• Title, Summary, Keyword: Autochthonous Resources

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Isotopic Determination of Terrestrial Food Sources for a Brackish Water Clam Corbicula japonica PRIME in an Estuarine System of Youngil Bay, Korea

  • Lee, Won-Chan;Park, Jin-Il;Choi, Woo-Jeung;Kim, Young-Seop;Lee, Pil-Yong;Kang, Chang-Keun
    • Journal of the korean society of oceanography
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.56-64
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    • 2000
  • The importance of terrestrial organic matter as a food source for a brackish water clam Corbicula japonica was evaluated using stable carbon isotope ratios (${\delta}^{13}$C) in its tissues and potential food resources in an estuarine system of Youngil Bay, Korea. Suspended particulate organic matter (POM) had distinct ${\delta}^{13}$C values from riverine (-31.8 to -27.2%$_o$) to marine waters (-21.0 to -16.6%$_o$). Estuarine macroalgae had a wide ${\delta}^{13}$C range of -22.8 to -15.0%$_o$. The ${\delta}^{13}$C values of riverine POM were more negative than that of riverine phytoplankton (-26.5 to -24.2%$_o$) but similar to that of freshmarsh plant species (-29.1 to -27.5%$_o$ for Phragmites communis and -28.5 to -27.0%$_o$ for Salix gracilistyla), These ${\delta}^{13}$C values suggest that the POM transported by the Hyungsan River is predominantly of terrestrial origin rather than riverine autochthonous sources. The ${\delta}^{13}$C values of Corbicula japonica tissues (-28.7 to -27.2%$_o$) were most similar to values for riverine POM and freshmarsh plants. There was no significant difference in the isotopic composition of the clam individuals. The results indicate a predominant contribution of organic carbon derived from terrestrial and fresmarsh plant detritus to the diet of Corbicula japonica. Our results also confirm previous suggestion that terrestrial organic matter can be incorporated into estuarine food webs although its role is confined to the upper estuarine reaches.

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Carcass Traits and Meat Quality of Prestice Black-Pied Pig Breed

  • Matousek, Vaclav;Kernerova, Nadezda;Hysplerova, Klara;Jirotkova, Dana;Brzakova, Michaela
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.8
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    • pp.1181-1187
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    • 2016
  • The objective of the study was to evaluate fattening performance, carcass value and meat quality in pigs of Prestice Black-Pied breed in relation to slaughter weight (SW) and gender (barrows and gilts, resp.). Pigs were divided into weight categories: SW1 (75 to 99.9 kg), SW2 (100 to 109.9 kg) and SW3 (110 to 130 kg) and all individual traits were analyzed by the general linear model procedure (SAS 9.3). Average SW of each weight group was as follows: SW1 94.2 kg, SW2 105.8 kg, and SW3 115.2 kg. Differences among average backfat thickness of 36.07 mm in SW1, 40.16 mm in SW2, and 43.21 mm in SW3 were significant (p<0.01). Lean meat content was 48.94% (SW1), 48.78% (SW2), and 48.76% (SW3). Pigs were slaughtered at average weight of 105.7 kg for barrows and 104.4 kg for gilts. Average backfat thickness for barrows was 40.90 mm and 38.72 mm for gilts (significant difference p<0.05). Lean meat content was 48.75% in barrows and 48.91% in gilts. The values of pH45, characterizing the meat of very good quality. The loin in SW3 was darker than the muscles of SW1 and SW2. Drip loss was the lowest in SW1 (1.96%), compared to the highest drip loss in SW3 (2.59%). Content of intramuscular fat was 2.68% in SW3, 2.79% in SW2, and SW1 had the lowest content 2.47%. The values of pH45, colour lightness and drip loss were similar in both genders. However barrows had higher intramuscular fat content by 0.31% than gilts (p<0.05).

Characterizing Fluorescence Properties of Dissolved Organic Matter for Water Quality Management of Rivers and Lakes (하천 및 호소 수질관리를 위한 용존 자연유기물질 형광특성 분석)

  • Hur, Jin;Shin, Jae-Ki;Park, Sung-Won
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.28 no.9
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    • pp.940-948
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    • 2006
  • Fluorescence measurements of dissolved organic matter(DOM) have the superior advantages over other analysis tools for applying to water quality management. They are simple and fast and require minimal pretreatment of samples. Fluorescence index($F_{450}/F_{500}$), synchronous spectra, and fluorescence excitation-emission matrices(EEM) of various DOM samples were investigated to discriminate autochthonous/allochthonous composition, protein-like fluorescence, fulvic-like fluorescence, humic-like fluorescence, terestrial humic-like fluorescence by comparing among the real DOM samples of different origins with the help of literature. The samples used included standard purified DOM, lake, river and wastewater treatment effluent. The relative distribution of various DOM composition was derived from the ratios of each fluorescence region. The results were very consistent with those expected from the sample properties. Allochthonous and terrestrial humic-like fluorescence were more prominent in the samples with abundant soil-derived DOM components. In addition, the protein-like fluorescence property was more pronounced in the samples where strong algal or microbial activities were expected. It was also shown that the ratio of protein-like/terrestrial humic-like fluorescence obtained from synchronous spectrum and fluorescence EEM could be used as an indicator for the evaluation of wastewater treatment on the downstream water quality of rivers and for the prediction of the degree of algal/microbial activities in lakes. It is expected that the results of this study will provide the basic information to develop the future water quality management techniques using DOM fluorescence measurements.

