• Title, Summary, Keyword: Average Turnaround Time

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Analysis of Average Waiting Time and Average Turnaround Time in Web Environment (웹 환경에서의 평균 대기 시간 및 평균 반환 시간의 분석)

  • Lee, Yong-Jin
    • The KIPS Transactions:PartC
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    • v.9C no.6
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    • pp.865-874
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    • 2002
  • HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol) is a transfer protocol used by the World Wide Web distributed hypermedia system to retrieve the objects. Because HTTP is a connection oriented protocol, it uses TCP (Transmission control Protocol) as a transport layer. But it is known that HTTP interacts with TCP badly. it is discussed about factors affecting the performance or HTTP over TCP, the transaction time obtained by the per-transaction TCP connections for HTTP access and the TCP slow-start overheads, and the transaction time for T-TCP (Transaction TCP) which is one or methods improving the performance or HTTP over TCP. Average waiting time and average turnaround time are important parameters to satisfy QoS (Quality of Service) of end users. Formulas for calculating two parameters are derived. Such formulas can be used for the environment in which each TCP or T-TCP transaction time is same or different. Some experiments and computational experiences indicate that the proposed formulas are well acted, can be applied to the environment which the extension of bandwidth is necessary, and time characteristics of T-TCP are superior to that of TCP. Also, the load distribution method of web server based on the combination of bandwidths is discussed to reduce average waiting time and average turnaround time.

A Sensitivity Risk Analysis for Additional Truck Turnaround Time (ATTT) by Container Inspection Stations Derived from C-TPAT and CSI.

  • Yoon, Dae-Gwun
    • Journal of Navigation and Port Research
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.151-157
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    • 2007
  • After World Trade Center's Terror in 2001 and promulgating Maritime Transportation Security Act (MTSA, 2002) and Security and Accountability For Every Port Act (SAFE Port Act, 2006) in the United States, most of the attention on security of international transportation including marine carrier and facility has focused increasingly. Inspection stations in foreign seaport terminal including Busan, South Korea, have been installed by Container Security Initiative (CSI) and Customs Trade Partnership against Terrorism (C-TPAT). The inspection station, however, may directly and indirectly affect delay of truck turnaround time in the seaport, especially high and severe level of security. This paper was analysed a risk for the additional average delay of truck turnaround time incurring by the inspection station under the all level of security, C-TPAT and CSI. As a result of this risk analysis, the higher weighted inspection time based on raising security level, the less number of trucks to be inspected, which will derive high delay in the inspection station.

CPU Scheduling with a Round Robin Algorithm Based on an Effective Time Slice

  • Tajwar, Mohammad M.;Pathan, Md. Nuruddin;Hussaini, Latifa;Abubakar, Adamu
    • Journal of Information Processing Systems
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.941-950
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    • 2017
  • The round robin algorithm is regarded as one of the most efficient and effective CPU scheduling techniques in computing. It centres on the processing time required for a CPU to execute available jobs. Although there are other CPU scheduling algorithms based on processing time which use different criteria, the round robin algorithm has gained much popularity due to its optimal time-shared environment. The effectiveness of this algorithm depends strongly on the choice of time quantum. This paper presents a new effective round robin CPU scheduling algorithm. The effectiveness here lies in the fact that the proposed algorithm depends on a dynamically allocated time quantum in each round. Its performance is compared with both traditional and enhanced round robin algorithms, and the findings demonstrate an improved performance in terms of average waiting time, average turnaround time and context switching.

Characteristics of Occupational Exposure to Benzene during Turnaround in the Petrochemical Industries

