• Title, Summary, Keyword: Atomic Force Microscope

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Anodic Oxidation Lithography via Atomic Force Microscope on Organic Resist Layers (유기 저항막을 이용한 원자힘 현미경 양극산화 패터닝 기술)

  • Kim, Sung-Kyoung;Lee, Hai-Won
    • Polymer Korea
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.187-195
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    • 2006
  • Atomic force microscope (AFM)-based anodic oxidation lithography has gained great in forests in fabricating nanometer scale features on semiconductor or metal substrates beyond the limitation of optical lithography. In this article AFM anodic oxidation lithography and its organic resist layers are introduced based on our previous works. Organic resist layers of self-assembled monolayers, Langmuir-Blodgett films and polymer films aye suggested to play a key role in enhancing the aspect ratio of producing features, the lithographic speed, and spatial precision in AFM anodic oxidation lithography.

Atomic Force Microscope for Standard Length Metrology (직교 스캐너와 레이저 간섭계를 사용한 교정용 원자현미경)

  • Lee, Dong-Yeon;Kim, Dong-Min;Gweon, Dae-Gab
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A
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    • v.30 no.12
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    • pp.1611-1617
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    • 2006
  • A compact and two-dimensional atomic force microscope (AFM) using an orthogonal sample scanner, a calibrated homodyne laser interferometer and a commercial AFM head was developed for use in the nano-metrology field. The x and y position of the sample with respect to the tip are acquired by using the laser interferometer in the open-loop state, when each z data point of the AFM head is taken. The sample scanner which has a motion amplifying mechanism was designed to move a sample up to $100{\times}100{\mu}m^2$ in orthogonal way, which means less crosstalk between axes. Moreover, the rotational errors between axes are measured to ensure the accuracy of the calibrated AFM within the full scanning range. The conventional homodyne laser interferometer was used to measure the x and y displacements of the sample and compensated via an X-ray interferometer to reduce the nonlinearity of the optical interferometer. The repeatability of the calibrated AFM was measured to sub-nm within a few hundred nm scanning range.

Measurements of Two-dimensional Gratings Using a Metrological Atomic Force Microscope with Uncertainty Evaluation

  • Kim, Jong-Ahn;Kim, Jae-Wan;Kang, Chu-Shik;Eom, Tae-Bong
    • International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.18-22
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    • 2008
  • The pitch and orthogonality of two-dimensional (2-D) gratings were measured using a metrological atomic force microscope (MAFM), and the measurement uncertainty was analyzed. Gratings are typical standard devices for the calibration of precision microscopes, Since the magnification and orthogonality in two perpendicular axes of microscopes can be calibrated simultaneously using 2-D gratings, it is important to certify the pitch and orthogonality of such gratings accurately for nanometrology. In the measurement of 2-D gratings, the MAFM can be used effectively for its nanometric resolution and uncertainty, but a new measurement scheme is required to overcome limitations such as thermal drift and slow scan speed. Two types of 2-D gratings with nominal pitches of 300 and 1000 nm were measured using line scans to determine the pitch measurement in each direction. The expanded uncertainties (k = 2) of the measured pitch values were less than 0.2 and 0.4 nm for each specimen, and the measured orthogonality values were less than $0.09^{\circ}$ and $0.05^{\circ}$, respectively. The experimental results measured using the MAFM and optical diffractometer agreed closely within the expanded uncertainty of the MAFM. We also propose an additional scheme for measuring 2-D gratings to increase the accuracy of calculated peak positions, which will be the subject of future study.

Two Dimensional Atomic Force Microscope (서브나노급 정밀도의 2 차원 원자현미경 개발)

  • Lee, Dong-Yeon;Gweon, Dae-Gab
    • Proceedings of the KSME Conference
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    • pp.1778-1783
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    • 2008
  • A compact and two-dimensional atomic force microscope (AFM) using an orthogonal sample scanner, a calibrated homodyne laser interferometer and a commercial AFM head was developed for use in the nanometrology field. The x and y position of the sample with respect to the tip are acquired by using the laser interferometer in the open-loop state, when each z data point of the AFM head is taken. The sample scanner which has a motion amplifying mechanism was designed to move a sample up to $100{\times}100{\mu}m^2$ in orthogonal way, which means less crosstalk between axes. Moreover, the rotational errors between axes are measured to ensure the accuracy of the calibrated AFM within the full scanning range. The conventional homodyne laser interferometer was used to measure the x and y displacements of the sample and compensated via an X-ray interferometer to reduce the nonlinearity of the optical interferometer. The repeatability of the calibrated AFM was measured to sub-nm within a few hundred nm scanning range.

