• Title, Summary, Keyword: Association rules

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국제항공(國際航空)테러리즘으로 인한 여객손해(旅客損害)에 대한 운송인(運送人)의 책임(責任) ("Liability of Air Carriers for Injuries Resulting from International Aviation Terrorism")

  • 최완식
    • 항공우주정책ㆍ법학회지
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    • v.1
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    • pp.47-85
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    • 1989
  • The Fundamental purpose of the Warsaw Convention was to establish uniform rules applicable to international air transportation. The emphasis on the benefits of uniformity was considered important in the beginning and continues to be important to the present. If the desire for uniformity is indeed the mortar which holds the Warsaw system together then it should be possible to agree on a worldwide liability limit. This liability limit would not be so unreasonable, that it would be impossible for nations to adhere to it. It would preclude any national supplemental compensation plan or Montreal Agreement type of requirement in any jurisdiction. The differentiation of liability limits by national requirement seems to be what is occurring. There is a plethora of mandated limits and Montreal Agreement type 'voluntary' limits. It is becoming difficult to find more than a few major States where an unmodified Warsaw Convention or Hague Protocol limitation is still in effect. If this is the real world in the 1980's, then let the treaty so reflect it. Upon reviewing the Warsaw Convention, its history and the several attempts to amend it, strengths become apparent. Hijackings of international flights have given rise to a number of lawsuits by passengers to recover damages for injuries suffered. This comment is concerned with the liability of an airline for injuries to its passengers resulting from aviation terrorism. In addition, analysis is focused on current airline security measures, particularly the pre-boarding screening system, and the duty of air carriers to prevent weapons from penetrating that system. An airline has a duty to exercise a high degree of care to protect its passengers from the threat of aviation terrorism. This duty would seemingly require the airline to exercise a high degree of care to prevent any passenger from smuggling a weapon or explosive device aboard its aircraft. In the case an unarmed hijacker who boards having no instrument in his possession with which to promote the hoax, a plaintiff-passenger would be hard-pressed to show that the airline was negligent in screening the hijacker prior to boarding. In light of the airline's duty to exercise a high degree of care to provide for the safety of all the passengers on board, an acquiescene to a hijacker's demands on the part of the air carrier could constitute a breach of duty only when it is clearly shown that the carrier's employees knew or plainly should have known that the hijacker was unarmed. A finding of willful misconduct on the part of an air carrier, which is a prerequisite to imposing unlimited liability, remains a question to be determined by a jury using the definition or standard of willful misconduct prevailing in the jurisdiction of the forum court. Through the willful misconduct provision of the Warsaw Convention, air carrier face the possibility of unlimited liability for failure to implement proper preventive precautions against terrorist. Courts, therefore, should broadly construe the willful misconduct provision of the Warsaw Convention in order to find unlimited liability for passenger injuries whenever air carrier security precautions are lacking. In this way, the courts can help ensure air carrier safety and prevention against terrorist attack. Air carriers, therefore, would have an incentive to increase, impose and maintain security precautions designed to thwart such potential terrorist attacks as in the case of Korean Air Lines Flight No.858 incident having a tremendous impact on the civil aviation community. The crash of a commercial airliner, with the attending tragic loss of life and massive destruction of property, always gives rise to shock and indignation. The general opinion is that the legal system could be sufficient, provided that the political will is there to use and apply it effectively. All agreed that the main responsibility for security has to be borne by the governments. I would like to remind all passengers that every discovery of the human spirit may be used for opposite ends; thus, aircraft can be used for air travel but also as targets of terrorism. A state that supports aviation terrorism is responsible for violation of International Aviation Law. Generally speaking, terrorism is a violation of international law. It violates the soverign rights of the states, and the human rights of the individuals. I think that aviation terrorism as becoming an ever more serious issue, has to be solved by internationally agreed and closely co-ordinated measures. We have to contribute more to the creation of a general consensus amongst all states about the need to combat the threat of aviation terrorism.

