• Title, Summary, Keyword: Association rules

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Spectral Analysis of Hidden EEG Arousal Activity in Periodic Leg Movements in Sleep without Microarousal (미세각성이 없는 수면중 주기성 사지운동증 뇌파의 스펙트럼 분석)

  • Cyn, Jae-Gong;Seo, Wan-Seok;Oh, Jung-Su;Jeong, Do-Un
    • Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.100-107
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    • 2003
  • Objectives: Periodic leg movements in sleep (PLMS) might be subdivided based upon whether or not they are associated with visible EEG microarousals (MA). MA is considered to be responsible for nonrestorative sleep and daytime fatigue. The American Sleep Disorders Association's (ASDA) scoring rules for MA based on visual analysis of the EEG changes suggest that MA should last more than 3 seconds. However, it has been suggested that visual analysis may not detect some changes in EEG activity. This study is aimed at measuring changes in EEG spectra during PLMS without MA in order to better understand the arousing response of PLMS. Methods: Ten drug-free patients (three men and seven women) diagnosed with PLMS by polysomnography were studied. Spectral analysis of the EEG was performed in each patient on 30 episodes of PLMS without MA, chosen randomly across the night in stage 2 non-REM sleep. We applied stricter criteria for MA compared to ASDA, by defining it as a return to alpha and theta frequency lasting at least 1 second. Results: The mean PLMS index was $16.7{\pm}10.0$. The mean PLMS duration was $1.3{\pm}0.7$ seconds. Comparison of 4-second EEG activity both before and after the onset of PLMS without MA using independent t-test showed that the movements were associated with significant increase of relative activity in the delta band (p=0.000) and significant decrease of activity in the alpha (p=0.01) and sigma (p=0.000) bands. No significant decrease in the theta (p=0.05), beta (p=0.129), or gamma (p=0.062) bands was found. Conclusion: PLMS without MA was found to be associated with EEG change characterized by increase in the delta frequency band. This finding seems to be compatible with the hypothesis of an integrative hierarchy of arousal responses of Sforza's. Considering that the subjects had lower PLMS index and shorter PLMS duration than those of the previous study, it is suggested that an even less severe form of PLMS without MA could induce neurophysiologic change, which may potentially be of clinical significance.

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"Liability of Air Carriers for Injuries Resulting from International Aviation Terrorism" (국제항공(國際航空)테러리즘으로 인한 여객손해(旅客損害)에 대한 운송인(運送人)의 책임(責任))

