• Title, Summary, Keyword: Artificial bone

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Performance analysis of bone scaffolds with carbon nanotubes, barium titanate particles, hydroxyapatite and polycaprolactone

  • Osfooria, Ali;Selahi, Ehsan
    • Biomaterials and Biomechanics in Bioengineering
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.33-44
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    • 2019
  • This paper presents a novel structural composition for artificial bone scaffolds with an appropriate biocompatibility and biodegradability capability. To achieve this aim, carbon nanotubes, due to their prominent mechanical properties, high biocompatibility with the body and its structural similarities with the natural bone structure are selected in component of the artificial bone structure. Also, according to the piezoelectric properties of natural bone tissue, the barium titanate, which is one of the biocompatible material with body and has piezoelectric property, is used to create self-healing ability. Furthermore, due to the fact that, most of the bone tissue is consists of hydroxyapatite, this material is also added to the artificial bone structure. Finally, polycaprolactone is used in synthetic bone composition as a proper substrate for bone growth and repair. To demonstrate, performance of the presented composition, the mechanical behaviour of the bone scaffold is simulated using ANSYS Workbench software and three dimensional finite element modelling. The obtained results are compared with mechanical behaviour of the natural bone and the previous bone scaffold compositions. The results indicated that, the modulus of elasticity, strength and toughness of the proposed composition of bone scaffold is very close to the natural bone behaviour with respect to the previous bone scaffold compositions and this composition can be employed as an appropriate replacement for bone implants.

Fabrication of Artificial Bone through the Imitation of human bone

  • Jang, Dong-U;Sakar, Swapan Kumar;Kim, Min-Sung;Song, Ho-Yeon;Min, Young-Gi;Lee, Byong-Taek
    • Proceedings of the Materials Research Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.41.2-41.2
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    • 2010
  • In this work, HAp-(t-ZrO2) ceramic composites of biomimic artificial bone were fabricated by multi-extrusion process in order to replace nature bone. HAp-(t-ZrO2) and graphite powders were mixed separately with ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) and stearic acid using shear mixer. Extruded HAp-(t-ZrO2) filaments and carbon filaments were arranged in the die to fabricate the first pass filament. The first pass filaments were arranged in the same die with a central carbon core for making the space for spongy bone. Burning out and sintering processes were performed to remove the binder and lubricant. The microstructure channel diameter was researched around $300{\mu}m$. Microstructure analysis was carried out by OM, SEM, and $\mu$-CT. Compressive strength was investigated for the artificial bone. Some preliminary bio-compatibility test was evaluated.

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Book Remodeling Analysis of Femur Using Hybrid Beam Theory (보 이론을 이용한 대퇴골 재생성의 해석)

  • Kim, Seung-Jong;Jeong, Jae-Yeon;Ha, Seong-Gyu
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.329-337
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    • 2000
  • An investigation has been performed to develop an analysis tool based on a nonlinear beam theory, which can be used to predict the long-term behavior of an artificial hip joint. The nonlinear behav ior of the femur arise from the coupled dependence of the bone density and the mechanical properties on each other. The beam theory together with its numerical algorithm is developed to take into account the nonlinear bone remodeling process of the femur that is long enough to be assumed as a beam. A piecewise linear curve for the bone remodeling rate is used in the bone remodeling theory and the surface area density of bone is modeled as the third order polynomial function of bone density. At each section of the beam, a constant curvature is assumed and the longitudinal strains are also assumed to vary linearly across the section. The Newton-Rhapson iteration method is used to solve the nonlinear equations for each cross section of the bone and a backward method is used to march along the time. The density and the remodeling signal ar, calculated along with time for the various time steps, and the developed beam theory has been verified by comparing with the results of finite element analysis of a remodeling bone with an artificial hip joint of titanium prosthesis subjected to uni-axial loads and pure bending moment. It is concluded that the developed beam theory can be used to predict the long-term behavior of the femur and thus to design the artificial hip prosthesis.

Microstructure Control of HAp Based Artificial Bone Using Multi-extrusion Process

  • Jang, Dong-Woo;Lee, Byong-Taek
    • Proceedings of the Materials Research Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.54.1-54.1
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    • 2011
  • Porous hydroxyapatite has been widely used as clinical implanted material. However, it has poor mechanical properties. To increase the strength as well as the biocompatibility of the porous HAp based artificial bone, it was fabricated by multi-extrusion process. Hydroxyapatite and graphite powders were mixed separately with ethylene vinely acetate and steric acid by shear mixing process. Hydroxyapatite composites containing porous microstructure were fabricated by arranging it in the die and subject it to extrusion process. Burn-out and sintering processes were performed to remove the binder and graphite as well as increase the density. The external and internal diameter of cylindrical hollow core were approximately 10.4 mm and 4.2 mm, respectively. The size of pore channel designed to increase bone growth (osteconduction) was around 150 ${\mu}m$ in diameter. X-ray diffraction analysis and SEM observation were performed to identity the crystal structure and the detailed microstructure, respectively.