  • Chung, Eun-Kyo;Shin, Jung-Ah;Lee, Byung-Kyu;Kwon, Ji-Woon;Lee, Na-Roo;Chung, Kwang-Jae;Lee, Jong-Han;Lee, In-Seop;Kang, Seong-Kyu;Jang, Jae-Kil
    • Safety and Health at Work
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.51-60
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    • 2010
  • Objectives: The level of benzene exposure in the petrochemical industry during regular operation has been well established, but not in turnaround (TA), where high exposure may occur. In this study, the characteristics of occupational exposure to benzene during TA in the petrochemical companies were investigated in order to determine the best management strategies and improve the working environment. This was accomplished by evaluating the exposure level for the workers working in environments where benzene was being produced or used as an ingredient during the unit process. Methods: From 2003 to 2008, a total of 705 workers in three petrochemical companies in Korea were studied. Long- and short-term (< 1 hr) samples were taken during TAs. TA was classified into three stages: shut-down, maintenance and start-up. All works were classified into 12 occupation categories. Results: The long-term geometric mean (GM) benzene exposure level was 0.025 (5.82) ppm (0.005-42.120 ppm) and the short-term exposure concentration during TA was 0.020 (17.42) ppm (0.005-61.855 ppm). The proportions of TA samples exceeding the time-weighted average, occupational exposure level (TWA-OEL in Korea, 1 ppm) and the short-term exposure limit (STEL-OEL, 5 ppm) were 4.1% (20 samples of 488) and 6.0% (13 samples of 217), respectively. The results for the benzene exposure levels and the rates of exceeding the OEL were both statistically significant (p < 0.05). Among the 12 job categories of petrochemical workers, mechanical engineers, plumbers, welders, fieldman and scaffolding workers exhibited long-term samples that exceeded the OEL of benzene, and the rate of exceeding the OEL was statistically significant for the first two occupations (p < 0.05). Conclusion: These findings suggest that the periodic work environment must be assessed during non-routine works such as TA.

A Study on the Resource Allocation Strategies of the Container Terminals Using Simulation Technique (시뮬레이션 기법을 이용한 컨테이너 터미널의 자원할당 전략에 관한 연구)

  • 장성용
    • Journal of the Korea Society for Simulation
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.61-72
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    • 1999
  • This paper presents an estimation method of container handling capacity and selection of resource allocation strategies of container terminals using the computer simulation models. Simulation models are developed to model container terminal consisting of 4 berths considering the berth allocation strategies, crane allocation strategies and the total number of container cranes using Arena simulation package. The proposed models do not consider the yard operations and gate operations. All the input parameters for the models are estimated on the basis of the existing container terminal operation data and the planning data for the automated container terminal planned by Korean government. Four berth allocation strategies and three crane allocation strategies are considered. The total number of container cranes considered ranges from 12 to 15. Non-terminating simulation techniques are utilized for the performance comparison among alternatives. The performance measures such as average ship turnaround time, average ship waiting time, average ship service time, the number of containers handled per year, and the number of ships processed per year are used. The result shows that the berth allocation strategy minimizing the sum of the number of ships waiting, the number of busy container cranes and number of ships handled performs better than any other berth allocation strategies. In addition, the crane allocation strategy allocating up to 5 container cranes per berth performs better than any other crane allocation strategies. Finally there are no significant performance differences among the alternatives consisting of different total number of container cranes allocated.

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Performance Trend Analysis For IN System Based On DB Updating Method (DB 수정방식에 따른 지능망 시스템의 성능추이분석)

  • 노용덕
    • Journal of the Korea Society for Simulation
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.45-53
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    • 2002
  • The main idea behind the Intelligent Networks(IN) concept is the separation of switching functionality from the service control, in order to meet various service requirements of subscribers and development of new services in time. In (N+1) type Intelligent Network with FEP-BEP framwork, each SCP-BEP system maintains its own subscibers' database respectively. In this case, DB updating operations at each SCP-BEP should be peformed concurrently such that DB updating method could affect the overall system performance. Moreover, it is not easy to predict the current system capacity to satisfy the future IN subscribers' service needs. In this paper, we discuss how much DB updating method affects the performance trends of (N+1) type Intelligent Network with FEP-BEP system by means of the simulation technique as the number of calls increase. The average turnaround time is used as a system performance measure.

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A Name-based Service Discovering Mechanism for Efficient Service Delivery in IoT (IoT에서 효율적인 서비스 제공을 위한 이름 기반 서비스 탐색 메커니즘)

  • Cho, Kuk-Hyun;Kim, Jung-Jae;Ryu, Minwoo;Cha, Si-Ho
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.46-54
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    • 2018
  • The Internet of Things (IoT) is an environment in which various devices provide services to users through communications. Because of the nature of the IoT, data are stored and distributed in heterogeneous information systems. In this situation, IoT end applications should be able to access data without having information on where the data are or what the type of storage is. This mechanism is called Service Discovery (SD). However, some problems arise, since the current SD architectures search for data in physical devices. First, turnaround time increases from searching for services based on physical location. Second, there is a need for a data structure to manage devices and services separately. These increase the administrator's service configuration complexity. As a result, the device-oriented SD structure is not suitable to the IoT. Therefore, we propose an SD structure called Name-based Service-centric Service Discovery (NSSD). NSSD provides name-based centralized SD and uses the IoT edge gateway as a cache server to speed up service discovery. Simulation results show that NSSD provides about twice the improvement in average turnaround time, compared to existing domain name system and distributed hash table SD architectures.