  • Choi, Wan-Sik
    • The Korean Journal of Air & Space Law and Policy
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    • v.1
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    • pp.47-85
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    • 1989
  • The Fundamental purpose of the Warsaw Convention was to establish uniform rules applicable to international air transportation. The emphasis on the benefits of uniformity was considered important in the beginning and continues to be important to the present. If the desire for uniformity is indeed the mortar which holds the Warsaw system together then it should be possible to agree on a worldwide liability limit. This liability limit would not be so unreasonable, that it would be impossible for nations to adhere to it. It would preclude any national supplemental compensation plan or Montreal Agreement type of requirement in any jurisdiction. The differentiation of liability limits by national requirement seems to be what is occurring. There is a plethora of mandated limits and Montreal Agreement type 'voluntary' limits. It is becoming difficult to find more than a few major States where an unmodified Warsaw Convention or Hague Protocol limitation is still in effect. If this is the real world in the 1980's, then let the treaty so reflect it. Upon reviewing the Warsaw Convention, its history and the several attempts to amend it, strengths become apparent. Hijackings of international flights have given rise to a number of lawsuits by passengers to recover damages for injuries suffered. This comment is concerned with the liability of an airline for injuries to its passengers resulting from aviation terrorism. In addition, analysis is focused on current airline security measures, particularly the pre-boarding screening system, and the duty of air carriers to prevent weapons from penetrating that system. An airline has a duty to exercise a high degree of care to protect its passengers from the threat of aviation terrorism. This duty would seemingly require the airline to exercise a high degree of care to prevent any passenger from smuggling a weapon or explosive device aboard its aircraft. In the case an unarmed hijacker who boards having no instrument in his possession with which to promote the hoax, a plaintiff-passenger would be hard-pressed to show that the airline was negligent in screening the hijacker prior to boarding. In light of the airline's duty to exercise a high degree of care to provide for the safety of all the passengers on board, an acquiescene to a hijacker's demands on the part of the air carrier could constitute a breach of duty only when it is clearly shown that the carrier's employees knew or plainly should have known that the hijacker was unarmed. A finding of willful misconduct on the part of an air carrier, which is a prerequisite to imposing unlimited liability, remains a question to be determined by a jury using the definition or standard of willful misconduct prevailing in the jurisdiction of the forum court. Through the willful misconduct provision of the Warsaw Convention, air carrier face the possibility of unlimited liability for failure to implement proper preventive precautions against terrorist. Courts, therefore, should broadly construe the willful misconduct provision of the Warsaw Convention in order to find unlimited liability for passenger injuries whenever air carrier security precautions are lacking. In this way, the courts can help ensure air carrier safety and prevention against terrorist attack. Air carriers, therefore, would have an incentive to increase, impose and maintain security precautions designed to thwart such potential terrorist attacks as in the case of Korean Air Lines Flight No.858 incident having a tremendous impact on the civil aviation community. The crash of a commercial airliner, with the attending tragic loss of life and massive destruction of property, always gives rise to shock and indignation. The general opinion is that the legal system could be sufficient, provided that the political will is there to use and apply it effectively. All agreed that the main responsibility for security has to be borne by the governments. I would like to remind all passengers that every discovery of the human spirit may be used for opposite ends; thus, aircraft can be used for air travel but also as targets of terrorism. A state that supports aviation terrorism is responsible for violation of International Aviation Law. Generally speaking, terrorism is a violation of international law. It violates the soverign rights of the states, and the human rights of the individuals. I think that aviation terrorism as becoming an ever more serious issue, has to be solved by internationally agreed and closely co-ordinated measures. We have to contribute more to the creation of a general consensus amongst all states about the need to combat the threat of aviation terrorism.

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The International Civil Aviation Organization and Recent Developments of Air Law in a Changing Environment (변환기(變換期)에 있어서의 국제민간항공기구(國際民間航空機構)(ICAD)와 항공법(航空法) 발전(發展)의 최근(最近) 동향(動向))

  • Choi, Wan-Sik
    • The Korean Journal of Air & Space Law and Policy
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    • v.4
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    • pp.7-35
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    • 1992
  • The expansion of air transport on a global scale with ever increasing traffic densities has brought about problems that must be solved through new multilateral mechanisms. Looking to the immediate future, air transport will require new forms of international cooperation in technical and economic areas. Air transport by its very nature should have been a counterforce to nationalism. Yet, the regulatory system in civil aviation is still as firmly rooted in the principle of national sovereignty as when it was first proclaimed at t-11e Paris Convention of 1919 and reaffirmed in the Chicago Convention. Sovereignty over the airspace has remained the cornerstone of relations between states in all respects of air transport. The importance of sovereignty over air space embodied in article 1 of the Chicago Conrenton also is responsible for restricting the authority of ICAO as an intergovernmental regulatory agency. The Orgenization, for all its extensive efforts, has only limited authority. ICAO sets standards but cannot enforce them; it devises solutions but cannot impose them. To implement its rules ICAO most rely not so much on legal requirements as on the goodwill of states. It has been forty-eight years since international community set the foundations of the international system in civil aviation action. Profound political, economic and technological changes have taken place in air transport. The Chicago Convention is living proof that staes can work together to make air transport a safe mode of travel. The law governing international civil auiation is principally based on international treaties and on other regulation agreed to by governments, for the most part through the mechanism of ICAO. The role of ICAO international standards and recommended practices and procedures dealing with a broad range of technical matters could hardly be overestimated. The organization's ability to develop these standards and procedures, to adapt them continuously to the rapid sate of change and development of air transport, should be particularly stressed. The role of ICAO in the area of the development of multilateral conventions on international air law has been successful but to a certain degree. From the modest starting-point of the Tokyo Convention, we have seen more adequate international instruments prepared within the scope of ICAO activities, adopted: the Hague Convention of 1970 for the suppression of Unlawful Seizure of Aircraft and the Montreal Convention of 1971 for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Civil Aviation. The work of ICAO in the new domain of international law conventions concerning what has been loosely termed above as the criminal problems connected with international air transport, in particular the problem of armed aggression against aircraft, should be positively appreciated. But ICAO records in the domain of developing a uniform legal system of international carriage by air are rather disappointing. The problem of maintaining and developing the uniformity of this regulation exceeds the scope of interest and competence of governmental transport agencies. The expectations of mankind linked to it are too great to give up trying to restore the uniform legal system of international air carriage that would create proper conditions for its further growth. It appears that ICAO has, at present, a good opportunity for doing this. The hasty preparation of ICAO draft conventions should be definitely excluded. Every Preliminary draft convention ought to be sent to Governments of all member-States for consideration, So that they could in form ICAO in due time of their observation. The problom of harmonizing a uniform law of international air carriage with that of other branches of international transport should demand more and more of its attention. ICAO cooperation with other international arganization, especially these working in the field of international transport, should be strengthened. ICAO is supposed to act as a link and a mediator among, at times the conflicting interests of member States, serving the happiness and peace of all of the world. The transformation of the contemporary world of developing international relations, stimulated by steadily growing international cooperation in its various dimensions, political, economic, scientific, technological, social and cultural, continuously confronts ICAO with new task.