Eutrophication in the Upper Regions of Brackish Lake Sihwa with a Limited Water Exchange (물 교환이 제한적인 시화호 상류 기수역의 부영양화)

  • Choi, Kwnag-Soon;Kim, Sea-Won;Kim, Dong-Sup;Heo, Woo-Myoung;Lee, Yun-Kyoung;Hwang, In-Seo;Lee, Han-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.41 no.2
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    • pp.216-227
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    • 2008
  • To understand eutrophication in the upper regions of brackish Lake Sihwa with a limited water exchange, temporal and spatial distributions of pollutants in water and sediment were investigated from March to October in 2005 and 2006. Also, pollution levels of water and sediment were estimated by trophic state index (TSI) and sediment quality guideline (SQG). Total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), organic matter (COD), and chlorophyll $\alpha$ (Chl-$\alpha$) concentrations in the surface waters were largely varied temporally and spatially, and the variations were highest in the middle areas where strong halocline was formed. Chl-$\alpha$ concentrations in the middle area were very high in April (>$900\;{\mu}g\;L^{-1}$) when algal blooms (red tides) occurred. The relationships between TN and Chl-$\alpha$ (r=0.31), and TP and Chl-$\alpha$ (r=0.65) indicated that the algal growth was primarily affected by phosphorus rather than nitrogen. The distribution of COD was similar to that of Chl-$\alpha$, indicating that the autochthonous organic matters may be a more important carbon source, especially in the middle areas. The brackish water regions were classified as eutrophic or hypertrophic based on their TSI values ($69{\sim}76$). In addition, the content of nutrients (especially TP) in surface sediments were classified as severe polluted state, except the upper areas. Major causes of the eutrophication observed were probably due to high nutrients loading from watersheds, the phosphorus release from anaerobic sediment, and long retention time by the limited water exchange through the sluice gates.

The Limnological Survey of Major Lakes in Korea (4): Lake Juam (국내 주요 호수의 육수학적 조사(4) : 주암호)

  • Kim, Bom-Chul;Heo, Woo-Myung;Lim, Byung-Jin;Hwang, Gil-Son;Choi, Kwang-Soon;Choi, Jong-Soo;Park, Ju-Hyun
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.30-44
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    • 2001
  • In this study limnological characteristics of Lake Juam was surveyed from June 1993 to May 1994 in order to provides important information regarding water resources. Secchi disc transparency, epilimnetic chlorophyll a (chi-a), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) concentration and primary productivity were in the range of $2.0{\sim}4.5\;m$, $0.9{\sim}13.6\;mgChl/m^3$, 0.78$\{sim}$2.32 mgN/l, $11{\sim}56\;mgP/m^3$, $270{\sim}2.160\;mgCm^{-2}\;day^{-1}$, respectively. On the basis of TP, Chl-a and Secchi disc depth, the trophic state of Lake Juam can be classied as mesotrophic lake. The phosphorus inputs from non-point sources are concentrated in heavy rain episodes during the monsoon season. As a result, phosphorus concentration are higher in summer than in winter. TP loading from the watershed were estimated to be $0.9\;gPm^{-2}yr^{-1}$, which correspond to a boundary of the critical loading ($1.0\;gPm^{-2}yr^{-1}$) for eutrophication. From the results of the algal assay, both phosphous and nitrogen act as limiting nutrients in algal growth. The seasonal succession of phytoplankton community structure in Lake Juam was similar to that observed in other temperate lakes. Diatoms (Asterionella formosa and Aulacoseira granulate var. angustissima)fujacofeira BraHuJafa uar. aHgusHrsiaia) weredominant in spring and winter, cyanobacteria) were dominant in warm season. The organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus content of lake sediment were $9.5{\sim}14.0\;mgC/g$, $1.01{\sim}1.82\;mgN/g$ and $0.51{\sim}0.65\;mgP/g$, respectively. The allochthonous organic carbon loading from the watershed and autochthonous organic carbon loading by primary production of phytoplankton were determined to be 1,122 tC/yr and 6,718 tC/yr, respectively. To prevent eutrophication of Lake Juam, nutrient management of watershed should be focus on reduction of fertilizer application, proper treatment of manure, and conservation of topsoil as well as point source.

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