• Title, Summary, Keyword: Apoptotic cell death

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Melittin Inhibits Human Prostate Cancer Cell Growth through Induction of Apoptotic Cell Death

  • Park Hye-Ji;Lee Yong-Kyung;Song Ho-Seub;Kim Goon-Joung;Son Dong-Ju;Lee Jae-Woong;Hong Jin-Tae
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.31-37
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    • 2006
  • It was previously found that melittin inhibited $NF-{\kappa}B$ activity by reacting with signal molecules of $NF-{\kappa}B$ which is critical contributor in cancer cell growth by induction of apoptotic cell death. We here investigated whether melittin inhibits cell growth of human prostate cancer cells through induction of apoptotic cell death, and the possible signal pathways. Melittin ($0{\sim}1\;{\mu}g/ml$) inhibited prostate cancer cell growth in a dose dependent manner. Conversely related to the growth inhibitory effect, melittin increased the induction of apoptotic cell death in a dose dependent manner. Melittin also inhibited DNA binding activity of $NF-{\kappa}B$, an anti-apoptotic transcriptional factor. Consistent with the induction of apoptotic cell death and inhibition of $NF-{\kappa}B$, melittin increased the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins caspase-3, and Bax but down-regulated anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. These findings suggest that melittin could inhibit prostate cancer cell growth, and this effect may be related with the induction of apoptotic cell death via inactivation of $NF-{\kappa}B$.

Induction of Apoptotic Cell Death by Red Pericarp Rice (Jakwangchalbyeo) Extracts

  • Chi, Hee-Youn;Lee, Chang-Ho;Kim, Kwang-Ho;Kim, Sun-Lim;Chung, Ill-Min
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.534-542
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    • 2006
  • The effects of ethanol fractions of three different rice grain extracts, Jakwangchalbyeo, Hwasunchalbyeo, and Ilpumbyeo, on apoptotic cell death in the rat hepatoma H4IIE cell line were investigated using the MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] cell viability assay. One hundred mg/mL Jakwangchalbyeo extract significantly reduced cell viability to 69.5, 57.2, and 46.1% within 24, 48, and 72 hr, respectively. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analyses were also performed to characterize the cell death pattern caused by treatment with the rice grain extracts. Apoptotic cell death was clearly observed with time after treatment with the Jakwangchalbyeo extract. In Western blotting analysis, degradation of the 116 kDa poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) molecule was observed with concomitant formation of an 89 kDa product 24, 48, and 72 hr after treating cells with the Jakwangchalbyeo extract. This indicates that an apoptotic process caused cell death in these cells. In conclusion, red-pericarp Jakwangchalbyeo extract induced apoptotic cell death in H4IIE cells to a larger extent than the other rice extracts.

Quercetin Prevents Hydrogen Peroxide-induced Necrotic and Apoptotic Cell Death in Human Colonic Epithelial Cells

  • Jung, Soon-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Laboratory Science
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.161-170
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    • 2011
  • Quercetin is one of the most distributed flavonoids in the plant kingdom and occurs naturally in a wide range of fruits and vegetables. This study was undertaken to determine whether quercetin exerts beneficial effect against necrotic and apoptotic cell death induced by hydrogen peroxide ($H_2O2$) in intestinal cells using the human-derived cultured T84 colonic epithelial cell line. Necrotic cell death was induced by exposing cells to 0.5 mM $H_2O_2$ for 2 h and apoptosis was induced by incubating cells in normal culture medium for 18 h following exposure of cells to 0.5 mM $H_2O2$ for 2 h. Cell viability was evaluated by the trypan blue exclusion assay and apoptosis was assessed by Hoechst 33258 staining and flow cytometry. $H_2O_2$ induced necrotic cell death in a time and dose-dependent fashion. Both necrotic and apoptotic cell deaths were not prevented by the antioxidants N,N'-diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine(DPPD) and Trolox, whereas both cell deaths induced by the organic hydroperoxide t-butylhydroperoxide (tBHP) were prevented by DPPD, suggesting that $H_2O_2$ induces cell death through a lipid peroxidation-independent mechanism. $H_2O2$-induced necrotic death was prevented by deferoxamine and 3-aminobenzamide, while the apoptotic cell death was not affected by these agents. Quercetin prevented both necrotic and apoptotic cell deaths induced by $H_2O_2$ in a dose-dependent manner. $H_2O_2$ caused activation of poly (ADP-ribose) polmerase (PARP), which was inhibited by deferoxamine, 3-aminobenzamide, and quercetin, but not DPPD. These results indicate that quercetin inhibits both necroticand apoptotic deaths of T84 cells. The anti-necrotic effect of quercetin may be attributed to its iron chelator activity rather than a direct $H_2O_2$ scavenging capacity and antioxidant. The present study suggests that quercetin may play a therapeutic role in the treatment of human gastrointestinal diseases mediated by oxidants.