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Islamist Strategic Changes against U.S. International Security Initiative (미국(美國)의 대외안보전략(對外安保戰略)에 대응한 이슬람Terrorism의 전술적(戰術的) 진화(進化))

  • Choi, Kee-Nam
    • Korean Security Journal
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    • no.14
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    • pp.517-534
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    • 2007
  • Since the beginning of human society, there have always been struggles and competitions for survival and prosperity, terrorism is not a recent phenomenon, however in modern times it has progressed to reflect the advances in civilization and power structures. At the time of the 9.11 terrorist attacks in the U.S. A., a new world order was in the process of being established after the breakdown of the Cold War era. The attacks drove both the Western and the Islamic worlds into heightened fear of terrorism and war, which threatened the quality of life of the whole mankind. Through two war campaigns against the Islamic world, it seems the U.S. has been pushing its own militaristic security road map of the Greater Middle East democratic initiative, justifying it as a means to retaliate and eradicate the terrorist threats towards themselves. However, with its five-year lopsided victories that cost the nation almost four thousand military casualties, and the war expenses that could match the Vietnam war, the U.S. does not yet seem to be totally emancipated from the fears of terrorism. Terrorism, in itself, is a means of resisting forced rules a form of alternative competition by the weak against the strong, and a way of expressing a dismissive response against dictatorial ideas or orders which allow for no normal changes. Intrinsically, the nature of terrorism is a reaction opposing power logics. Confronted with the absolute military power of the U.S., the Islamic strategies of terrorism have begun to rapidly evolve into a new stage. The new strategies take advantage of their civilization and circumstances, they train and inspire their front-line fighters on the Internet, and issue their orders through the clandestine network of the Al Qaeda operatives. These spontaneously generated strategies have been gained speed among the second, and third Islamic generations, many of whom are now spread throughout western societies. This represents a failure of the power-driven, one-sided overseas security initiatives by the U.S., and is creating a culture of fear and distrust in western societies. It is feared that the U.S. war campaigns have made the clash of religions far worse than before, and may ever lead to global ethnic separations and large-scale population movements. Eventually, it may result in the terrorist groups, enlarged and secretly supported by the huge sums of oil money, driving all mankind into a series of irreparable catastrophes.

