• Title, Summary, Keyword: Atomic Force Microscope

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Study on GO Dispersion of PC/GO Composites according to In-situ Polymerization Method (In-situ 중합방법에 따른 폴리카보네이트(PC)/그래핀 옥사이드(GO) 복합체의 GO 분산성 연구)

  • Lee, Bom Yi;Park, Ju Young;Kim, Youn Cheol
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.336-340
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    • 2015
  • Three different types of polycarbonate (PC)/graphene oxide (GO) composites using diphenyl carbonate as a monomer were fabricated by melt polymerization. Those were the PC/GO composite (PC/GO) using a twin extruder, in-situ PC/GO composite (PC/GO-cat.) using a catalyst, and in-situ PC/GO composite (PC/GO-COCl) using a GO-COCl treated by -COCl, Chemical structures of the composites were confirmed by C-H and C=O stretching peak at $3000cm^{-1}$ and $1750cm^{-1}$, respectively. The slope for the storage (G') versus loss (G") modulus plot decreased with an increase in the heterogeneous property of polymer melts. So we can check the GO dispersion of the PC/GO composites using by the slop for G'-G" plot. According to the G'- G" slopes for three different types of PC/GO composites, GO was well dispersed within PC matrix in case of PC/GO and PC/GO-cat.. It was also confirmed by atomic force microscope (AFM) photos. One of the reasons for the poor GO dispersion of PC/GO-COCl is branching and crosslinking processes occurred during polymerization, which was further confirmed by a plot for the complex modulus versus phase difference.

EMF (electromagnetic field strength)가 스퍼터된 ITO 박막의 초기 성장에 미치는 영향

  • Park, So-Yun;Song, Pung-Geun
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.183-183
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    • 2015
  • Indium tin oxide (ITO)는 넓은 밴드갭을 가지는 n-type의 축퇴 반도체로 태양전지, 스마트윈도우, 터치 센서, organic light emitting displays (OLEDs) 등에 널리 적용된다. 최근 touch screen panels (TSPs)의 높은 전기적 특성 및 고해상도 요구에 따라 고품질 ITO 박막개발의 수요도 증가하는 추세이다. 지금까지 ITO 박막의 물성 및 기계적 특성에 관한 많은 연구가 진행되어 왔지만 ITO 초박막 에서의 근본적인 물성 변화에 대한 연구는 미흡한 실정이므로, 이러한 연구는 필수적이라 할 수 있다. ITO 초박막은 광학적 특성은 우수하나, 낮은 결정성으로 인해 전기적 특성이 나쁘다는 단점을 가지며, 이러한 ITO 박막의 결정성은 초기 박막 성장과정에 많은 영향을 받는다. ITO 박막의 초기성장과정은 핵이 생성된 후(nucleation), 각각의 위치에서 성장하게 되고(growth), 합쳐지면서(coalescence) 연속적인 막을 형성 하는데(continuous), 이러한 초기 박막 성장 과정 중에 핵 생성 밀도를 증가시키고 박막이 연속적으로 되는 두께를 감소시킨다면, 더욱 더 고품질의 ITO 초박막을 얻을 수 있을 것이다. 따라서, 본 연구에서는 박막 초기 형성 과정 중 섬들이 합체되는 두께를 최소화시키기 위하여 EMF(electromagnetic field strength) 시스템을 이용하였다. EMF 시스템은 DC 캐소드에 전자석 코일을 장착하여 전자기장을 추가로 부가한 것으로, 이를 이용할 경우 스퍼터 원자가 중성상태로 기판에 도달하는 것이 아니라, 이온화되어 Vp-Vf의 차이로 가속되어 추가적인 에너지를 공급받음으로써 기판표면상에서 확산을 촉진시키므로 박막이 연속적으로 되는 임계 두께를 감소시킬 수 있는 것으로 기대된다. 실험은 실온에서 DC 마그네트론 스퍼터링법을 이용하였으며, 유리기판위에 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 20 nm의 두께로 ITO 박막을 제작하였다. 스퍼터링 파워는 150 W (3.29 W/cm3), 작업 압력은 0.13 Pa, 기판과 타깃 사이의 거리는 70 mm였다. 각각의 두께에서 EMF 파워 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 W로 인가하여 박막을 제작한 후, EMF 파워에 따른 ITO 박막의 초기 성장 과정중 표면상태를 AFM (atomic force microscope) 이미지를 통하여 관찰하였다. 또한, 두께 약 8 nm에서와 20 nm일 때의 전기적 특성 및 광학적 특성을 관찰하였으며, 두 박막 모두 EMF 파워 15 W를 인가하였을 때 그 특성이 가장 향상되는 것을 확인하였다. 이러한 결과를 통하여 박막은 초기 성장이 중요하므로, 매우 얇은 두께에서 좋은 특성을 가진 박막을 제작하여야 박막의 두께를 증가시켰을 때도 좋은 특성의 막을 얻을 수 있음을 알 수 있었다. 또한, EMF 파워를 증가시킴에 따라 자장강도를 증가시키는 것과 같은 효과 즉, 플라즈마 임피던스가 감소하는 효과를 내어 증착 중 고 에너지 입자 (Ar0, O-)에 의한 박막손상이 감소한 것으로 판단된다. 따라서 적정 EMF 파워 15 W를 인가하였을때 가장 물성이 좋은 ITO 박막을 얻을 수 있었다. 즉, EMF 시스템을 이용하여 저온 공정에서 결함농도가 적은 고품질의 ITO 초박막을 제작할 수 있었다.