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Load and Stiffness Dependence of Atomistic Sliding Friction (원자스케일 마찰의 하중 및 강성 의존성)

  • Sung, In-Ha
    • Tribology and Lubricants
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.9-13
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    • 2007
  • Despite numerous researches on atomic-scale friction have been carried out for understanding the origin of friction, lots of questions about sliding friction still remain. It is known that friction at atomic-scale always shows unique phenomena called 'stick-slips' which reflect atomic lattice of a scanned surface. In this work, experimental study on the effects of system stiffnesses and load on the atomic-scale stick-slip friction of graphite was performed by using an Atomic Force Microscope and various cantilevers/tips. The objective of this research is to figure out the dependency of atomic-scale friction on the nanomechanical properties in sliding contact such as load, stiffness and contact materials systematically. From this work, the experimental observation of transitions in atomic-scale friction from smooth sliding to multiple stick-slips in air was first made, according to the lateral cantilever stiffness and applied normal load. The superlubricity of graphite could be verified from friction vs. load experiments. Based on the results, the relationship between the stickslip behaviors and contact stiffness was carefully discussed in this work. The results or this work indicate that the atomic-scale stick-slip behaviors can be controlled by adjusting the system stiffnesses and contact materials.

Adhesion Force Measurements of Nano-Imprint Materials Using Atomic Force Microscope (원자력현미경을 이용한 나노임프린트 재료의 접착력 측정)

  • Yun, Hyeong Seuk;Lee, Mongryong;Song, Kigook
    • Polymer Korea
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.358-363
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    • 2014
  • Adhesion forces between acrylate imprinting resin and a surface treated atomic force microscope (AFM) tip were investigated. Compared to the untreated silicon tip, 38% of the adhesion force is reduced for the hydrophobic tip treated with $CH_4$ plasma whereas 1.6 time increases is found for the hydrophilic tip with $O_2$ plasma treatment. Such a measurement of the adhesion force using AFM provides very quantitative results on adhesion comparing to the crosscut adhesion test which gives qualitative results. Since the adhesion area becomes larger as the imprinting pattern size gets smaller, the surface treatment issue becomes more important in the nano-imprinting process.

Analysis of a processed sample surface using SCM and AFM (공초점현미경과 원자현미경을 이용한 가공된 시료 표면의 형상측정)

  • Bae Han-Sung;Kim Kyeong-Ho;Moon Seong-Wook;Nam Gi-Jung;Kwon Nam-Ic;Kim Jong-Bae
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.52-59
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    • 2006
  • Surface qualities of a micro-processed sample with a pulse laser have been investigated by making use of scanning confocal microscope(SCM) and atomic force microscope(AFM). Samples are bump electrodes and ITO glass of LCD module used in a mobile phone and a wafer surface scribed by UV laser. A image of $140{\times}120{\mu}m^2$ is obtained within 1 second by SCM because scan speed of a x-axis and y-axis are 1kHz and 1Hz, respectively. AFM is able to correctly measure the hight and width of ITO, and scribing depth and width of a wafer with a resolution less than 300nm. However, the scan speed is slow and it is difficult to distinguish a surface composed of different kinds of materials. Results show that SCM is preferable to obtain a image of a sample composed of different kinds of material than AFM because the intensity of a reflected light from the surface is different for each material.

Machining Characteristics according to Electrochemical Polishing (ECP) Conditions of Stainless Steel Mesh (스테인리스 망의 전기화학 폴리싱(ECP) 조건에 따른 가공 특성)

  • Kim, Uk Su;Park, Jeong Woo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Manufacturing Process Engineers
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.41-48
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    • 2015
  • Stainless steel mesh has been used as a filter in various fields, including domestic, medical, etc. However, the surface before machining may have an adverse effect the product quality and performance because it is not smooth. Especially, adsorbed impurities in the surface result in difficulty in cleaning. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an improved surface quality through electrochemical polishing (ECP). Two electrodes, composed of STS304 (anode) and copper (cathode) underwent machining with two conditions according to polishing time and current density. As the polishing time and current density increase, the surface of curvature decreases, and roughness and material removal rate (MRR) improves. The machined surface roughness and image were obtained through the atomic force microscope (AFM) and stereoscopic microscope. The study also analyzed hydrophilic effect through contact angles. This obtains corrosion resistance, smoothness, hydrophilic property, etc.

Analysis of Microstructure for Resistance Spot Welded TRIP Steels using Atomic Force Microscope (원자력간 현미경을 이용한 TRIP강 저항 점용접부의 미세조직 분석에 관한 연구)

  • Choi, Chul Young;Ji, ChangWook;Nam, Dae-Geun;Jang, Jaeho;Kim, Soon Kook;Park, Yeong-Do
    • Journal of Welding and Joining
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.43-50
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    • 2013
  • The spot welds of Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steels are prone to interfacial failure and narrow welding current range. Hard microstructures in weld metal and heat affected zone arenormally considered as one of the main reason to accelerate the interfacial failure mode. There fore, detailed observation of weld microstructure for TRIP steels should be made to ensure better weld quality. However, it is difficult to characterize the microstructure, which has similar color, size, and shape using the optical or electron microscopy. The atomic force microscope (AFM) can help to analyze microstructure by using different energy levels for different surface roughness. In this study, the microstructures of resistance spot welds for AHSS are analyzed by using AFM with measuring the differences in average surface roughness. It has been possible to identify the different phases and their topographic characteristics and to study their morphology using atomic force microscopy in resistance spot weld TRIP steels. The systematic topographic study for each region of weldments confirmed the presence of different microstructures with height of 350nm for martensite, 250nm for bainite, and 150nm for ferrite, respectively.