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Brief Observation on Arbitration Agreement and Arbitral Award - Focusing on Construction Disputes - (중재합의와 중재판정에 관한 소고 -건설분쟁을 중심으로-)

  • Cho Dae-Yun
    • Journal of Arbitration Studies
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.273-314
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    • 2004
  • There is a belief in the construction industry that the traditional court system may not be an ideal forum to effectively and efficiently resolve construction disputes due to the protracted proceedings and the three tier appeal system resulting in a long delay in the final and conclusive settlement of the dispute, relatively high costs involved, the lack of requisite knowledge and experience in the relevant industry, etc. Hence, they assert that certain alternative dispute resolution ('ADR') methods, such as mediation, conciliation, arbitration or a new system for dispute settlement in the form of any combination thereof should be developed and employed for construction disputes so as to resolve them more promptly and efficiently to the satisfaction of all the disputants concerned. This paper discusses certain merits of such assertions and the need for additional considerations for effective resolution of the construction disputes in light of the complexity of the case, importance of expert witnesses, parties' relationship and non-level playing field of the construction industry and so on. At the same time, however, given the inherent nature of disputes rendering the parties involved in an adversarial position, it would rather be difficult, if not practically impossible, to satisfy all the parties concerned in the dispute. Accordingly, in this study, it is also purported to address the demerits of such assertions by studying the situation from a more balanced perspective, in particular, in relation to the operation of such ADRs. In fact, most of such ADRs as stipulated by special acts, such as the Construction Industry Basic Act of Korea, in the form of mediation or conciliation, have failed to get support from the industry, and as a result, such ADRs are seldom used in practice. Tn contrast, the court system has been greatly improved by implementing a new concentrated review system and establishing several tribunals designed to specialize in the review and resolution of specific types of disputes, including the construction disputes. These improvements of the court system have been warmly received by the industry. Arbitration is another forum for settlement of construction disputes, which has grown and is expected to grow as the most effective ADR with the support from the construction industry. In this regard, the Korean Commercial Arbitration Board ('KCAB') has established a set of internal rules end procedures in operation to efficiently handle construction disputes. Considering the foregoing, this paper addresses the most important elements of the arbitration, i.e., arbitration agreement and arbitral award, primarily focusing on the domestic arbitrations before the KCAB. However, since this parer is prepared for presentation at the construction disputes seminar for the public audience, it is not intended for academic purposes, nor does it delve into any specific acadcmic issues. Likewise, although this paper addresses certain controversial issues by way of introduction, it mainly purports to facilitate the understanding of the general public, including the prospective arbitrators on the KCAB roster without the relevant legal education and background, concerning the importance of the integrity of the arbitration agreement and the arbitral award. In sum, what is purported in this study is simply to note that there are still many outstanding issues with mediation, conciliation and arbitration, as a matter of system, institutional operation or otherwise, for further study and consideration so as to enhance them as effective means for settlement of construction disputes, in replacement of or in conjunction with the court proceeding. For this purpose, it is essential for all the relevant parties, including lawyers, engineers, owners, contractors and social activists aiming to protect consumers' and subcontractors' interests, to conduct joint efforts to study the complicated nature of construction works and to develop effective means for examination and handling of the disputes of a technical nature, including the accumulation of the relevant industrial data. Based on the foregoing, the parties may be in a better position to select the appropriate dispute resolution mechanism, a court proceeding or in its stead, an effective ADR, considering the relevant factors of the subject construction works or the contract structure, such as the bargaining position of the parties, their financial status, confidentiality requirements, technical or commercial complexity of the case at hand, urgency for settlements, etc.

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Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards in Korea (한국에서의 외국중재판정의 승인과 집행)