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SURFACE CHARACTERISTICS AND BIOACTIVITY OF ANODICALLY OXIDIZED TITANIUM SURFACES (양극산화에 의한 티타늄 산화막의 표면 특성 및 생체 활성에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Sang-Han;Cho, In-Ho
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.85-97
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    • 2007
  • Statement of problem: Recently, anodic oxidation of cp-titanium is a popular method for treatment of titanium implant surfaces. It is a relatively easy process, and the thickness, structure, composition, and the microstructure of the oxide layer can be variably modified. Moreover the biological properties of the oxide layer can be controlled. Purpose: In this study, the roughness, microstructure, crystal structure of the variously treated groups (current, voltage, frequency, electrolyte, thermal treatment) were evaluated. And the specimens were soaked in simulated body fluid (SBF) to evaluate the effects of the surface characteristics and the oxide layers on the bioactivity of the specimens which were directly related to bone formation and integration. Materials and methods: Surface treatments consisted of either anodization or anodization followed thermal treatment. Specimens were divided into seven groups, depending on their anodizing treatment conditions: constant current mode (350V for group 2), constant voltage mode (155V for group 3), 60 Hz pulse series (230V for group 4, 300V for group 5), and 1000 Hz pulse series (400V for group 6, 460V for group 7). Non-treated native surfaces were used as controls (group 1). In addition, for the purpose of evaluating the effects of thermal treatment, each group was heat treated by elevating the temperature by $5^{\circ}C$ per minute until $600^{\circ}C$ for 1 hour, and then bench cured. Using scanning electron microscope (SEM), porous oxide layers were observed on treated surfaces. The crystal structures and phases of titania were identified by thin-film x-ray diffractmeter (TF-XRD). Atomic force microscope (AFM) was used for roughness measurement (Sa, Sq). To evaluate bioactivity of modified titanium surfaces, each group was soaked in SBF for 168 hours (1 week), and then changed surface characteristics were analyzed by SEM and TF-XRD. Results: On basis of our findings, we concluded the following results. 1. Most groups showed morphologically porous structures. Except group 2, all groups showed fine to coarse convex structures, and the groups with superior quantity of oxide products showed superior morphology. 2. As a result of combined anodization and thermal treatment, there were no effects on composition of crystalline structure. But, heat treatment influenced the quantity of formation of the oxide products (rutile / anatase). 3. Roughness decreased in the order of groups 7,5,2,3,6,4,1 and there was statistical difference between group 7 and the others (p<0.05), but group 7 did not show any bioactivity within a week. 4. In groups that implanted ions (Ca/P) on the oxide layer through current and voltage control, showed superior morphology, and oxide products, but did not express any bioactivity within a week. 5. In group 3, the oxide layer was uniformly organized with rutile, with almost no titanium peak. And there were abnormally more [101] orientations of rutile crystalline structure, and bonelike apatite formation could be seen around these crystalline structures. Conclusion: As a result of control of various factors in anodization (current, voltage, frequency, electrolytes, thermal treatment), the surface morphology, micro-porosity, the 2nd phase formation, crystalline structure, thickness of the oxide layer could be modified. And even more, the bioactivity of the specimens in vitro could be induced. Thus anodic oxidation can be considered as an excellent surface treatment method that will able to not only control the physical properties but enhance the biological characteristics of the oxide layer. Furthermore, it is recommended in near future animal research to prove these results.

