ray diffraction studies on this mixed composite cathode material during charge-discharge cycling. The mixed cathodes were incorporated into in situ XRD cells with a Li foil anode, a Celgard separator, and a 1M $LiPF_6$ electrolyte in a 1 : 1 EC : DMC solvent (LP 30 from EM Industries, Inc.). For in situ XRD cell, Mylar windows were used as has been described in detail elsewhere. All of these in situ XRD spectra were collected on beam line X18A at National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory using two different detectors. One is a conventional scintillation detector with data collection at 0.02 degree in two theta angle for each step. The other is a wide angle position sensitive detector (PSD). The wavelengths used were 1.1950 ${\AA}$ for the scintillation detector and 0.9999 A for the PSD. The newly installed PSD at beam line X18A of NSLS can collect XRD patterns as short as a few minutes covering $90^{\circ}$ of two theta angles simultaneously with good signal to noise ratio. It significantly reduced the data collection time for each scan, giving us a great advantage in studying the phase transition in real time. The two theta angles of all the XRD spectra presented in this paper have been recalculated and converted to corresponding angles for ${\lambda}=1.54\;{\AA}$, which is the wavelength of conventional x-ray tube source with Cu-$k{\alpha}$ radiation, for easy comparison with data in other literatures. The structural changes of the composite cathode made by mixing spinel $LiMn_2O_4$ and layered $Li-Ni_{1/3}Co_{1/3}Mn_{1/3}O_2$ in 1 : 1 wt% in both Li-half and Li-ion cells during charge/discharge are studied by in situ XRD. During the first charge up to ~5.2 V vs. $Li/Li^+$, the in situ XRD spectra for the composite cathode in the Li-half cell track the structural changes of each component. At the early stage of charge, the lithium extraction takes place in the $LiNi_{1/3}Co_{1/3}Mn_{1/3}O_2$ component only. When the cell voltage reaches at ~4.0 V vs. $Li/Li^+$, lithium extraction from the spinel $LiMn_2O_4$ component starts and becomes the major contributor for the cell capacity due to the higher rate capability of $LiMn_2O_4$. When the voltage passed 4.3 V, the major structural changes are from the $LiNi_{1/3}Co_{1/3}Mn_{1/3}O_2$ component, while the $LiMn_2O_4$ component is almost unchanged. In the Li-ion cell using a MCMB anode and a composite cathode cycled between 2.5 V and 4.2 V, the structural changes are dominated by the spinel $LiMn_2O_4$ component, with much less changes in the layered $LiNi_{1/3}Co_{1/3}Mn_{1/3}O_2$ component, comparing with the Li-half cell results. These results give us valuable information about the structural changes relating to the contributions of each individual component to the cell capacity at certain charge/discharge state, which are helpful in designing and optimizing the composite cathode using spinel- and layered-type materials for Li-ion battery research. More detailed discussion will be presented at the meeting.

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