  • Kim, Sang-Ho
    • Journal of Arbitration Studies
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.3-30
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    • 2007
  • The New York Convention(formally called "United Nations Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards") done in New York on June 10, 1958 has been adhered to by more than 140 States at the time of this writing, including almost all important trading nations from the Capitalist and Socialist World as well as many developing countries. The Convention can be considered as the most important Convention in the field of arbitration and as the cornerstone of current international commercial arbitration. Korea has acceded to the New York Convention since 1973. When acceding to the Convention, Korea declared that it will apply the Convention to the recognition and enforcement of awards made only in the territory of another Contracting State on the basis of reciprocity. Also, Korea declared that it will apply the Convention only to differences arising out of legal relationships, whether contractual or not, which are considered as commercial under the national law of Korea. The provisions relating to the enforcement of arbitral awards falling under the New York Convention begin at Article III. The Article III contains the general obligation for the Contracting States to recognize Convention awards as binding and to enforce them in accordance with their rules of procedure. The Convention requires a minimum of conditions to be fulfilled by the party seeking enforcement. According to Article IV(1), that party has only to supply (1) the duly authenticated original award or a duly certified copy thereof, and (2) the original arbitration agreement or a duly certified copy thereof. In fulfilling these conditions, the party seeking enforcement produces prima facie evidence entitling it to obtain enforcement of the award. It is then up to the other party to prove that enforcement should not be granted on the basis of the grounds for refusal of enforcement enumerated in the subsequent Article V(1). Grounds for refusal of enforcement are stipulated in Article V is divided into two parts. Firstly, listed in the first Para. of Article V are the grounds for refusal of enforcement which are to be asserted and proven by the respondent. Secondly, listed in Para. 2 of Article V, are the grounds on which a court may refuse enforcement on its own motion. These grounds are non-arbitrability of the subject matter and violation of the public policy of the enforcement country. The three main features of the grounds for refusal of enforcement of an award under Article V, which are almost unanimously affirmed by the courts, are the following. Firstly, The grounds for refusal of enforcement mentioned in Article V are exhaustive. No other grounds can be invoked. Secondly, and this feature follows from the first one, the court before which enforcement of the award is sought may not review the merits of the award because a mistake in fact or law by the arbitrators is not included in the list of grounds for refusal of enforcement set forth in Article V. Thirdly, the party against whom enforcement is sought has the burden of proving the existence of one or more of the grounds for refusal of enforcement. The grounds for refusal of enforcement by a court on its own motion, listed in the second Para. of Article V, are non-arbitrability of the subject matter and public policy of the enforcement country. From the court decisions reported so far at home and abroad, it appears that courts accept a violation of public policy in extreme cases only, and frequently justify their decision by distinguishing between domestic and international public policy. The Dec. 31, 1999 amendment to the Arbitration Act of Korea admits the basis for enforcement of foreign arbitral awards rendered under the New York Convention. In Korea, a holder of a foreign arbitral award is obliged to request from the court a judgment ordering enforcement of the award.

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A Analysis of Q-methodological Preference Degree about the Subjects on School Curriculum Related to the Police & Security Administration - Centering around the Subject of Study on Gwang Ju and Jeon Nam Region - (경찰 및 경호 관련학과 전공교과목에 대한 Q방법론적 선호도 분석)

  • Kim, Pyong-Soo
    • Korean Security Journal
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    • no.28
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    • pp.33-56
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    • 2011
  • This study is to practice a analysis of Q-methodological preference degree about the subjects on school curriculum centering around the views of the policemen in active service who are with Gwang Ju and Jeon Nam region. Concretely, this study mixed the subjects on school curriculum related to the police administration of universities located in Gwang Ju and Jeon Nam region and abstracted the twenty seven items as the final question point. Above this, this study integrated the similar or repeated subjects and drew up the question items through seperation process among the different subjects. After this, this study selected the twenty policemen as a first P-sample in active service presently on fourth month in the year 2011. In this process, this study eliminated the materials of six policemen who replyed unhonestly and selected the materials of ten-four policemen as a final effective sample. Furthermore, this study applicated a principal component analysis. This study practiced the I.II.III types of a preference degree analysis of the subjects related to the police administration. the concrete results are as follows: In a I type, the positive consent was showed in the subjects of criminal law, criminal procedure law, criminal speciality law and so on. In a II type, the positive consent was showed in criminal investigation science, emergency measure, the art of self-defence, criminal law, criminal procedure law and so on. In a III type, the positive consent was showed in criminal science, criminal investigation science, criminal procedure law, introduction to police science, police ethics and so on. On this basis, this study concluded the following common opinions. Firstly the actual and evidencial subjects which the policemen in active service feel as the commons were criminal investigation, criminal science, police ethics, criminal speciality law, criminal law business, police administration science, police law practice, emergency measure, the art of self-defence, general rules of civil law, administrative law and so on.