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변환기(變換期)에 있어서의 국제민간항공기구(國際民間航空機構)(ICAD)와 항공법(航空法) 발전(發展)의 최근(最近) 동향(動向) (The International Civil Aviation Organization and Recent Developments of Air Law in a Changing Environment)

  • 최완식
    • 항공우주정책ㆍ법학회지
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    • v.4
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    • pp.7-35
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    • 1992
  • The expansion of air transport on a global scale with ever increasing traffic densities has brought about problems that must be solved through new multilateral mechanisms. Looking to the immediate future, air transport will require new forms of international cooperation in technical and economic areas. Air transport by its very nature should have been a counterforce to nationalism. Yet, the regulatory system in civil aviation is still as firmly rooted in the principle of national sovereignty as when it was first proclaimed at t-11e Paris Convention of 1919 and reaffirmed in the Chicago Convention. Sovereignty over the airspace has remained the cornerstone of relations between states in all respects of air transport. The importance of sovereignty over air space embodied in article 1 of the Chicago Conrenton also is responsible for restricting the authority of ICAO as an intergovernmental regulatory agency. The Orgenization, for all its extensive efforts, has only limited authority. ICAO sets standards but cannot enforce them; it devises solutions but cannot impose them. To implement its rules ICAO most rely not so much on legal requirements as on the goodwill of states. It has been forty-eight years since international community set the foundations of the international system in civil aviation action. Profound political, economic and technological changes have taken place in air transport. The Chicago Convention is living proof that staes can work together to make air transport a safe mode of travel. The law governing international civil auiation is principally based on international treaties and on other regulation agreed to by governments, for the most part through the mechanism of ICAO. The role of ICAO international standards and recommended practices and procedures dealing with a broad range of technical matters could hardly be overestimated. The organization's ability to develop these standards and procedures, to adapt them continuously to the rapid sate of change and development of air transport, should be particularly stressed. The role of ICAO in the area of the development of multilateral conventions on international air law has been successful but to a certain degree. From the modest starting-point of the Tokyo Convention, we have seen more adequate international instruments prepared within the scope of ICAO activities, adopted: the Hague Convention of 1970 for the suppression of Unlawful Seizure of Aircraft and the Montreal Convention of 1971 for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Civil Aviation. The work of ICAO in the new domain of international law conventions concerning what has been loosely termed above as the criminal problems connected with international air transport, in particular the problem of armed aggression against aircraft, should be positively appreciated. But ICAO records in the domain of developing a uniform legal system of international carriage by air are rather disappointing. The problem of maintaining and developing the uniformity of this regulation exceeds the scope of interest and competence of governmental transport agencies. The expectations of mankind linked to it are too great to give up trying to restore the uniform legal system of international air carriage that would create proper conditions for its further growth. It appears that ICAO has, at present, a good opportunity for doing this. The hasty preparation of ICAO draft conventions should be definitely excluded. Every Preliminary draft convention ought to be sent to Governments of all member-States for consideration, So that they could in form ICAO in due time of their observation. The problom of harmonizing a uniform law of international air carriage with that of other branches of international transport should demand more and more of its attention. ICAO cooperation with other international arganization, especially these working in the field of international transport, should be strengthened. ICAO is supposed to act as a link and a mediator among, at times the conflicting interests of member States, serving the happiness and peace of all of the world. The transformation of the contemporary world of developing international relations, stimulated by steadily growing international cooperation in its various dimensions, political, economic, scientific, technological, social and cultural, continuously confronts ICAO with new task.

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미국(美國)의 대외안보전략(對外安保戰略)에 대응한 이슬람Terrorism의 전술적(戰術的) 진화(進化) (Islamist Strategic Changes against U.S. International Security Initiative)