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A Study of a Biodegradale Inorganic-Organic Composite Artificial Bone Substitute -Part 1. Synthesis of an Apatite with Similar Crystallinity to Bone-

  • Choon Ki Lee;Hwal Suh
    • Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.195-200
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    • 1994
  • To develop an artificial bone substitute that is gradually degraded and replaced by the regenerated natural bone, the authors designed a composite that consists consisted of calcium phosphate and collagen according to the natural bone's main composition. The crystallinity of the synthesized apatite was shown to depend on the synthesis temperature. Carbonate apatite synthesized at $58{\circ}C$ demonstrated crystallinity very similar to that of the natural bone. By sintering the apatite over $700{\circ}C$ in vacuum, porous carbonate apatite could be obtained, and the pore extent was controllable according to the additive hydrogenperoxide volume.

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Effects Of Cultured Bone Cell On The Regeneration Of Alveolar Bone (배양골세포 이식이 치조골재생에 미치는 영향)

  • Jeong, Soon-Joon;Herr, Yeek;Park, Joon-Bong;Lee, Man-Sup;Kwon, Young-Hyuk
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.1-26
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    • 1996
  • This study was performed to estimate the effects of cultured bone cell inoculated on porous type hydroxyaptite for the regeneration of the artificial alveolar bone defect. In this experiment 3 beagle dogs were used, and each of them were divided into right and left mandible. Every surgical intervention were performed under the general anesthesia by using with intravenous injection of Pentobarbital sodium(30mg/Kg). To reduce the gingival bleeding during surgery, operative site was injected with Lidocaine hydrochloride(l:80,000 Epinephrine) as local anesthesia. After surgery experimental animal were feeded with soft dietl Mighty dog, Frisies Co., U.S.A.) for 1 weeks to avoid irritaion to soft tissue by food. 2 months before surgery both side of mandibular 1st premolar were extracted and bone chips from mandibular body were obtained from all animals. Bone cells were cultured from bone chips obtained from mandible with Dulbecco's Modified Essential Medium contained with 10% Fetal Bovine Serum under the conventional conditions. Porous type hydroxyapatite were immerse into the high concentrated cell suspension solution, and put 4 hours for attachin the cells on the surface of hydroxyapatite. Graft material were inserted on the artificial bone defect after 3 days of culture. Before insertion of cellinoculated graft material, scanning electronic microscopic observation were performed to confirm the attachment and spreading of cell on the hydroxyapatite surface. 3 artificial bone defects were made with bone trephine drill on the both side of mandible of the experimental animal. First defect was designed without insertion of graft material as negative control, second was filled with porous replamineform hydroxyapatite inoculated with cultured bone marrow cells as expermiental site, and third was filled with graft materials only as positive control. The size of every artificial bone defect was 3mm in diameter and 3mm in depth. After the every surgical intervention of animals, oral hygiene program were performed with 1.0% chlorhexidine digluconate. All of the animals were sacrificed at 2, 4, 6 weeks after surgery. For obtaining histological section, tissus were fixed in 10% Buffered formalin and decalcified with Planko - Rycho Solution for 72hr. Tissue embeding was performed in paraffin and cut parallel to the surface of mandibular body. Section in 8um thickness of tissue was done and stained with Hematoxylin - Eosin. All the specimens were observed under the light microscopy. The following results were obtained : 1. In the case of control site which has no graft material, less inflammatory cell infiltration and rapid new bone forming tendency were revealed compared with experimental groups. But bone surface were observed depression pattern on defect area because of soft tissue invasion into the artificial bone defect during the experimental period. 2. In the porous hydroxyapatite only group, inflammatory cell infiltration was prominet and dense connective tissue were encapsulated around grafted materials. osteoblastic activity in the early stage after surgery was low to compared with grafted with bone cells. 3. In the case of porous hydroxyapatite inoculated with bone cell, less inflammatory cell infiltration and rapid new bone formation activity was revealed than hydroxyapatite only group. Active new bone formation were observed in the early stage of control group. 4. The origin of new bone forming was revealed not from the center of defected area but from the surface of preexisting bony wall on every specimen. 5. In this experiment, osteoclastic cell was not found around grafted materials, and fibrovascular invasion into regions with no noticeable foreign body reaction. Conclusively, the cultured bone cell inoculated onto the porous hydroxyapatite may have an important role of regeneration of artificial bone defects of alveolar bone.