Polishing characteristics of polyetherketoneketone on Candida albicans adhesion (Polyetherketoneketone의 연마 특성이 Candida albicans의 부착에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Hyunyoung;Lee, Jonghyuk;Lee, Sung-Hoon;Baek, Dongheon
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.58 no.3
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    • pp.207-216
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    • 2020
  • Purpose: To compare the polishing characteristics and their influence on Candida albicans adhesion to the recently introduced polyetherketoneketone (PEKK) and the conventional polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) denture resin material. Materials and methods: Specimens from PEKK (Group E) and PMMA (Group M) were made in dimensions of 8 mm in diameter and 2 mm in thickness. The specimens were further divided into sub-groups according to the extent of polishing (ER, MR: rough; EP, MP: polished, N = 12 each). The specimens were polished using polishing machine and SiC foil. ER and MR group specimens were polished with 600 grit SiC foil only. EP and MP groups were further polished with 800, 1,000, 1,200 grit SiC foils sequentially. To measure the surface roughness values (Sa) of specimens, atomic force microscope (AFM) was used and scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation under 1,000, and 20,000 magnifications was performed to investigate surface topography. The polished specimens were soaked in C. albicans suspension for 2 hours with shaking to promote adhesion. The attached C. albicans were detached from the surface with 10 times of pipetting. The suspension of detached C. albicans was performed by serial dilution to 103 times, and the diluted suspensions were inoculated on Sabouraud dextrose agar plates using spread plate method. After incubating the plate for 48 hours, colony forming unit (CFU)/plate of C. albicans was counted. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD test to confirm significant difference between the groups (α=.05). Results: Average Sa value was significantly higher in MR group compared to other groups (P<.05), meaning that additional polishing steps reduced surface roughness effectively only in the PMMA specimens. There was no significant difference in Sa values between MP and EP groups. In SEM images, PEKK specimens showed numerous spikes of abraded material protruding from the surface and this phenomenon was more significant in EP group. The mean CFU/plate value was the highest in EP group and this was significant when it was compared to MP group (P<.05) which was the lowest. Conclusion: Polishing PEKK using serial SiC abrasive foil may result in higher adhesion of C. albicans. In clinic, this should be considered carefully.

A STUDY ON IN VIVO AND IN VITRO AMALGAM CORROSION (아말감의 구강내 부식 및 인공 부식에 관한 연구)