  • 최기남
    • 시큐리티연구
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    • no.14
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    • pp.517-534
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    • 2007
  • Terrorism은 인류사회가 형성되고 생존과 번영을 위한 경쟁과 투쟁을 시작하면서 그 수단으로, 문명의 발전과 권력구조를 반영하면서 같이 진화하며 존재해 왔다. 냉전체제 붕괴 후, 21세기 새로운 세계질서의 확립 과정에서 9.11Terror를 계기로 미국을 중심으로 한 서방세력과 이슬람권의 대립이 시현되면서 인류는 테러위협의 공포 속에서 삶의 질을 위협 받고 있다. 미국은 9.11Terror에 대한 응징과 Terror 근절이라는 명분으로 자신의 가치관에 따른 "대(大)중동 민주화 구상"의 로드 맵을 2차에 걸친 전쟁을 통해 강요하면서 군사력에 의한 일방주의적 대외안보전략을 고수하고 있다. 그러나 완벽한 군사적 승리와 전후 5년 동안 4000명에 가까운 희생과 한국전과 베트남전을 능가하는 전비를 감수하고도 Terrorism의 위협으로부터 자유롭지 못한 상황이다. Terrorism은 본질적으로 힘의 지배에 대한 저항이며, 정면 대결이 불가능한 약자의 비대칭적 대결방식이고, 정상적인 방법으로의 변화가 불가능한 통념이나 질서에 대한 약자의 거부 의사의 표시 방법 중 하나이다. 따라서 최근 이슬람테러리즘은 미국이라는 절대적인 무력에 대해 전술적으로 빠르게 진화하면서, 고도화된 문명과 집약된 환경을 효과적으로 활용하며, Internet을 통해 훈련되고 종교적으로 의식화되고, 알카에디즘에 의해 점조직으로 지원과 지령을 하고 있으며, 이런 경향이 이슬람2-3세들을 중심으로 자생적으로 생성되어 전 서방제국으로 확산되고 있다. 이는 힘의 논리에 따른 미국의 일방주의적 대외 안보전략의 실패 결과이며, 이에 대응한 이슬람Terrorism의 전술적 진화이다. 이런 위협이 서방세계 각국의 대중에 대한 공포로 확산되고, 해결 방법을 어렵게하고 있다. 이는 해결방법의 변화를 요구하고 있다. 또한 이의 확산은 인종간의 분화와 인구 대이동으로 발전될 가능성까지 제기되고 있다.

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중재합의와 중재판정에 관한 소고 -건설분쟁을 중심으로- (Brief Observation on Arbitration Agreement and Arbitral Award - Focusing on Construction Disputes -)

  • 조대연
    • 한국중재학회지:중재연구
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.273-314
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    • 2004
  • There is a belief in the construction industry that the traditional court system may not be an ideal forum to effectively and efficiently resolve construction disputes due to the protracted proceedings and the three tier appeal system resulting in a long delay in the final and conclusive settlement of the dispute, relatively high costs involved, the lack of requisite knowledge and experience in the relevant industry, etc. Hence, they assert that certain alternative dispute resolution ('ADR') methods, such as mediation, conciliation, arbitration or a new system for dispute settlement in the form of any combination thereof should be developed and employed for construction disputes so as to resolve them more promptly and efficiently to the satisfaction of all the disputants concerned. This paper discusses certain merits of such assertions and the need for additional considerations for effective resolution of the construction disputes in light of the complexity of the case, importance of expert witnesses, parties' relationship and non-level playing field of the construction industry and so on. At the same time, however, given the inherent nature of disputes rendering the parties involved in an adversarial position, it would rather be difficult, if not practically impossible, to satisfy all the parties concerned in the dispute. Accordingly, in this study, it is also purported to address the demerits of such assertions by studying the situation from a more balanced perspective, in particular, in relation to the operation of such ADRs. In fact, most of such ADRs as stipulated by special acts, such as the Construction Industry Basic Act of Korea, in the form of mediation or conciliation, have failed to get support from the industry, and as a result, such ADRs are seldom used in practice. Tn contrast, the court system has been greatly improved by implementing a new concentrated review system and establishing several tribunals designed to specialize in the review and resolution of specific types of disputes, including the construction disputes. These improvements of the court system have been warmly received by the industry. Arbitration is another forum for settlement of construction disputes, which has grown and is expected to grow as the most effective ADR with the support from the construction industry. In this regard, the Korean Commercial Arbitration Board ('KCAB') has established a set of internal rules end procedures in operation to efficiently handle construction disputes. Considering the foregoing, this paper addresses the most important elements of the arbitration, i.e., arbitration agreement and arbitral award, primarily focusing on the domestic arbitrations before the KCAB. However, since this parer is prepared for presentation at the construction disputes seminar for the public audience, it is not intended for academic purposes, nor does it delve into any specific acadcmic issues. Likewise, although this paper addresses certain controversial issues by way of introduction, it mainly purports to facilitate the understanding of the general public, including the prospective arbitrators on the KCAB roster without the relevant legal education and background, concerning the importance of the integrity of the arbitration agreement and the arbitral award. In sum, what is purported in this study is simply to note that there are still many outstanding issues with mediation, conciliation and arbitration, as a matter of system, institutional operation or otherwise, for further study and consideration so as to enhance them as effective means for settlement of construction disputes, in replacement of or in conjunction with the court proceeding. For this purpose, it is essential for all the relevant parties, including lawyers, engineers, owners, contractors and social activists aiming to protect consumers' and subcontractors' interests, to conduct joint efforts to study the complicated nature of construction works and to develop effective means for examination and handling of the disputes of a technical nature, including the accumulation of the relevant industrial data. Based on the foregoing, the parties may be in a better position to select the appropriate dispute resolution mechanism, a court proceeding or in its stead, an effective ADR, considering the relevant factors of the subject construction works or the contract structure, such as the bargaining position of the parties, their financial status, confidentiality requirements, technical or commercial complexity of the case at hand, urgency for settlements, etc.

