• Title, Summary, Keyword: Arachidonic acid

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Activation Mechanism of Arachidonic Acid in Human Neutrophil Function (사람 중성호성 백혈구의 기능에 있어서 Arachidonic Acid의 활성화 기전)

  • Sim, Jae-Kun;Lee, Chung-Soo;Shin, Yong-Kyoo;Lee, Kwang-Soo
    • The Korean Journal of Pharmacology
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.91-102
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    • 1992
  • In $Ca^{++}$ containing media, arachidonic acid markedly stimulated superoxide and $H_2O_2$ generation and activated NADPH oxidase. In $Ca^{++}$ free media, stimulatory action of arachidonic acid on NADPH oxidase was not detected. Arachidonic acid-stimulated respiratory burst was inhibited by EGTA, TMB-8, verapamil, diltiazem, nifedipine, dibucaine, lidocaine, CCCP, 2,4-dinitrophenol, sodium arsenate, chlorpromazine, theophylline, $HgCl_2$, PCMB and PCMBSA but not affected by tetrodotoxin, tetraethylammonium chloride and procaine. EGTA almost completely inhibited release of ${\beta}-glucuronidase$ by arachidonic acid and verapamil, CCCP and theophylline slightly inhibited it, whereas dibucaine did not show any significant effect. Arachidonic acid induced $Ca^{++}$ release from intact neutrophils and it was decreased by TMB-8. Arachidonic acid-induced elevation of intracellular free $Ca^{++}$ level was inhibited by EGTA and CCCP and slightly inhibited by TMB-8. Amount of intracellular free $Ca^{++}$ increased by either arachidonic acid plus verapamil or arachidonic acid plus dibucaine was greater than that by arachidonic acid alone. These results suggest that various changes of biochemical events may be implicated in the functional expression in neutrophils activated by arachidonic acid. Arachidonic acid appears to elevate cytosolic free $Ca^{++}$ level by stimulating $Ca^{++}$ release from intracellular $Ca^{++}$ storage sites. During activation of neutrophils, $Ca^{++}$ influx and efflux may be accomplished, simultaneously.

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Selection of organic Nitrogen Source and Optimization of Culture Conditions for the Production of Arachidonic Acid from Mortierella alpina (Mortierella alpina를 이용한 아라키돈산의 생산에서 유기질소원의 선정과 배양 조건의 최적화)

  • 유연우;하석진;박장서
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.78-82
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    • 2004
  • Experiments were carried out to select an organic nitrogen source and optimize the culture conditions for the production of arachidonic acid by Mortierella alpina DSA-12. Corn steep powder(CSP) was selected as an organic nitrogen source based on arachidonic acid production and raw material price. The optimum C/N ratio was in the range of 15 to 17 with the medium containing glucose as carbon source and CSP as nitrogen source. The optimum culture conditions for arachidonic acid production showed 500 rpm agitation and 25$^{\circ}C$ culture temperature at 0.5 vvm aeration. Under the optimum conditions, the concentration of cell, total lipid and arachidonic acid were 21.8 g/L, 10.2 g/L and 3.70 g/L, respectively, from 50 g/L glucose and 18 g/L CSP. In the 500 L fermenter with 0.5 vvm aeration and 200 rpm agitation, the concentration of cell, total lipid and arachidonic acid were 19.8 g/L, 9.1 g/L and 3.67 g/L, respectively, from 50 g/L glucose and 18 g/L CSP. This result showed that an arachidonic acid production could be possible with a bench-scale fermenter using corn steep powder as a nitrogen source.

Arachidonic Acid Ingibits Norepinephrine Release through Blocking of Voltage-sensitive $Ca^{2+}$ Channels in PC12 Cells

  • Choi, Se-Young;Park, Tae-Ju;Choi, Jun-Ho;Kim, Kyong-Tai
    • Animal cells and systems
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.81-86
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    • 1997
  • We studied the mechanism of arachidonic acid on the secretion of a neurotransmitter in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. Arachidonic acid inhibited the 70 mM $K^+$-induced secretion of norepinephrine. Arachidonic acid also inhibited the 70 mM $K^+$-induced $Ca^{2+}$ mobilization which is due to the opening of the voltage-sensitive $Ca^{2+}$ channels (VSCC). Both the half maximal inhibitory concentration ($IC_{50}$) of the norepinephrine secretion and VSCC coincided at 30 uM. The major oxidized metabolites of arachidonic acid, prostaglandins did not mimic the inhibitory effect of arachidonic acid. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) and indomethacin which are inhibitors of lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase, respectively, did not block the inhibitory effect of arachidonic acid. The results suggest that arachidonic acid serves as a signal itself, not in the form of metabolites. The pretreatment of various $K^+$ channel blockers such as 4-aminopyridine, tetraethylarnmonium, glipizide, or glibenclamide also did not show any effect on the inhibitory effect of arachidonic acid. Through these results we suggest that arachidonic acid regulates VSCC directly and affects the secretion of neurotransmitters.