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A Study on the Precedents Changing Related to International Jurisdiction in Electronic Commerce-Focused on U.S. Cases- (전자상거래의 국제재판관할 관련 판례변화에 관한 연구)

  • Woo, Kwang-Myung
    • International Commerce and Information Review
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.3-29
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    • 2011
  • The Internet has become a medium through which people engage in increasingly sophisticated transactions. Businesses and consumers now use the Internet to communicate and engage in commercial transactions creating a virtual worldwide marketplace. They fear that the determination of Internet jurisdiction could be uncertain because electronic commerce is not executed in one particular place. Until now, there are no specific rules in the model laws and conventions dealing with international jurisdiction in electronic commerce. Due to the fact that U.S. companies are at the forefront of Internet technology, litigation regarding electronic commerce in the U.S. is more advanced than anywhere else in the world This paper analysis the basic framework for personal jurisdiction and approach for determining international jurisdiction in electronic commerce cases and explain the differences of several approaches involving interactions over the Internet. According to jurisdiction approach test, the U.S. employs sliding scale, effects and targeting test in electronic commerce. In recent many research views the targeting test as a global standard for determining international electronic commerce jurisdiction. However, there is still no clear indication of conclusive test of jurisdiction determination for electronic commerce. Therefore, it is a changing and process of jurisdiction test in the U.S. cases. In Korea, there is jurisdiction related clause in Private International Law, but it may be asked whether applicable in electronic commerce. Accordingly, analysis of the precedents changing related to electronic commerce jurisdiction of U.s. is full of suggestions in Korean companies, consumers and helps an enactment of code of civil procedure that containing many group's demands.

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Analysis and countermeasure of causes of inducing violence of private security companies on the actual sites of administrative execution by proxy (행정대집행 현장에서 민간경비업체의 폭력 유발 원인 분석과 대책)

  • Choi, Kee-Nam
    • Korean Security Journal
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    • no.18
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    • pp.119-141
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    • 2009
  • Administrative execution by proxy is one of forced executions of administration and is also called as "enforced execution by proxy" in which administration institutions or the third party executes by proxy on behalf of parties who did not execute obligations under administration law and files claims to compensate expenses required in the proxy execution. Despite the actual site of administrative execution by law, social problems are generated because various violence and behaviors of infringement of human rights between executer and obligator are rampant and thus causing human damages since forced execution by physical force is carried out and cases of police indictments and petition to human rights committee are gradually increasing. Majority of people mobilized in this actual site of violence are supplied by private security companies which provide service contract and mobilization of people without qualification of guards or security service and irrational execution by proxy and violent actions by so-called service hooligans connected to violence organizations are now becoming social issues. In these actual sites of violence, structurally very complicated problems such as economic rights, right of residence, struggle for living, and intervention by outsiders are contained. This thesis has analyzed causes of outbreaks of violence and discussed about improvement countermeasure by paying attention to mobilization of people by private security companies. As the result, through revision and improvement of laws and systems, execution institution and policemen must be present at actual sites of execution by proxy to control physical execution of private security companies to be carried out legally and when violent collisions are occurring, it shall be stipulated that police should immediately intervene. Practices of execution by proxy of execution administration institutions shall be avoided and causes of occurrences of violence shall be eliminated by discrete decisions of execution by proxy, elimination of service contract conditions focused on accomplishments, and stipulation of responsibility of execution institutions when problems occur. Practices of solving petitions through collective actions of obligators shall be eliminated and strict enforcement of laws such as disturbance of official execution or compensation claims for expenses of execution by proxy must be carried out and intervention by the third parties must be intercepted. Mobilization of manpower by security companies shall be limited to people with prior registration who have acquired and finished qualification and education by security business law and before putting them on actual sites, it shall be obliged that execution plan with clear written records of working location, mission, and work rules must be submitted in advance to police station in charge and also they must be controlled to follow laws and statutes such as uniform and equipments. In addition, personal criminal responsibility for violent actions must be clearly stipulated and advanced securing soundness of security companies such as limits of service contracts with records of accidents is required. Order placement behaviors of special organizations under the pretext of rehabilitation business must be eradicated and companies with capability and strong intention of observation of laws must be able to receive orders by intercepting chains of contracts and sub-contracts. Issues of improvement countermeasure of social problem, living, and compensation including rights of residence and environment are excluded from the discussion.