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한국에서의 외국중재판정의 승인과 집행 (Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards in Korea)

  • 김상호
    • 한국중재학회지:중재연구
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.3-30
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    • 2007
  • The New York Convention(formally called "United Nations Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards") done in New York on June 10, 1958 has been adhered to by more than 140 States at the time of this writing, including almost all important trading nations from the Capitalist and Socialist World as well as many developing countries. The Convention can be considered as the most important Convention in the field of arbitration and as the cornerstone of current international commercial arbitration. Korea has acceded to the New York Convention since 1973. When acceding to the Convention, Korea declared that it will apply the Convention to the recognition and enforcement of awards made only in the territory of another Contracting State on the basis of reciprocity. Also, Korea declared that it will apply the Convention only to differences arising out of legal relationships, whether contractual or not, which are considered as commercial under the national law of Korea. The provisions relating to the enforcement of arbitral awards falling under the New York Convention begin at Article III. The Article III contains the general obligation for the Contracting States to recognize Convention awards as binding and to enforce them in accordance with their rules of procedure. The Convention requires a minimum of conditions to be fulfilled by the party seeking enforcement. According to Article IV(1), that party has only to supply (1) the duly authenticated original award or a duly certified copy thereof, and (2) the original arbitration agreement or a duly certified copy thereof. In fulfilling these conditions, the party seeking enforcement produces prima facie evidence entitling it to obtain enforcement of the award. It is then up to the other party to prove that enforcement should not be granted on the basis of the grounds for refusal of enforcement enumerated in the subsequent Article V(1). Grounds for refusal of enforcement are stipulated in Article V is divided into two parts. Firstly, listed in the first Para. of Article V are the grounds for refusal of enforcement which are to be asserted and proven by the respondent. Secondly, listed in Para. 2 of Article V, are the grounds on which a court may refuse enforcement on its own motion. These grounds are non-arbitrability of the subject matter and violation of the public policy of the enforcement country. The three main features of the grounds for refusal of enforcement of an award under Article V, which are almost unanimously affirmed by the courts, are the following. Firstly, The grounds for refusal of enforcement mentioned in Article V are exhaustive. No other grounds can be invoked. Secondly, and this feature follows from the first one, the court before which enforcement of the award is sought may not review the merits of the award because a mistake in fact or law by the arbitrators is not included in the list of grounds for refusal of enforcement set forth in Article V. Thirdly, the party against whom enforcement is sought has the burden of proving the existence of one or more of the grounds for refusal of enforcement. The grounds for refusal of enforcement by a court on its own motion, listed in the second Para. of Article V, are non-arbitrability of the subject matter and public policy of the enforcement country. From the court decisions reported so far at home and abroad, it appears that courts accept a violation of public policy in extreme cases only, and frequently justify their decision by distinguishing between domestic and international public policy. The Dec. 31, 1999 amendment to the Arbitration Act of Korea admits the basis for enforcement of foreign arbitral awards rendered under the New York Convention. In Korea, a holder of a foreign arbitral award is obliged to request from the court a judgment ordering enforcement of the award.