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A Study on Biomimetic Composite for Design of Artificial Hip Joint (인공 관절 설계를 위한 바이오미메틱 복합재료에 관한 연구)

  • 김명욱;윤재륜
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society For Composite Materials Conference
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    • pp.234-238
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    • 1999
  • This study suggests the design of the functionally gradient composite, [0/90/0/core]$_s$ cross-ply laminate, to prevent stress concentration induced from the difference of rigidity between the bone and the artificial hip joint and to reinforce the wear property of the surface and the expectation of their mechanical properties. First, the four-point bending test is done about wet bones and dry bones to know the mechanical properties of the cortical bones. In result, the wet bone shows the viscoelastic behavior and the dry bone shows the elastic behavior. Moreover, we expect the properties of the proposed gradient composites as a function of carbon fiber volume fraction in each layer to apply Halpin-Tsai equation, CLPT(classical laminate plate theory), and Bernoulli beam theory etc. and decide the thickness ratio of each lamina in order to match Young's modulus of the anisotropic cortical bone with the proposed gradient composites.

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A QUANTITATIVE STUDY OF BONE DENSITY ON RADIOGRAM BY USING IMAGE ANALYZER (영상 분석장치를 이용한 골 흑화도의 정량적 평가에 관한 연구)

  • Choi Won-Jae;Kim Jae-Duk
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Maxillofacial Radiology
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.521-533
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    • 1995
  • This study was performed to develop and evaluate the method to detect Quantitatively the serial changes in the size of artificial lesion in the spongious bone by automatic color image analyzer. 15 intraoral radiograms taken before and after endodontic treatment of 5 cases were used for contour line analysis. 30 intraoral radiograms taken by geometrically standardized apparatus before and after serially the formation of artificial lesions of 0.80, 1.20, 1.75, 2.00mm in diameter at the periapical area and interdental area of spongious bone were used. The analysis of image according to the variance of lesion size by 0.25, 0.35, 0.55, and 0.85mm serially was performed by the histogram and the color enhancement with subtraction. The images inputted by CCDcamera were digitized and analyzed by NEXUS QUBE program with NEC PC-9801 computer. The obtained results were as follows: 1. There was no reliability in the analysis of lesions by contour line 2 .. The mean difference of the grey scale at each pixel was 1 step between reference image and the corrected images. 3. In the analysis by histogram of the artificial lesion in spongeous bone, the change over 0.55mm in the mesiodistal size was detectable by the change of the numbers of pixel showing the change in grey scale. 4. In the analysis by histogram of the artificial lesion in spongeous bone, the change over 0.25mm in the buccolingual size was detectable by the change in grey scale. 5. By color enbancement with- subtraction, each lesion was able to be isolated and the change in it's mesiodistal size was detectable visually , but not in it's buccolingual size.

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The effect of low-speed drilling without irrigation on heat generation: an experimental study

  • Oh, Ji-Hyeon;Fang, Yiqin;Jeong, Seung-Mi;Choi, Byung-Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.9-12
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    • 2016
  • Objectives: In this study we evaluated heat generation during the low-speed drilling procedure without irrigation. Materials and Methods: Ten artificial bone blocks that were similar to human D1 bone were used in this study. The baseline temperature was $37.0^{\circ}C$. We drilled into 5 artificial bone blocks 60 times at the speed of 50 rpm without irrigation. As a control group, we drilled into an additional 5 artificial bone blocks 60 times at the speed of 1,500 rpm with irrigation. The temperature changes during diameter 2 mm drilling were measured using thermocouples. Results: The mean maximum temperatures during drilling were $40.9^{\circ}C$ in the test group and $39.7^{\circ}C$ in the control group. Even though a statistically significant difference existed between the two groups, the low-speed drilling did not produce overheating. Conclusion: These findings suggest that low-speed drilling without irrigation may not lead to overheating during drilling.

Observation of Mechanical Strength of Materials for Dog Dental Prosthesis Production (중형견(犬) 치과 보철물 제작을 위한 소재의 기계적 강도 관찰)

  • Park, Yujin;Choi, Sungmin
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Dental Technology
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    • v.41 no.2
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    • pp.93-100
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    • 2019
  • Purpose: This study is making a dog dental prosthesis using digital dental technology. The mechanical strength of the prosthetic material was observed in terms of compressive strength and fracture pattern. Methods: The experiment was performed using dog mandibular molars. The teeth were scanned and modeled. The specimens were made of zirconia, PMMA and Ni-Cr. The specimens were subjected to a vertical compression test with an artificial cancellous bone in UTM tester. Vertical compressive strength and fracture behavior of specimen were observed. Results: The result of observing the compressive load between specimen and artificial bone were $184.8{\pm}5.7N$ in the zirconia specimen, $185.6{\pm}8.9N$ in the PMMA specimen, and $184.4{\pm}4.0N$ in the Ni-Cr alloy specimen. Compression marks of artificial bones were observed. The fracture strength of specimen was observed. The fracture strength of the zirconia specimen was an average of 1,381.4N. The fracture strength of the PMMA specimen was an average of 572.2N. Conclusion: The crown made of three kinds(zirconia, PMMA, Ni-Cr alloy) of materials has the strength to chew about the artificial bone. zirconia and PMMA have vertical compressive strength applicable to medium dog dental prosthetic materials.