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Effect of Arachidonic Acid on Renal Function of Dog (Arachidonic Acid의 개 신장기능에 미치는 영향)

  • Ko, Suk-Tai;Park, Hwa-Sook
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.252-261
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    • 1990
  • Arachidonic acid which is precursor of prostaglandins, when administered ($100.0\;{\mu}g/kg$, or $100.0\;{\mu}g/kg/min$) intravenously, did not influence on renal function of dog. Arachidonic acid, when infused ($10.0\;{\mu}g/kg/min$) into a renal artery, produced marked diuretic action accompanied with augmentation of renal plasma flow and with little changed glomerular filtration rate, and exhibited the increased clearances of osmolar substance and free water, and the decreased reabsorption rates of sodium and potassium in renal tubules in only experimental kidney, but did not influenced at all in control kindey. The diuretic acition of arachidonic acid infused into a renal artery was not affected by pretreatment of indomethacin (10.0 mg/kg. i.v) which is inhibitor of cyclooxygenase. Above results suggest that arachidonic acid infused into a renal artery produced diuretic action through direct renal hemodynamic changes, that is mediated by reduction of postglomerular resistance being caused by dilation of vas efferense.

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Effect of Purified Green Tea Catechins on Cytosolic Phospholipase $A_2$ and Arachidonic Acid Release in Human Gastrointestinal Cancer Cell Lines

  • Hong, Jung-Il;Yang, Chung-S.
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.799-804
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    • 2006
  • Ingestion of green tea has been shown to decrease prostaglandin $E_2$ levels in human colorectum, suggesting that tea constituents modulate arachidonic acid metabolism. In the present study, we investigated the effects of four purified green tea catechins, (-)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), and (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG), on the catalytic activity of cytosolic phospholipase $A_2$ ($cPLA_2$) and release of arachidonic acid and its metabolites from intact cells. At $50\;{\mu}M$, EGCG and ECG inhibited $cPLA_2$ activity by 19 and 37%, respectively, whereas EC and EGC were less effective. The inhibitory effects of these catechins on arachidonic acid metabolism in intact cells were much more pronounced. At $10\;{\mu}M$, EGCG and ECG inhibited the release of arachidonic acid and its metabolites by 50-70% in human colon adenocarcinoma cells (HT-29) and human esophageal squamous carcinoma cells (KYSE-190 and 450). EGCG and ECG also inhibited arachidonic acid release induced by A23187, a calcium ionophore, in both HT-29 and KYSE-450 cell lines by 30-50%. The inhibitory effects of green tea catechins on $cPLA_2$ and arachidonic acid release may provide a possible mechanism for the prevention of human gastrointestinal inflammation and cancers.

Varietal Differences of Major Chemical Components and Fatty Acid Composition in Mungbean (녹두의 주요 성분함량과 지방산 조성의 품종간 차이)

  • 이성춘;임태곤;김동철;송동석;김영국
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 1997
  • These experiments were conducted to obtain basic information for breeding material on the utility characteristics in mungbean, The crude protein, fat and ash content were 24.3, 0.67, 3.6%, repectively, and the fat content showed varietal differences, whereas the protein and ash content was not significantly differences among the varieties. The negative correlation existed between protein and carbohydrate content, seed moisture and fat content, seed weight and fat content. The unsaturated fatty acid contain 60∼67% and there were oleic, linoleic, linolenic and archidonic acid, and the saturated fatty acid contain 33∼40% and there were stearic, palmitic, behenic and lignoceric acid. The major fatty acids in mungbean were linoleic, linolenic and palmitic acid, and have contained 33.46, 21.87, 21.72, respectively, and oleic, stearic and arachidonic acid contained 5.98, 5.88, 4.87, respectively, and the behenic and lignoceric acid left traces. Highly positive correlation existed between palmitic and linoleic acid, oleic and lignoceric, behenic. However; palmitic and arachidonic, lignoceric acid, oleic and linolenic acid, arachidonic and liniceric acid showed negative correlations with each other. Seed weight of tested varieties showed highly positive correlation with oleic, arachidonic and behenic acid.

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The Effect of Acteoside on Histamine Release and Arachidonic Acid Release in RBL-2H3 Mast Cells

  • Lee, Jin-Hee;Lee, Ji-Yun;Kang, Hyo-Suk;Jeong, Chan-Hun;Moon, Hee;Whang, Wan-Kyunn;Kim, Chang-Jong;Sim, Sang-Soo
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.508-513
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    • 2006
  • The effect of acteoside, a phenylpropanoid glycoside isolated from Clerodendron trichotomum Thunberg, on histamine and arachidonic acid release was investigated in RBL 2H3 cells. Histamine was dose-dependently released from RBL 2H3 cells by melittin, arachidonic acid and thapsigargin. In extracellular $Ca^{2+}-free$ solution, basal secretion of histamins increased by two fold. The response of histamine release to melittin and thapsigargin in $Ca^{2+}-free$ solution was significantly decreased, whereas the response to arachidonic acid was significantly increased as compared with those in normal solution. Acteoside inhibited histamine release induced by melittin, arachidonic acid and thapsigargin in a dose-dependent manner in the presence or absence of extracellular $Ca^{2+}$. However, the inhibitory activity of acteoside was more potent in normal solution than that in $Ca^{2+}-free$ solution. These data suggest that inhibitory mechanism of acteoside on histamine release may be related to extracellular $Ca^{2+}$. On the other hand, acteoside significantly inhibited arachidonic acid release and prostaglandin $E_2$ production Induced by $0.5\;{\mu}M$ melittin. It is possible that acteoside may be developed as an anti-inflammatory agent.