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경찰 및 경호 관련학과 전공교과목에 대한 Q방법론적 선호도 분석 (A Analysis of Q-methodological Preference Degree about the Subjects on School Curriculum Related to the Police & Security Administration - Centering around the Subject of Study on Gwang Ju and Jeon Nam Region -)

  • 김평수
    • 시큐리티연구
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    • no.28
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    • pp.33-56
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    • 2011
  • 상본 연구는 광주 전남 지역에서 근무하고 있는 현직경찰관의 견해를 경찰경호 관련학과 전공교과목에 대한 Q방법론적 선호도 분석을 실시하였다. 구체적으로 광주 전남 대학의 경찰행정 및 경호관련학과 전공교과목을 조합하여 27문항을 최종 진술문으로 추출하였으며 교과명이 유사하거나 중복된 교과목은 통합하고 다른 의미를 가진 교과목 간에는 분리 과정을 통해 질문지를 작성한 후 2011년 04월 현재 광주 전남지역에서 경찰관으로 재직 중인 20명을 최초 P-Sample로 선정하였다. 이 과정에서 불성실하게 응답한 6명의 자료를 제외한 14명의 자료를 최종 유효 표본으로 선정하였으며, QUANL. PC 프로그램을 적용 및 주 요인분석(principal component analysis)을 실시하였다. 본 연구에서 경찰경호 2개 영역 모두 분석대상으로 삼는 것은 표본특성 및 전공영역이 다소 상이하므로 이 연구에서는 제1차 연구로서 경찰관만을 대상으로 한 경찰전공 영역 교과목에 국한하여 분석연구를 실시하였다. 따라서 경호영역은 후속연구로서 세밀한 분석을 추가 실시할 계획이다. 이러한 연구절차와 연구과정을 통해 제I, II, III유형의 경찰경호 관련학과 전공교과목 선호도 분석을 실시하였다. 구체적인 결과는 다음과 같다. 제I유형은 형법, 형사소송법, 형사특별법 등의 교과목이 긍정적인 동의를 보였다. 제II유형은 범죄수사학, 구급 및 응급처치, 호신술, 형법, 형사소송법 등이 긍정적인 동의를 보였다. 제III유형은 범죄학개론, 범죄수사학, 형사소송법, 경찰학개론, 경찰윤리 등이 긍정적인 동의를 보였다. 이를 토대로 각 유형 간의 일치항목 즉, 공통된 의견을 다음과 같은 결론으로 도출하였다. 우선 긍정적인 공통된 전공교과목으로는 범죄수사학, 범죄학개론, 경찰윤리, 형사특별법, 형사사법실무, 경찰행정론, 경찰법규실습, 구급 및 응급처치, 호신술, 민법총칙, 행정법 등의 교과목이 현장근무시 경찰관들이 느끼는 현실적이고 실증적인 교과목임을 알 수 있었다.

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전자상거래의 국제재판관할 관련 판례변화에 관한 연구 (A Study on the Precedents Changing Related to International Jurisdiction in Electronic Commerce-Focused on U.S. Cases-)