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Ceramide Induces Cell Death through an ERK-dependent Mitochondrial Apoptotic Pathway in Renal Epithelial Cells

  • Jung, Soon-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Laboratory Science
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.46-54
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    • 2010
  • Ceramide induces cell death in a variety of cell types however, the underlying molecular mechanisms related to renal epithelial cells remain unclear. The present study was undertaken to determine the role of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) in ceramide-induced cell death in renal epithelial cells. An established renal proximal tubular cell line of opossum kidney (OK) cells was used for this research. Ceramide induced apoptotic cell death in these cells. Western blot analysis showed that ceramide induced activation of ERK. The ERK activation and cell death induced by ceramide were prevented by the ERK inhibitor PD98059. Ceramide caused cytochrome C release from mitochondria into the cytosol as well as activation of caspase-3. Both effects were prevented by PD98059. The ceramide-induced cell death was also prevented by a caspase inhibitor. These results suggest that ceramide induces cell death through an ERK-dependent mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in OK cells.

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Serum Deprivation Enhances Apoptotic Cell Death by Increasing Mitochondrial Enzyme Activity

  • Moon, Eun-Yi
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2008
  • Mitochondria are important sensor of apoptosis. $H_2O_2-induced$ cell death rate was enhanced by serum deprivation. In this study, we investigated whether serum deprivation using 0.5 or 3 % FBS induces apoptotic cell death through mitochondrial enzyme activation as compared to 10 % FBS. Apoptotic cell death was observed by chromosome condensation and the increase of sub-G0/G1 population. Serum deprivation reduced cell growth rate, which was confirmed by the decrease of S-phase population in cell cycle. Serum deprivation significantly increased caspase-9 activity and cytochrome c release from mitochondria into cytosol. Serum deprivation-induced mitochondrial changes were also indicated by the increase of ROS production and the activation of mitochondrial enzyme, succinate dehydrogenase. Mitochondrial enzyme activity increased by serum deprivation was reduced by the treatment with rotenone, mitochondrial electron transport inhibitor. In conclusion, serum deprivation induced mitochondrial apoptotic cell death through the elevation of mitochondrial changes such as ROS production, cytochrome c release and caspase-9 activation. It suggests that drug sensitivity could be enhanced by the increase of mitochondrial enzyme activity in serum-deprived condition.

Apoptotic Cell Death Following Traumatic Injury to the Central Nervous System

  • Springer, Joe E.
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.94-105
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    • 2002
  • Apoptotic cell death is a fundamental and highly regulated biological process in which a cell is instructed to actively participate in its own demise. This process of cellular suicide is activated by developmental and environmental cues and normally plays an essential role in eliminating superfluous, damaged, and senescent cells of many tissue types. In recent years, a number of experimental studies have provided evidence of widespread neuronal and glial apoptosis following injury to the central nervous system (CNS). These studies indicate that injury-induced apoptosis can be detected from hours to days following injury and may contribute to neurological dysfunction. Given these findings, understanding the biochemical signaling events controlling apoptosis is a first step towards developing therapeutic agents that target this cell death process. This review will focus on molecular cell death pathways that are responsible for generating the apoptotic phenotype. It will also summarize what is currently known about the apoptotic signals that are activated in the injured CNS, and what potential strategies might be pursued to reduce this cell death process as a means to promote functional recovery.