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Interpretation of the Umbrella Clause in Investment Treaties (국제투자조약상 포괄적 보호조항(Umbrella Clauses)의 해석에 관한 연구)

  • Jo, Hee-Moon
    • Journal of Arbitration Studies
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.95-126
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    • 2009
  • One of the controversial issues in investor-state investment arbitration is the interpretation of "umbrella clause" that is found in most BIT and FTAs. This treaty clause requires on Contracting State of treaty to observe all investment obligations entered into with foreign investors from the other Contracting State. This clause did not receive in-depth attention until SGS v. Pakistan and SGS v. Philippines cases produced starkly different conclusions on the relations about treaty-based jurisdiction and contract-based jurisdiction. More recent decisions by other arbitral tribunals continue to show different approaches in their interpretation of umbrella clauses. Following the SGS v. Philippines decision, some recent decisions understand that all contracts are covered by umbrella clause, for example, in Siemens A.G. v. Argentina, LG&E Energy Corp. v. Argentina, Sempra Energy Int'l v. Argentina and Enron Corp. V. Argentina. However, other recent decisions have found a different approach that only certain kinds of public contracts are covered by umbrella clauses, for example, in El Paso Energy Int'l Co. v. Argentina, Pan American Energy LLC v. Argentina and CMS Gas Transmission Co. v. Argentina. With relation to the exhaustion of domestic remedies, most of tribunals have the position that the contractual remedy should not affect the jurisdiction of BIT tribunal. Even some tribunals considered that there is no need to exhaust contract remedies before bringing BIT arbitration, provoking suspicion of the validity of sanctity of contract in front of treaty obligation. The decision of the Annulment Committee In CMS case in 2007 was an extraordinarily surprising one and poured oil on the debate. The Committee composed of the three respected international lawyers, Gilbert Guillaume and Nabil Elaraby, both from the ICJ, and professor James Crawford, the Rapportuer of the International Law Commission on the Draft Articles on the Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts, observed that the arbitral tribunal made critical errors of law, however, noting that it has limited power to review and overturn the award. The position of the Committee was a direct attack on ICSID system showing as an internal recognition of ICSID itself that the current system of investor-state arbitration is problematic. States are coming to limit the scope of umbrella clauses. For example, the 2004 U.S. Model BIT detailed definition of the type of contracts for which breach of contract claims may be submitted to arbitration, to increase certainty and predictability. Latin American countries, in particular, Argentina, are feeling collectively victims of these pro-investor interpretations of the ICSID tribunals. In fact, BIT between developed and developing countries are negotiated to protect foreign investment from developing countries. This general characteristic of BIT reflects naturally on the provisions making them extremely protective for foreign investors. Naturally, developing countries seek to interpret restrictively BIT provisions, whereas developed countries try to interpret more expansively. As most of cases arising out of alleged violation of BIT are administered in the ICSID, a forum under the auspices of the World Bank, these Latin American countries have been raising the legitimacy deficit of the ICSID. The Argentine cases have been provoking many legal issues of international law, predicting crisis almost coming in actual investor-state arbitration system. Some Latin American countries, such as Bolivia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Argentina, already showed their dissatisfaction with the ICSID system considering withdrawing from it to minimize the eventual investor-state dispute. Thus the disagreement over umbrella clauses in their interpretation is becoming interpreted as an historical reflection on the continued tension between developing and developed countries on foreign investment. There is an academic and political discussion on the possible return of the Calvo Doctrine in Latin America. The paper will comment on these problems related to the interpretation of umbrella clause. The paper analyses ICSID cases involving principally Latin American countries to identify the critical legal issues arising between developing and developed countries. And the paper discusses alternatives in improving actual investor-State investment arbitration; inter alia, the introduction of an appellate system and treaty interpretation rules.

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