  • 우광명
    • 통상정보연구
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.3-29
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    • 2011
  • 인터넷을 통한 전자적 활동은 다수국의 관할영역에 걸쳐 발생할 수 있다. 즉 온라인상의 활동의 효과는 지리적으로 한정되지 않고, 특정한 지역의 사람에게만 영향을 미치는 것도 아니다. 인터넷상의 전자상거래는 초국경적으로 불특정다수를 상대로 거의 동시에 쌍방향 통신이 가능하다. 이러한 특정은 국제재판관할과 준거법 결정에 어려움을 발생시키기 때문에 국제사법상으로 처리하는 데 문제로 된다. 이 문제를 해결하기 위해서는 오늘날 존재하는 각국의 법 차이를 고려하여 국제사법의 정신에 준하여 어떻게 법의 충돌을 해결하고, 바람직한 국제재판관할에 관한 적용규범의 전개방향을 눈여겨봐야 한다. 이런 차원에서 전자상거래 관련 국제재판관할 문제에 관하여는 세계적으로 전자상거래 주도국인 미국의 판례변화를 분석하는 것은 그 의의가 있다. 전자상거래의 국제재판관할과 관련한 미국의 최근 판례를 분석해 보면, 대인재판관할권 관련한 판례 법리는 아직 완전하게 확립된 단계까지는 이르지 못하였고 변화 발전하고 있는 것으로 판단된다. 미국연방법원이 전자상거래의 국제재판관할 문제를 해결하기 위하여 여러 접근방법을 적용하여 왔다. 즉 영역별 분석법 (sliding scale test), 효과분석법 (effect test) 등을 적용하여 왔지만, 최근에는 타켓팅 분석법 (targeting test)을 적용하는 경향을 보이고 있다. 현재 우리나라에서는 국제재판관할 관련 규칙을 국제사법에서 규정하고 있지만, 이들 규칙이 전자상거래에도 그대로 적용될 지는 의문이 있다. 따라서 우리나라에서도 국제재판관할의 유무를 논함에 있어서는 구체적인 사정을 고려하여 개별사안의 타당한 해결에 중점을 두고 있는 현상을 근거로 삼아야 할 것이다. 따라서 구체적 사안처리의 개별타당성을 추구하는 미국판례의 동향을 분석하는 것은 적어도 실무상 어느 정도 중요한 위치를 차지하는 것이라 할 수 있다. 특히 최근의 미국판례나 학설의 동향을 분석하는 것은 앞으로 국제재판관할에 관한 규정을 우리나라 민사소송법에 포함시킬 때 소비자와 사업자의 요청을 수용하는 타당한 규정을 마련하는데 도움을 제공할 수 있다고 판단된다.

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행정대집행 현장에서 민간경비업체의 폭력 유발 원인 분석과 대책 (Analysis and countermeasure of causes of inducing violence of private security companies on the actual sites of administrative execution by proxy)

  • 최기남
    • 시큐리티연구
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    • no.18
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    • pp.119-141
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    • 2009
  • 행정대집행은 행정의 강제집행수단의 하나로 행정법상의 의무를 이행하지 않은 자를 대신하여 행정관청이나 제3자가 대행하고 소요비용을 의무자에게 청구하는 제도로 "강제대집행"이라고도 한다. 법에 의한 행정집행의 현장임에도 불구하고 물리력에 의한 강제집행이 시행됨으로 인하여 시행자와 의무자 사이에 온갖 폭력과 인권유린 행위가 난무하고 인적피해가 발생하여 사회문제화 되고 있으며, 경찰에 고발과 인권위원회에 진정하는 등의 경우가 점차 증가세에 있다. 이런 폭력의 현장에 동원되는 인원은 대부분 용역을 제공하는 민간경비업체가 공급하고 있으며, 경비원 자격이 없는 인원의 동원과 폭력조직과 연계된 소위 용역깡패의 무리한 대집행과 폭력행위가 문제 되고 있다. 이런 폭력의 현장에는 경제적 이권과 주거권, 생계형 투쟁, 외부의 개입 등 구조적으로 복잡한 문제가 내포되어 있다. 본 논문은 민간경비업체의 인원동원에 관심을 가지고 대집행 현장의 폭력의 유형과 폭력이 발생하는 원인을 분석하고 개선대책을 논의하였다. 그 결과로는 법과 제도적 개선으로 대집행의 현장에는 필히 시행청과 경찰관이 입회하여 민간경비업체의 물리적 집행이 합법적으로 이행되도록 통제하여야 하며, 폭력적 충돌양상이 발생하면 즉시 경찰이 개입하도록 명시하여야 한다. 시행청의 대집행에 대한 관행을 탈피하여 신중한 대집행 결정과 성과위주의 용역계약조건의 해소, 문제발생시 시행청의 책임 명시 등 수주과정에서의 폭력유발 요인을 제거해야 한다. 의무자의 집단행동을 통한 민원해결의 타성을 타파하고 공무집행의 방해나 대집행 비용의 청구 등 엄격한 법집행이 이루어져야하고, 제3자의 개입을 차단하여야 한다. 경비업체의 인원동원은 경비업법에 의한 자격과 교육을 이수한 인원으로 사전에 등록된 인원으로 제한하여야하며, 현장투입 전 관할 경찰관서에 근무지와 임무, 근무수칙 등을 명확히 기록한 집행계획서를 제출하도록 의무화하고, 복장, 장비 등 법규를 준수하도록 통제되어야 한다. 또한 폭력행위에 대한 개인의 형사적 책임을 명확히 하고, 사고 경력에 대한 수주의 제한 등 업체의 건전성 확보대책이 요구된다. 재활사업이란 명목의 특수단체의 수주행위가 근절되고, 도급과 하도급의 고리를 차단하여 능력과 법의 준수의지를 가진 업체가 수주하도록 해야 한다. 등이다. 주거권과 환경 등 사회문제, 생계, 보상 등의 개선대책 문제는 논외로 하였다.