미생물을 이용한 아라키돈산의 생산기술 개발

  • Park, Chang-Yeol;Hwang, Byeong-Hui;Yu, Yeon-U;Park, Jang-Seo
    • 한국생물공학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.91-94
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    • 2002
  • Arachidonic acid is a polyunsaturated fatty acid(PUFA) containing twenty carbon atoms with four double bonds. The family of w-6 PUFA, including arachidonic acid as well as r-linoleic acid, was served as intermediates in the formation of several key prostaglandin and leukotrienes. Several fungal strains of the genus Mortierella accumulate high amounts of arachidonic acid. In this study experiments were carried out to optimize the culture conditions for the mass production of fungus Mortierella alpina DSA -12 and lipid production with high proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially arachidonic acid. The batch culture was carried out in 500 L fermenter containing 50 g/L glucose, 18 g/L corn-steep powder and 100 mg/L MnS04 under $25^{\circ}C$, aeration rate of 0.5 vvm and agitation speed of 200 rpm without pH control. As a result, we could be obtained 22 g/L of cell mass with high contents of lipid 12.1 g/L) and arachidonic acid (5.1 g/L) The intermittent fed-batch culture was performed in the medium containing 20 g/L glucose and 10 g/L corn-steep powder. The final glucose concentration was 170 g/L and pH was maintained at 5.5 ${\sim}$ 6.0 by adding 14% ammonia solution. It was shown relatively high cell concentration (70.5 g/L) with high contents of lipid (45.8 g/L) and arachidonic acid 08.3 g/L). Therefore, when compared to batch cultures, the high concentration of arachidonic acid could be obtained by fed-batch culture using M. alpina DSA -12. These results imply that the fed-batch culture of M. alpina DSA -12 was feasible in industrial purpose and could be employed in the commercial production of arachidonic acid.

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Differential Expression of Cytochrome P450 Genes Regulate the Level of Adipose Arachidonic Acid in Sus Scrofa

  • Choi, Kyung-Mi;Moon, Jin-Kyoo;Choi, Seong-Ho;Kim, Kwan-Suk;Choi, Yang-Il;Kim, Jong-Joo;Lee, Cheol-Koo
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.7
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    • pp.967-971
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    • 2008
  • We compared the fatty acid composition of adipose tissues prepared from Korean native and Yorkshire pigs that have different characteristics in growth and fat deposition. There was no significant difference in the content of most fatty acids between the two breeds, with the exception of arachidonic acid and cis-11,14,17-eicosatrienoic acid. We also investigated the transcriptional levels of genes encoding three different types of oxygenases, including cytochrome P450 (CYP), lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase, which metabolize arachidonic acid. We found a significant difference in the expression of the CYP genes, CYP2A13, CYP2U1 and CYP3A4, but no differences for the latter two genes between the two breeds. Our results suggest that the difference in arachidonic acid content between the two breeds was caused by differential expression of the CYP genes. Eventually, different levels of EETs and HETEs produced from arachidonic acid by the activity of CYP might contribute partly to the difference of fatness between the two breeds.

The Effects of Congeners of Clofibrate on Inhibition of Rabbit Platelet Aggregation (Clofibrate의 유도체가 토끼의 혈소판 응집에 미치는 영향)

  • 홍충만;장동덕;신동환;조재천;조명행
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.132-135
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    • 1995
  • Several clofibrate congeners (bezafibrate, gemfibrozil and fenofibrate) were investigated the relationship between effects on the aggregation induced by aggregating agents (thrombin, arachidonic acid, ADP and collagen) and arachidonic acid metabolism in rabbit homogenized platelet. In platelet aggregation study, all drugs produced no significant inhibition (data not shown) in arachidonic acid and thrombin. Also platelet aggregation by ADP was not changed in bezafibrate and Inhibited dose dependently in fenofibrate and gemfibrozil. Platelet aggregation by collagen was inhibited dose dependently and significantly (from p<0.5 to p<0.001) by gemfibrozil and fenofibrate at concentrations between 20 and 400 $\mu$M. In arachidonic acid metabolism study, synthesis of thromboxane $B_2$ was not changed in rabbit platelet membranes and that of prostaglandin $E_2$ and $F_{2{\alpha}}$ was slightly increased by all drugs. It was concluded that clofibrate congeners inhibited ADP and collagen induced rabbit platelet aggregation and inhibition of collagen induced aggregation was probably mediated through some mechanism (pathway) other than arachidonic acid metabolism, judging from arachidonic acid metabolites (thromboxane $B_2$, prostaglandin $E_2$and $F_{ 2{\alpha}}$) synthesis in rabbit homogenized Platelet.

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