  • Lim, Byong-Mok;Kwon, Hyuk-Choon;Um, Chung-Moon
    • Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.1-33
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    • 1997
  • The objective of this study was to analyze the in vitro and in vivo corrosion products of low and high copper amalgams. The four different types of amalgam alloy used in this study were Fine cut, Caulk spherical, Dispersalloy, and Tytin. After each amalgam alloy and Hg were triturated according to the directions of the manufacturer by means of the mechanical amalgamator(Amalgam mixer. Shinhung Co. Korea), the triturated mass was inserted into a cylindrical metal mold which was 12mm in diameter and 10mm in height. The mass was condensed by 150Kg/cm compressive force. The specimen was removed from the mold and aged at room temperature for about seven days. The standard surface preparation was routinely carried out by emery paper polishing under running water. In vitro amalgam specimens were potentiostatically polarized ten times in a normal saline solution at $37^{\circ}C$(potentiostat : HA-301. Hukuto Denko Corp. Japan). Each specimen was subjected to anodic polarization scan within the potential range -1700mV to+400mV(SCE). After corrosion tests, anodic polarization curves and corrosion potentials were obtained. The amount of component elements dissolved from amalgams into solution was measured three times by ICP AES(Inductive Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry: Plasma 40. Perkim Elmer Co. U.S.A.). The four different types of amalgam were filled in occlusal and buccal class I cavities of four human 3rd molars. After about five years the restorations were carefully removed after tooth extraction to preserve the structural details including the deteriorated margins. The occlusal surface, amalgam-tooth interface and the fractured surface of in vivo amalgam corrosion products were analyzed. In vivo and in vitro amalgam specimens were examined and analyzed metallographically by SEM(Scanning Electron Microscope: JSM 840. Jeol Co. Japan) and EDAX(Energy Dispersive Micro X-ray Analyser: JSM 840. Jeol Co. Japan). 1. The following results are obtained from in vitro corrosion tests. 1) Corrosion potentials of all amalgams became more noble after ten times passing through the in vitro corrosion test compared to first time. 2) After times through the test, released Cu concentration in saline solution was almost equal but highest in Fine cut. Ag and Hg ion concentration was highest in Caulk spherical and Sn was highest in Dispersalloy. 3) Analyses of surface corrosion products in vitro reveal the following results. a)The corroded surface of Caulk spherical has Na-Sn-Cl containing clusters of $5{\mu}m$ needle-like crystals and oval shapes of Sn-Cl phase, polyhedral Sn oxide phase. b)In Fine cut, there appeared to be a large Sn containing phase, surrounded by many Cu-Sn phases of $1{\mu}m$ granular shapes. c)Dispersalloy was covered by a thick reticular layer which contained Zn-Cl phase. d)In Tytin, a very thin, corroded layer had formed with irregularly growing Sn-Cl phases that looked like a stack of plates. 2. The following results are obtained by an analysis of in vivo amalgam corrosion products. 1) Occlusal surfaces of all amalgams were covered by thick amorphous layers containing Ca-P elements which were abraded by occlusal force. 2) In tooth-amalgam interface, Ca-P containing products were examined in all amalgams but were most clearly seen in low copper amalgams. 3) Sn oxide appeared as a polyhedral shape in internal space in Caulk spherical and Fine cut. 4) Apical pyramidal shaped Sn oxide and curved plate-like Sn-Cl phases resulted in Dispersalloy. 5) In Tytin, Sn oxide and Sn hydroxide were not seen but polyhedral Ag-Hg phase crystal appeared in internal space which assumed a ${\beta}_l$ phase.

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Effects of 1 keV $Ar^+$ ion irradiation on Au films on glass (1 keV $Ar^+$ 이온의 조사가 유리기판위의 금 박막의 미치는 영향)

  • Jang, H. G.;Kim, H. S.;Han, S.;Choi, W. K.;Koh, S. K.;Jung, H. J.
    • Journal of the Korean Vacuum Society
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.371-376
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    • 1996
  • Au films with a thickness around 1600 $\AA$ were deposited onto glass at room temperature by ion beam sputtering with a 5 cm cold-hollow ion gun at pressure $1\times 10^{-6}-1\times 10^{-5}$ Torr. Irradiation of the Au deposited samples was carried out at pressure of $7\times 10^{-6}$ Torr. For the sputter depositions, $Ar^+$ ion energy was 1 keV, and the current density at the substrate surface was 15 $\mu$A/$\textrm{cm}^2$. Effects of 1 keV $Ar^+$ ion dose($I_d$) between $1\times 10^{16}\; and\;2\times 10^{17}\;Ar^+\textrm{cm}^{-2}$on properties such as crystallinity, surface roughness and adhesion, etc. of the films have been investigated. The Au films sputtered by $Ar^+$ ion beam had only (111) plane and the X-ray intensity of the films decreased with increase of $I_d$. The thickness of Au films reduced with Id. $R_{ms}$ surface roughness of the films increased from 16 $\AA$ at as-deposited to 1118 $\AA$ at ion dose= $2\times 10^{17}\;Ar^+\textrm{cm}^{-2}$. Adhesion of Au film on sputtered at $I_d$= $2\times 10^{17}\;Ar^+\textrm{cm}^{-2}$ was 9 times greater than that of Au film with untreated, as determined by a scratch test.

