• Title, Summary, Keyword: Arginylation

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Amino-terminal arginylation as a degradation signal for selective autophagy

  • Cha-Molstad, Hyunjoo;Kwon, Yong Tae;Kim, Bo Yeon
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.48 no.9
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    • pp.487-488
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    • 2015
  • The ubiquitin-proteasome system and the autophagy lysosome system are the two major protein degradation machineries in eukaryotic cells. These two systems coordinate the removal of unwanted intracellular materials, but the mechanism by which they achieve this synchronization is largely unknown. The ubiquitination of substrates serves as a universal degradation signal for both systems. Our study revealed that the amino-terminal Arg, a canonical N-degron in the ubiquitin-proteasome system, also acts as a degradation signal in autophagy. We showed that many ER residents, such as BiP, contain evolutionally conserved arginylation permissive pro-N-degrons, and that certain inducers like dsDNA or proteasome inhibitors cause their translocation into the cytoplasm where they bind misfolded proteins and undergo amino-terminal arginylation by arginyl transferase 1 (ATE1). The amino-terminal Arg of BiP binds p62, which triggers p62 oligomerization and enhances p62-LC3 interaction, thereby stimulating autophagic delivery and degradation of misfolded proteins, promoting cell survival. This study reveals a novel ubiquitin-independent mechanism for the selective autophagy pathway, and provides an insight into how these two major protein degradation pathways communicate in cells to dispose the unwanted proteins. [BMB Reports 2015; 48(9): 487-488]

Ablation of Arg-tRNA-protein transferases results in defective neural tube development

  • Kim, Eunkyoung;Kim, Seonmu;Lee, Jung Hoon;Kwon, Yong Tae;Lee, Min Jae
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.49 no.8
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    • pp.443-448
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    • 2016
  • The arginylation branch of the N-end rule pathway is a ubiquitin-mediated proteolytic system in which post-translational conjugation of Arg by ATE1-encoded Arg-tRNA-protein transferase to N-terminal Asp, Glu, or oxidized Cys residues generates essential degradation signals. Here, we characterized the ATE1−/− mice and identified the essential role of N-terminal arginylation in neural tube development. ATE1-null mice showed severe intracerebral hemorrhages and cystic space near the neural tubes. Expression of ATE1 was prominent in the developing brain and spinal cord, and this pattern overlapped with the migration path of neural stem cells. The ATE1−/− brain showed defective G-protein signaling. Finally, we observed reduced mitosis in ATE1−/− neuroepithelium and a significantly higher nitric oxide concentration in the ATE1−/− brain. Our results strongly suggest that the crucial role of ATE1 in neural tube development is directly related to proper turn-over of the RGS4 protein, which participate in the oxygen-sensing mechanism in the cells.

Crosstalk and Interplay between the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System and Autophagy

  • Ji, Chang Hoon;Kwon, Yong Tae
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.40 no.7
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    • pp.441-449
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    • 2017
  • Proteolysis in eukaryotic cells is mainly mediated by the ubiquitin (Ub)-proteasome system (UPS) and the autophagy-lysosome system (hereafter autophagy). The UPS is a selective proteolytic system in which substrates are recognized and tagged with ubiquitin for processive degradation by the proteasome. Autophagy is a bulk degradative system that uses lysosomal hydrolases to degrade proteins as well as various other cellular constituents. Since the inception of their discoveries, the UPS and autophagy were thought to be independent of each other in components, action mechanisms, and substrate selectivity. Recent studies suggest that cells operate a single proteolytic network comprising of the UPS and autophagy that share notable similarity in many aspects and functionally cooperate with each other to maintain proteostasis. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms underlying the crosstalk and interplay between the UPS and autophagy, with an emphasis on substrate selectivity and compensatory regulation under cellular stresses.