• Title, Summary, Keyword: Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC)

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Diffusion-weighted Imaging and Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Maps for the Evaluation of Pyogenic Ventriculitis

  • Kim, Hyeong-Seok;Hong, Jae-Taek;Lee, Sang-Won;Son, Byung-Chul;Sung, Jae-Hoon;Kim, Moon-Chan
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.23-27
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    • 2005
  • Objective : The aim of this study is to assess the significance of an apparent diffusion coefficient[ADC] study for diagnosis of ventriculitis. Methods : Seven patients with ventriculitis were enrolled in this study. Diffusion-weighted[DW] magnetic resonance images[MRI] and ADC maps in the dependent intraventricular collection, periventricular white matter and non-dependent cerebrospinal fluid[CSF] were obtained. The images and ADC data from the different lesions were compared. Results : The DW MRI showed marked hyperintensity in the purulent pus lesion, and the corresponding ADC maps revealed prominent hypointensity and restricted ADC values compared with the non-dependent CSF and normal white matter. Conclusion : The decreased ADC value and increased signal intensity of the dependent intraventricular fluid on the DW MRI show restricted water diffusion in the purulent fluid, which is indicative of a pyogenic ventriculitis diagnosis.

Diagnostic Significance of Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Values with Diffusion Weighted MRI in Breast Cancer: a Meta-Analysis

  • Sun, Jiang-Hong;Jiang, Li;Guo, Fei;Zhang, Xiu-Shi
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.19
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    • pp.8271-8277
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    • 2014
  • Aims: Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of nodes in diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) are widely used in differentiating metastatic from non-metastatic lymph nodes. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to demonstrate whether DWI could contribute to the precise diagnosis of breast cancer (BC) with and without lymph node metastasis (LNM). Materials and Methods: English and Chinese electronic databases were searched for relevant studies followed by a comprehensive literature search. Two reviewers independently assessed the methodological quality of the included trials based on the quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies (QUADAS). Summary odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated. Results: Final analysis of 624 BC subjects (patients with LNM = 254, patients without LNM = 370) were incorporated into the current meta-analysis from 9 eligible cohort studies. Combined ORs of ADCs suggested that ADC values in BC patients without LNM were higher than in patients with LNM (OR=0.56, 95%CI: 0.11-1.01, p=0.015). Subgroup analysis stratified by country indicated a low ADC value in BC patients with LNM rather than those without LNM among Chinese (OR=1.27, 95%CI: 0.89-1.66, p<0.001), Italians (OR=0.75, 95%CI: 0.13-1.38, p=0.018), and Egyptians (OR=1.27, 95%CI: 0.71-1.84, p<0.001). The findings of subgroup analysis by MRI machine type revealed that ADC values from diffusion MRI may be potential diagnostic indicators for BC using Non-Philips 1.5T (OR=1.10, 95%CI: 0.84-1.36, p<0.001). Conclusions: The main findings of our meta-analysis demonstrated that increased signal intensity on DWI and decreased signals on ADC are helpful in diagnosis of BC patients with or without LNM. DWI could therefore be an important imaging investigation in patients suspected of BC.

A Change of Apparent Diffusion Coefficient in Diffusion Weighted Imaging Applied with Rectangular FOV Technique (확산강조영상 검사 시 rectangular FOV 적용에 따른 ADC 값의 변화)

  • Na, Sa-Ra;Choi, Kwan-Woo;Koo, No-Hyun;Yoo, Beong-Gyu;Son, Soon-Yong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology
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    • v.10 no.7
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    • pp.545-550
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of this study is to improve the mapping between functional image and conventional image by using rectangular FOV technique. Diffusion weighted imaging which is widely used for stroke was acquired by reducing the FOV and compared each Apparent Diffusion Coefficient(ADC). As a result, there is no significant difference of each ADC value in one-way-anova analysis and post-hoc analysis. Thus, Mismatching problem may be improved by matching the FOV with rectangular FOV technique because there is no difference in ADC values.

Substantia Nigra after Striatal Infarction on T2- Weighted MR Images

  • Park Byung-Rae
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.307-310
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    • 2005
  • Cerebral ischemia results in neuronal changes in remote areas that have fiber connections with the ischemic area. The aim of this study was to investigate the nigral changes by examining the correlation between the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and the tissue structure. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion. Four days after the occlusion, when T2-weighted images revealed the presence of an area of high signal intensity in the ipsilateral substantia nigra, and the ADCs were calculated and imaged. Histopathologic examination by both light and electron microscopy was performed on day 4 after surgery. This finding was consistent with the high signal intensity seen on T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted images, as well as with the ADC reduction, but we did not expect to observe uniform ADC reduction attributable mainly to astrocytic swelling in the perivascular end-feet.