Apoptotic Cell Death of Mouse Splenocytes by Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Its Prevention by Serum

  • Yoo, Byung-Sun;Kim, Hwan-Mook
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.187-191
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    • 1997
  • Cell death induced by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), environmental toxicant, was investigated in mouse splenocytes. The fragmentation of intact DNA, a parameter of apoptotic cell death, was evaluated qualitatively by agarose gel electrophoresis analysis and quantitatively by diphenylamine reaction method. PCBs induced apoptotic cell death of splenocytes in a dose- and time- dependent manner. The effect of serum on the apoptotic cell death induced by PCBs was also investigated. The DNA fragmentation induced by PCB treatment in serum-free medium was clearly inhibited by an addition of serum to the culture medium. The decrease of DNA fragmentation due to serum addition was accompanied with the increase of cell viability.

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Apoptotic Signaling Cascade of 5-aminolaevulinic Acid-based Photodynamic Therapy in Human Promyelocytic Leukemia HL-60 Cells

  • Nagao, Tomokazu;Matsuzaki, Kazuki;Takahashi, Miho;Minamitani, Haruyuki
    • Journal of Photoscience
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.509-511
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    • 2002
  • In this study, we investigated apoptotic cell death induced by photodynamic therapy using 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA-PDT) in human promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60). ALA-PDT induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells as confirmed by DNA agarose gel electrophoresis and nuclear staining with Hoechst 33342. The apoptotic cell death was inhibited by addition of broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor Z-Asp-CH$_2$-DCB, indicating that the apoptotic cell death was induced in a caspase-dependent manner. Actually, western blotting analysis revealed that caspase-3 was processed as early as 1.5 h after ALA-PDT. Cytoplasmic cytochrome c released from mitochondria was detected by western blotting. However, inhibitor of caspase-9, a cysteine protease located in the downstream of cytochrome c release, was not able to reduce the apoptotic cell death. Therefore, the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway was not involved in the ALA-PDT-induced apoptosis. On the other hand, it was found that ALA-PDT-induced apoptosis was clearly inhibited by pretreatment of caspase-8 inhibitor. These data suggest that caspase-8-mediated apoptotic pathway is important in ALA-PDT-induced cell death.

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Abrin Induces HeLa Cell Apoptosis by Cytochrome c Release and Caspase Activation

  • Qu, Xiaoling;Qing, Liuting
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.445-453
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    • 2004
  • We identified apoptosis as being a significant mechanism of toxicity following the exposure of HeLa cell cultures to abrin holotoxin, which is in addition to its inhibition of protein biosynthesis by N-glycosidase activity. The treatment of HeLa cell cultures with abrin resulted in apoptotic cell death, as characterized by morphological and biochemical changes, i.e., cell shrinkage, internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, the occurrence of hypodiploid DNA, chromatin condensation, nuclear breakdown, DNA single strand breaks by TUNEL assay, and phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization. This apoptotic cell death was accompanied by caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation, as indicated by the cleavage of caspase substrates, which was preceded by mitochondrial cytochrome c release. The broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor, benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethyl ketone (zVAD-fmk), prevented abrin-triggered caspase activation and partially abolished apoptotic cell death, but did not affect mitochondrial cytochrome c release. These results suggest that the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c, and the sequential caspase-9 and caspase-3 activations are important events in the signal transduction pathway of abrin-induced apoptotic cell death in the HeLa cell line.

Novel non-apoptotic cell death: ferroptosis (새로운 non-apoptotic 세포사멸: ferroptosis)

  • Woo, Seon Min;Kwon, Taeg Kyu
    • Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.174-181
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    • 2017
  • Ferroptosis is a newly recognized type of cell death that results from iron-dependent lipid peroxidation and is different from other types of cell death, such as apoptosis, necrosis, and autophagic cell death. This type of cell death is characterized by mitochondrial shrinkage with an increased mitochondrial membrane density and outer mitochondrial membrane rupture. Ferroptosis can be induced by a loss of activity of system $X_c{^-}$ and the inhibition of glutathione peroxidase 4, followed by the accumulation of lipid reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, inactivation of the mevalonate and transsulfuration pathways is involved in the induction of ferroptosis. Moreover, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase and p53 promote ferroptosis by increasing ROS production, while heat shock protein beta-1 and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 inhibit ferroptosis by reducing iron uptake. This article outlines the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways of ferroptosis regulation, and explains the roles of ferroptosis in human disease.