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국제투자조약상 포괄적 보호조항(Umbrella Clauses)의 해석에 관한 연구 (Interpretation of the Umbrella Clause in Investment Treaties)

  • 조희문
    • 한국중재학회지:중재연구
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.95-126
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    • 2009
  • One of the controversial issues in investor-state investment arbitration is the interpretation of "umbrella clause" that is found in most BIT and FTAs. This treaty clause requires on Contracting State of treaty to observe all investment obligations entered into with foreign investors from the other Contracting State. This clause did not receive in-depth attention until SGS v. Pakistan and SGS v. Philippines cases produced starkly different conclusions on the relations about treaty-based jurisdiction and contract-based jurisdiction. More recent decisions by other arbitral tribunals continue to show different approaches in their interpretation of umbrella clauses. Following the SGS v. Philippines decision, some recent decisions understand that all contracts are covered by umbrella clause, for example, in Siemens A.G. v. Argentina, LG&E Energy Corp. v. Argentina, Sempra Energy Int'l v. Argentina and Enron Corp. V. Argentina. However, other recent decisions have found a different approach that only certain kinds of public contracts are covered by umbrella clauses, for example, in El Paso Energy Int'l Co. v. Argentina, Pan American Energy LLC v. Argentina and CMS Gas Transmission Co. v. Argentina. With relation to the exhaustion of domestic remedies, most of tribunals have the position that the contractual remedy should not affect the jurisdiction of BIT tribunal. Even some tribunals considered that there is no need to exhaust contract remedies before bringing BIT arbitration, provoking suspicion of the validity of sanctity of contract in front of treaty obligation. The decision of the Annulment Committee In CMS case in 2007 was an extraordinarily surprising one and poured oil on the debate. The Committee composed of the three respected international lawyers, Gilbert Guillaume and Nabil Elaraby, both from the ICJ, and professor James Crawford, the Rapportuer of the International Law Commission on the Draft Articles on the Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts, observed that the arbitral tribunal made critical errors of law, however, noting that it has limited power to review and overturn the award. The position of the Committee was a direct attack on ICSID system showing as an internal recognition of ICSID itself that the current system of investor-state arbitration is problematic. States are coming to limit the scope of umbrella clauses. For example, the 2004 U.S. Model BIT detailed definition of the type of contracts for which breach of contract claims may be submitted to arbitration, to increase certainty and predictability. Latin American countries, in particular, Argentina, are feeling collectively victims of these pro-investor interpretations of the ICSID tribunals. In fact, BIT between developed and developing countries are negotiated to protect foreign investment from developing countries. This general characteristic of BIT reflects naturally on the provisions making them extremely protective for foreign investors. Naturally, developing countries seek to interpret restrictively BIT provisions, whereas developed countries try to interpret more expansively. As most of cases arising out of alleged violation of BIT are administered in the ICSID, a forum under the auspices of the World Bank, these Latin American countries have been raising the legitimacy deficit of the ICSID. The Argentine cases have been provoking many legal issues of international law, predicting crisis almost coming in actual investor-state arbitration system. Some Latin American countries, such as Bolivia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Argentina, already showed their dissatisfaction with the ICSID system considering withdrawing from it to minimize the eventual investor-state dispute. Thus the disagreement over umbrella clauses in their interpretation is becoming interpreted as an historical reflection on the continued tension between developing and developed countries on foreign investment. There is an academic and political discussion on the possible return of the Calvo Doctrine in Latin America. The paper will comment on these problems related to the interpretation of umbrella clause. The paper analyses ICSID cases involving principally Latin American countries to identify the critical legal issues arising between developing and developed countries. And the paper discusses alternatives in improving actual investor-State investment arbitration; inter alia, the introduction of an appellate system and treaty interpretation rules.