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Electron Microscopy and MR Imaging Findings in Embolic Effects

  • Park Byung-Rae;Koo Bong-Oh
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.367-373
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    • 2004
  • Evaluated the hyperacute embolic effects of triolein and oleic acid in cat brains by using MR image and electron microscopy. In fat embolism, free fatty acid is more toxic than neutral fat in terms of tissue damage. T2-Weighted imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging, and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted imaging were performed in cat brains after the injection of triolein (group 1, n=8) or oleic acid (group 2, n=10) into the internal carotid artery. MR image were quantitatively assessed by comparing the lesions with their counterparts on T2-weighted images, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps, and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images. Electron microscopic findings in group 1 were compared with those in group 2. Qualitatively, MR images revealed two types of lesions. Type 1 lesions were hyperintense on diffusion-weighted images and hypointense of ADC maps. Type 2 lesions were isointense or mildly hyperintense on diffusion-weighted images and isointense on ADC maps. Quantitatively, the signal intensity rations of type 1 lesions in group 2 specimens were significantly higher on T2-weighted images (P=.013)/(P=.027) and lower on ADC maps compared with those of group 1. Electron microscopy of type 1 lesions in both groups revealed more prominent widening of the perivascular space and swelling of the neural cells in groups 1. MR and electron microscopic data on cerebral fat embolism induced by either triolein or oleic acid revealed characteristics suggestive of both vasogenic and cytotoxic edema in the hyperacute stage. Tissue damage appeared more severe in the oleic acid group than in the triolein group.

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Serial Magnetic Resonance Images of a Right Middle Cerebral Artery Infarction : Persistent Hyperintensity on Diffusion-Weighted MRI Over 8 Months

  • Son, Seung-Nam;Choi, Dae-Seob;Choi, Nack-Cheon;Lim, Byeong-Hoon
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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    • v.50 no.4
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    • pp.388-391
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    • 2011
  • A lesion that is hyperintense on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and hypointense on the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map is a characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) finding in acute ischemic infarction. In some cases, however, these findings can persist for a few months after infarct onset. It is thought that these finding reflect the different evolution speeds of the infarcted tissue. We report a patient with a right middle cerebral artery territory infarction with persistent hyperintensity on DWI and hypointensity on the ADC map for over 8 months. To our knowledge, this is the most persistent case of hyperintensity lesion on DWI and the serial MRI images of this patient provide important information on the evolution of infarcted tissue.

Changes in SNR and ADC According to the Increase in b Value in Liver Diffusion-Weighted Images

  • Cho, Jae-Hwan;Kim, Ham-Gyum
    • Journal of Magnetics
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.219-224
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    • 2012
  • In the present study, changes in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of the diffusion-weighted images in the normal livers were investigated using changes in b values in 1.5 T MR (magnetic resonance) instruments. Respective diffusion-weighted images and ADC map images were obtained from 20 healthy individuals by increasing b values from 50 to 400 and 800 $s/mm^2$ using 1.5T MR scanner between January 2011 and November 2011. At each ADC map image obtained at each b value, ADCs in the right hepatic lobe, spleen and kidney were measured. As a result, ADCs of the right hepatic lobe, spleen and kidney have gradually decreased in the diffusion-weighted images in accordance with the reduced b value. This outcome may be used as preliminary data for applications to various abdominal diseases.

Study of Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Changes According to Spinal Disease in MR Diffusion-weighted Image

