• Title, Summary, Keyword: Association rules

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A Time-based Apriori Algorithm (아이템 사용시간을 고려한 Apriori알고리즘)

  • Kang, Hyung-Chang;Yang, Kun-Tak;Kim, Chul-Soo;Rhee, Yoon-Jung;Lee, Bong-Kyu
    • The Transactions of The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers
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    • v.59 no.7
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    • pp.1327-1331
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    • 2010
  • Association rules are very useful and interesting patterns for discovering preferences of each person in digital-content services. The Apriori algorithm is an influential algorithm for mining frequent itemsets for association rules. However, since this algorithm does not take into account reference times of each content as an important support factor, it cannot be used to extract associations among time-based data. This paper proposes an augmented Apriori algorithm discovers association rules using both frequencies and usage times of each item.

Data-Driven Exploration for Transient Association Rules (한시적 연관규칙을 위한 데이타 주도 탐사 기법)

  • Cho, Ll-Rae;Kim, Jong-Deok;Lee, Do-Heon
    • The Transactions of the Korea Information Processing Society
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    • v.4 no.4
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    • pp.895-907
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    • 1997
  • The mining of assciation rules disovers the trndency of events ocuring simultaneously in large databases. Previous announced research on association rules deals with associations with associations with respect to the whole transaction. However, xome association rules could have very high confidence in a sub-range of the time domain, even though they do not have quite high confidence in the whole time domain. Such kind of association rules are ecpected to be very usdful in various decion making problems.In this paper, we define transient association rule, as an association with high cimfidence worthy of special attention in a partial time interval, and propose an dfficeint algorithm wich finds out the time intervals appropriate to transient association rules from large-databases.We propose the data-driven retrival method excluding unecessary interval search, and design an effective data structure manageable in main memory obtined by one scanning of database, which offers the necessary information to next retrieval phase. In addition, our simulation shows that the suggested algorithm has reliable performance at the time cost acceptable in application areas.

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Implementation of Association Rules Creation System from GML Documents (GML 문서에서 연관규칙 생성 시스템 구현)

  • Kim, Eui-Chan;Hwang, Byung-Yeon
    • Journal of Korea Spatial Information System Society
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.27-35
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    • 2006
  • As the increasing interest about geographical information, such researches and applied fields become wide. OGC(Open GIS Consortium) developed GML(Geography Markup Language) which is adopted XML(extensible Markup Language) in GIS field. In various applied field, GML is used and studied continuously. This paper try to find out the meaningful rules using Apriori algorithm from GML documents, one of the data mining techniques which is studied based on existing XML documents There are two ways to find out the rules. One is the way that find out the related rules as extracting the content in GML documents, the other find out the related rules based on used tags and attributes. This paper describes searching the rules through two ways and shows the system adopted two ways.

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Taking of Evidence in International Arbitration Procedure - focusing on 2010 IBA Rules on the Taking of Evidence in International Arbitration (국제중재 절차내에서 증거조사 : 국제변호사협회(IBA)의 2010 증거규칙을 중심으로)

  • CHUNG, Hong-Sik
    • Journal of Arbitration Studies
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.21-54
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    • 2011
  • International commercial arbitration has established itself as the primary dispute resolution mechanism for international business transactions. Certainly, there are commonly-accepted standards that have evolved to reflect an internationally-harmonized approach to issues relating to the taking of evidence. This is reflected in International Bar Association("IBA") Rules for Taking of Evidence in International Evidence("IBA Rules"). This IBA Rules were revised in 2010. Designed to assist parties in determining what procedures to use in their particular case, IBA Rules present some of the methods for conducting international arbitration proceedings. Parties and arbitral tribunals may adopt IBA Rules in whole or in part - at the time of drafting the arbitration clause in a contract or once an arbitration commences - or they may use them as guidelines. They supplement applicable national laws and institutional or ad hoc rules. The IBA Rules were an ambitious undertaking, designed to overcome fundamental cultural differences relating to the taking of evidence under different national court systems. While it is difficult to assess how frequently the IBA Rules are actually adopted by parties, it is fair to say that they have had a considerable influence on the practice of taking evidence in international arbitration. This article mainly describes the essential provisions of IBA Rules, as revised in 2010, including but not limited to production of document, witnesses of fact, party-appointed experts, and tribunal-appointed experts. It also provides a comparison of relevant procedural rules of civil law and common law systems to each of the above mentioned provisions. It is important for arbitration practitioners to understand the differences in the taking of evidence under civil law and common law systems, respectively. This article will be helpful for practitioners and academics not only to understand the revised IBA Rules themselves but also to prepare for, and adequately deal with, the frictions that may arise as a result of the differences in approach for taking evidences. Indeed, so prepared, the arbitration practitioner will be able to anticipate the expectations, perceptions and the conduct of the parties, their counsel and the tribunal members.