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A study of mesenchymal stem cell proliferation and surface characteristics of the titanium discs coated with MS275/PLGA by an electrospray (Electrospray법을 이용한 MS275/PLGA submicron 코팅 티타늄에서의 표면변화와 간엽줄기세포증식에 관한 연구)

  • Yoo, Soo-Yeon;Kim, Seong-Kyun;Heo, Seong-Joo;Koak, Jai-Young;Lee, Joo-Hee;Park, Yoon-Kyung;Kim, Ena
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.50 no.4
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    • pp.285-291
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    • 2012
  • Purpose: This study was conducted to identify the surface characteristics of titanium discs coated with MS275/PLGA by electrospray and which is effective to mesenchymal stem cell proliferation. Materials and methods: We used anodized surface coated with PLGA as a control group and anodized surface coated with MS275 $0.5{\mu}M$, $1{\mu}M$, $1.5{\mu}M$ as test groups. To examine that the coating particles are nanometer sized, FE-SEM was used and AFM was utilized to determine the difference of coating surface roughness. We checked the mesenchymal stem cell proliferation by using MTT assay on $1^{st}$, $4^{th}$, $7^{th}$ days. Results: There was no significant difference between control groups and test groups in AFM results (P>.05). In MTT assay results, mesenchymal stem cell proliferation was increased with time, at $7^{th}$ day, cell viability on discs coated with $1.5{\mu}M$ MS275 was significantly higher than control group (P<.05). As SEM showed, the number of cells on all discs was increased and the morphology of cell attachment was also wider and closer with time. Conclusion: Titanium surface coated with MS275/PLGA showed significantly higher cell proliferation and the more density of MS275 was dispersed on titanium discs, the faster cells grew.

Optical Property of Super-RENS Optical Recording Ge2Sb2Te5 Thin Films at High Temperature (초해상 광기록 Ge2Sb2Te5 박막의 고온광물성 연구)

  • Li, Xue-Zhe;Choi, Joong-Kyu;Lee, Jae-Heun;Byun, Young-Sup;Ryu, Jang-Wi;Kim, Sang-Youl;Kim, Soo-Kyung
    • Korean Journal of Optics and Photonics
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    • v.18 no.5
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    • pp.351-361
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    • 2007
  • The samples composed of a GST thin film and the protective layers of $ZnS-SiO_2$ or $Al_2O_3$ coated on c-Si substrate were prepared by using the magnetron sputtering method. Samples of three different structures were prepared, that is, i) the GST single film on c-Si substrate, ii) the GST film sandwiched by the protective $ZnS-SiO_2$ layers on c-Si substrate, and iii) the GST film sandwiched by $Al_2O_3$ protective layers on c-Si substrate. The ellipsometric constants in the temperature range from room temperature to $700^{\circ}C$ were obtained by using the in-situ ellipsometer equipped with a conventional heating chamber. The measured ellipsometric constants show strong variations versus temperature. The variation of ellipsometric constants at the temperature region higher than $300^{\circ}C$ shows different behaviors as the ambient medium is changed from in air to in vacuum or the protective layers are changed from $ZnS-SiO_2$ to $Al_2O_3$. Since the long heating time of 1-2 hours is believed to be the origin of the high temperature variation of ellipsometric constants upon the heating environment and the protective layers, a PRAM (Phase-Change Random Access Memory) recorder is introduced to reduce the heating time drastically. By using the PRAM recorder, the GST samples are heated up to $700^{\circ}C$ decomposed preventing its partial evaporation or chemical reactions with adjacent protective layers. The surface image obtained by SEM and the surface micro-roughness verified by AFM also confirmed that samples prepared by the PRAM recorder have smoother surface than the samples prepared by using the conventional heater.