  • Heo, Yeong-Cheol;Cho, Jae-Hwan
    • Journal of Magnetics
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.146-149
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    • 2017
  • In this study, we compared the standardized value of each signal intensity, the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) that digitizes the diffusion of water molecules, and the signal to noise ratio (SNR) using b value 0 400, 1400 ($s/mm^2$). From March 2013 to December 2013, patients with suspicion of simple compound fracture and metastatic spine cancer were included in the MR readout. We used a 1.5 Tesla Achieva MRI system and a Syn-Spine Coil. Sequence is a DWI SE-EPI sagittal (diffusion weighted imaging spin echo-echo planar imaging sagittal) image with b-factor ($s/mm^2$) 0, 400, 1400 were used. Data analysis showed ROI (Region of Interest) in diseased area with high SI (signal intensity) in diffusion-weighted image b value 0 ($s/mm^2$) Using the MRIcro program, each SI was calculated with images of b-value 0, 400, and 1400 ($s/mm^2$), ADC map was obtained using Metlab Software with each image of b-value, The ADC is obtained by applying the ROI to the same position. The standardized values ($SI_{400}/SI_0$, $SI_{400}/SI_0$) of simple compression fractures were $0.47{\pm}0.04$ and $0.23{\pm}0.03$ and the standardized values ($SI_{400}/SI_0$, $SI_{400}/SI_0$) of the metastatic spine were $0.57{\pm}0.07$ and $0.32{\pm}0.08$ And the standardized values of the two diseases were statistically significant (p < 0.05). The ADC ($mm^2/s$) for b value 400 ($s/mm^2$) and 1400 ($s/mm^2$) of the simple compression fracture disease site were $1.70{\pm}0.16$ and $0.93{\pm}0.28$ and $1.24{\pm}0.21$ and $0.80{\pm}0.15$ for the metastatic spine. The ADC ($mm^2/s$) for b value 400($s/mm^2$) was statistically significant (p < 0.05) but the ADC ($mm^2/s$) for b value 1400 (p > 0.05). In conclusion, multi - b value recognition of signal changes in diffusion - weighted imaging is very important for the diagnosis of various spinal diseases.

Pseudoglandular Formation in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Determines Apparent Diffusion Coefficient in Diffusion-Weighted MRI

  • Park, In Kyung;Yu, Jeong-Sik;Cho, Eun-Suk;Kim, Joo Hee;Chung, Jae-Joon
    • Investigative Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.79-85
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: To determine the impact of pseudoglandular formation on apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and to validate the results using histopathological grades. Materials and Methods: We assessed 182 HCCs surgically resected from 169 consecutive patients. Each type of tumor pseudoglandular formation was categorized into "non-," "mixed-," or "pure-," based on official histopathology reports. The ADC for each tumor was independently measured, using the largest region of interest on the ADC map. Data were assessed using the analysis of variance test, with Bonferroni correction for post hoc analysis to stratify the relationship of ADCs with pseudoglandular formation, followed by subgroup analysis according to the histopathological tumor grades. Results: The mean ADC was significantly higher in pure pseudoglandular lesions (n = 5, $1.29{\pm}0.08{\times}10^{-3}mm^2/s$) than in non-pseudoglandular lesions (n = 132, $1.08{\pm}0.17{\times}10^{-3}mm^2/s$; P = 0.003) or mixed-pseudoglandular lesions (n = 45, $1.16{\pm}0.24{\times}10^{-3}mm^2/s$; P = 0.034). The ADC values and pseudoglandular formation were significantly correlated in moderately differentiated HCCs (n = 103; r = 0.307, P = 0.007), while well- (n = 19) and poorly-differentiated HCCs (n = 60) did not show significant correlation (r = 0.105 and 0.068, respectively; P = 0.600 and 0.685, respectively). Conclusion: The degree of pseudoglandular formation could be one of the determinants of ADC in DWI of HCCs-especially moderately differentiated HCCs-while its influence does not appear to be significant in well- or poorly differentiated HCCs.

Differential Diagnosis of Malignant Biliary Tract Cancer from Benign Tissues using Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Measurements with Diffusion Weighted Imaging in Asians

  • Zhao, Xu-Ya;Zhou, Shi;Wang, Da-Zhi;He, Wei;Li, Jun-Xiang;Zhang, Shuai
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.14
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    • pp.6135-6140
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    • 2015
  • Background: The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the efficacy of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value of diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) for differentiating biliary tract cancer (BTC) from benign biliary tract diseases in Asians. Materials and Methods: We systematically searched Embase and PubMed prior to December 2014. Eight studies conducted in Asians met our predetermined inclusion criteria. Results: Our meta-analysis results showed that ADC values in BTC tissues were significantly lower than in benign biliary tract tissues (SMD = -1.54, 95%CI: -1.75~-1.33, P<0.001). Subgroup analysis based on the MRI machine type showed that the ADC values were consistent, accurate and reliable in the diagnosis of BTC when comparing cancer tissue vs. benign tissue under the Siemens 1.5 T/3.0 T, Philips 1.5 T/3.0 T, GE 1.5 T, and Toshiba 1.5 T types, respectively (all P<0.05). Further, ADC values were still consistent and accurate in the differential diagnosis of BTC under the b value of 800 and $1000s/mm^2$ (all P<0.05). Conclusions: Our findings supported potential clinical applications of DWI ADC values in differentiating BTC from benign biliary tract diseases in Asians.