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Mining of Multi-dimensional Association Rules over Interval Data using Clustering and Characterization (클러스터링과 특성분석을 이용한 구간 데이터에서 다차원 연관 규칙 마이닝)

  • Lim, Seung-Hwan;Kwon, Yong-Suk;Kim, Sang-Wook
    • Journal of KIISE:Computing Practices and Letters
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.60-64
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    • 2010
  • To discover association rules from nontransactional data, there have been many studies on discretization of attribute values. These studies do not reflect the change of discovered rules' confidence according to the change of the ranges of the discretized attributes, and perform the discretization stage and the rule discovery stage independently. This causes the ranges of attributes not properly discretized, thereby making the rules having high confidence excluded in the result set. To solve this problem, we propose a novel method that performs the discretization and rule discovery stages simultaneously in order to discretize ranges of attributes in such a way that the rules having high confidence are discovered well. To the end, we perform hierarchical clustering on the attributes in the right hand side of rules, then do characterization on every cluster thus obtained. The experimental result demonstrates that our method discovers the rules having high confidence better than existing methods.

The effects of family of origin variables on marital conflict (원가족변인이 부부갈등에 미치는 영향)

  • 정문자;이종원
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.147-164
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    • 2003
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the family of origin variables on marital conflict. Seventy five married couples living together for less than 10 years were chosen from Seoul and Suwon cities. These subjects completed Korean Version of Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale Ⅱ, Individual Separation Scale, Family Rules Scale, Korea Certificated Egogram, and Marital Conflict Scale. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, paired-t test, and hierarchical regressions. The results were as follows: First, husbands and wives were different from each other in triangulation, family rules from family of origin and marital conflict. While husbands felt more strongly about their family rules than wives, wives perceived triangulation, and marital conflict higher than husbands. Second, husbands' controlling ego state, individuation, and family rules explained sixteen percents of husbands' marital conflict. Statistically speaking husbands' controlling ego state positively influenced on husbands' marital conflict. However, both of husbands' and wives' controlling ego states explained twelve percents of wives' marital conflict, and husbands' controlling ego state was statistically significant.

Emotional Display Rules: Preschooler' Gender, Emotional Display Intentions and Positive/Negative Emotion (유아의 정서표현규칙: 유아의 성, 정서표현의도 및 정서상황과의 관련성)

  • Jang, Yun-Jung;Shin, Yoo-Lim
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.44 no.5
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    • pp.49-58
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    • 2006
  • The purposes of this study were to investigate emotional display rules and intentions of preschool children, any gender differences and the emotional intentions according to levels of understanding of emotional display rules and positive vs. negative situations. The subjects were 58 six-year-old preschoolers who were individually interviewed using 7 hypothetical scenarios that assessed emotional display rules and intentions. The children showed more self-protective intention than other intentions, although there were no gender differences in using emotional display intentions. Children with high scores of emotional display rules frequently tended to use prosocial and self-protective intentions and also used different emotional intentions on positive vs. negative emotional situations.

Parental Emotion Regulation and Children's Understanding of Emotional Display Rules (부모의 정서 규제와 아동의 정서 표출 규칙 이해)

  • 한유진
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.36 no.11
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    • pp.61-72
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    • 1998
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate parental emotion regulation and children's understanding of emotional display rules. 31 boys and 29 girls of the first and fourth grades and their parents were selected for the subject. Sixty children were interviewed on eight interpersonal conflict situations and parent completed the PACES(Saarni, 1985) separately. The main results of this study were as follows. 1) Children's understanding of emotional display rules increased with age. 2) Children's primary justification for using emotional display rules was self-protective one. Girls used more often prosocial justification than boys. 3) Parental emotion regulation was significantly different between the two contexts: a child might cause another person substantial emotional distress and a child didn't cause another person substantial emotional distress. 4) Parental regulation was differed by children's age in the context that the child might cause another person substantial emotional distress. 5) Father's regulation was differed by children's sex in the context that the child might cause another person substantial emotional distress. 6) Maternal regulation was positively correlated to the level of emotional display rules in the context that the child might cause another person substantial emotional distress.

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A Comparative Study on the International Arbitration Rules of KCAB and Arbitration Rules of CIETAC (KCAB 국제중재규칙과 CIETAC 중재규칙의 비교연구)

  • Shin, Koon-Jae
    • Journal of Arbitration Studies
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.33-54
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    • 2008
  • The KCAB enacted their new international arbitration rules(the KCAB rules) in 2007 wheres The CIETAC revised their arbitration rules(the CIETAC new rules) in 2005. This article investigates some practical problems on both rules respectively and helps trading companies to proceed arbitration by these rules. This study finds some problems as follows. There are the following problems in KCAB rules. First, application fee is too expensive fee. So KCAB should cut down their application fee. Second, if there is no agreement on number of arbitrators, the arbitration is processed by sole arbitrator. But it is very difficult for sole arbitrator to process international arbitration due to characteristics of international arbitration such as complexity of case and a large sum of claim. Third, a period of selection of arbitrator is long. In view of developing of communication means, this period is needed more short. In the meantimes, there are the following problems in CIETAC rules. First, though the CIETAC new rules enlarges the right of parties autonomy such as selection of arbitration rules or revise of it, China arbitration Act stipulates a institute arbitration which restrict partie's autonomy. Second, if there is no agreement on arbitrators, the CIETAC appoints chair of tribural in three arbitrators ion or sole arbitrators. is processed by sole arbitrator. Third, a draft of arbitral award is checked by the CIETAC in advance. Especially, the two latter problems is possible for foreigners to have doubts of fairness of CIETAC arbitration. Becuase the CIETAC is not a complete independent private institution. Consequently, I suggest that Korean trading companies should examine problems of these two arbitration rules carefully, and select a most appropriate rules for settlement of their disputes with Chines companies.

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