Delay Optimization Algorithm for the High Speed Operation of FPGAs (FPGA를 고속으로 동작시키기 위한 지연시간 최적화 알고리듬)

  • Choi, Ick-Sung;Lee, Jeong-Hee;Lee, Bhum-Cheol;Kim, Nam-U
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics Engineers of Korea SD
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    • v.37 no.7
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    • pp.50-57
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    • 2000
  • We propose a logic synthesis algorithm for the design of FPGAs operating at high speed. FPGA is a novel technology that provides programmability in the field. Because of short turnaround time and low manufacturing cost, FPGA has been noticed as an ideal device for system prototyping. Despite these merits, FPGA has drawbacks, namely low integration and long delay time comparing to ASIC. The proposed algorithm partitions a given circuit into subcircuits utilizing a kernel divisor such that the subcircuits can be performed at the same time, hence reducing the delay of the circuit. Experimental results on the MCNC benchmark show that the proposed algorithm is effective by generating circuits having 19.1% les delay on average, when compared to the FlowMap algorithm.

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An Analysis of Idling Stop Time Using Real On-road Driving Data (실도로 주행 데이터를 이용한 공회전 정지 시간의 분석)

  • Hong, Seong-Tae;Lee, Beom-Ho;Lee, Dae-Yeop;Sim, Mu-Gyeong;Im, Jae-Myeong
    • Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.25-38
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    • 2010
  • In this study, the real on-road driving data were analyzed to draw the various characteristics related to idling of vehicles. The results revealed that the average idling time of a city bus corresponds to 30.9% of the total daily driving time. Among this, for about 21.6% of the total daily driving time, it is available that an engine can be halted while the vehicle stops. It is a daytime when the portion of time, for which idling stop is available, is peak. Due to idling stop, an increase of turnaround was not found throughout this analysis. When a city bus stops at a traffic right, idling periods were long enough to execute the idling stop, during which an engine halts. Whereas, during the idling time for bus stops, the idling periods were not so long enough to execute idling stop. Deceleration periods among the total turnarounds of a city bus occupies about 24.7%, during which, for about 30%, a deceleration maintains for more than four seconds. Thus, using the energy during deceleration period, which then can be recovered from braking energy, it was also found that a hybrid system can be effectively implemented to a city bus.

A File System for User Special Functions using Speed-based Prefetch in Embedded Multimedia Systems (임베디드 멀티미디어 재생기에서 속도기반 미리읽기를 이용한 사용자기능 지원 파일시스템)

  • Choe, Tae-Young;Yoon, Hyeon-Ju
    • Journal of KIISE:Computing Practices and Letters
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    • v.14 no.7
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    • pp.625-635
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    • 2008
  • Portable multimedia players have some different properties compared to general multimedia file server. Some of those properties are single user ownership, relatively low hardware performance, I/O burst by user special functions, and short software development cycles. Though suitable for processing multiple user requests at a time, the general multimedia file systems are not efficient for special user functions such as fast forwards/backwards. Soml' methods has been proposed to improve the performance and functionality, which the application programs give prediction hints to the file system. Unfortunately, they require the modification of all applications and recompilation. In this paper, we present a file system that efficiently supports user special functions in embedded multimedia systems using file block allocation, buffer-cache, and prefetch. A prefetch algorithm, SPRA (SPeed-based PRefetch Algorithm) predicts the next block using I/O patterns instead of hints from applications and it is resident in the file system, so doesn't affect application development process. From the experimental file system implementation and comparison with Linux readahead-based algorithms, the proposed system shows $4.29%{\sim}52.63%$ turnaround time and 1.01 to 3,09 times throughput in average.