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개정 경비업법의 평가와 정책과제 (The assessment and political subject of Revised Security Industry Law)

  • 이상훈
    • 시큐리티연구
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    • no.36
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    • pp.349-386
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    • 2013
  • 본 연구에서는 박근혜정부가 지향하는 국정전략 가운데 하나인 '범죄로부터 안전한 사회구현'과 관련하여 '국민생활안전' 측면에서의 치안서비스 제공의 중요한 축이 되고 있는 민간경비산업에 대한 현 정부의 규제와 감독정책을 담고 있는 경비업법을 분석 평가하였다. 이러한 개정 경비업법의 평가를 통하여 현 정부가 지향하는 국민생활안전을 보다 체계적으로 접근하기 위해 설정한 민간경비 산업정책의 핵심가치(核心價値, Core Values)를 찾아내고, 특히 경찰의 민간경비에 대한 제반 정책기조를 확인하고 경비업법의 적용과 실제 운용에 있어서 바람직한 정책방향을 제시하고자 하였다. 개정 경비업법은 집단민원현장에서 경비업체의 불법폭력행위 등을 사전 차단하기 위해 배치허가제의 도입 및 경비지도사 및 경비원의 결격사유 그리고 처벌규정 등을 신설 혹은 강화하는 등 일부 규정에 있어서 행정규제(行政規制)를 보다 강화하는 방향으로 개정되었다. 다만, 종래 국민의 기본권 제한적(基本權 制限的) 성격의 조항이면서도 "경비업법시행령"이나 "경비업법시행규칙"에 규정되었던 내용을 대거 법률의 형식으로 바꾸는 등의 노력을 통하여 '법률주의(法律主義)'를 상당부분 관철하고 있다는 특징을 가지고 있다. 이번에 개정된 경비업법은 17개 조항의 개정이나 신설을 통하여 대폭적인 정책의 변화를 가져왔는데, 이를 범주화하면 (1)집단민원현장에서의 법 위반행위 엄벌주의 (2)법 위반행위자에 대한 경비업계 한시적 퇴출강화 (3)경찰의 법적 지도 감독권 강화 (4)자본금 상향 및 이름표 부착강제 기타 장비사용의 제한 등 크게 4가지로 나눌 수 있다. "경비업법"은 본질적으로 민간경비에 대한 국가적 간섭과 규제를 그 내용으로 할 수 밖에 없다. 하지만 이러한 간섭과 규제는 합리적인 범위 내로 제한(制限)되어야 한다. 역사가 증명하는 바와 같이 국가에 의한 과도한 규제는 국가적 사회적 비용을 낳고 국가의 치안시스템의 왜곡을 가져왔기 때문이다. 경비서비스를 제공하는 자를 법인(法人)으로 한정하거나 일정한 자격증(資格證) 소지자로 제한하거나 일정한 법정교육(法定敎育)을 받도록 하는 모든 것들이 종국적으로는 '국민생활의 안전'이라는 최상의 조합(最上의 調合)을 도출하기 위한 국가 사회 경제적 차원의 합리적이고도 적정한 조율을 전제한다는 점은 결코 간과하여서는 안된다.

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