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Analysis of Equivalent Torque of 78 kW Agricultural Tractor during Rotary Tillage (78 kW급 농업용 트랙터의 로타리 경운 작업에 따른 등가 토크 분석)

  • Baek, Seung-Min;Kim, Wan-Soo;Park, Seong-Un;Kim, Yong-Joo
    • The Journal of Korea Institute of Information, Electronics, and Communication Technology
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.359-365
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    • 2019
  • This paper is a basic study for the performance evaluation, durability improvement and optimal design of tractor transmission. The engine torque of the 78 kW agricultural tractor during rotary tillage was measured using CAN communication. It was calculated with equivalent torque and then analyzed. In order to develop a reliable tractor, it is important to convert measured torque in various agricultural operations into equivalent torque and analyze it. The equivalent torque was calculated using Palmgren-Miner's rule, which is a representative cumulative damage law. The equivalent torque of rotary tillage period and steering period are 229.2 and 136.7 Nm, respectively. The maximum and average torque during rotary tillage period are 336.0 and 234.4 Nm, respectively. The maximum and average torque of the steering period are 288.0 and 134.6 Nm, respectively. The engine torque in rotary tillage period is higher than in the steering period because of cultivation of soil through PTO. The maximum and rated torque of engine are 387.0 and 323.0 Nm, respectively, which are 183% and 136% higher than the equivalent torque during rotary tillage and of steering section. Because transmission of agricultural tractor in Korea companies is generally designed by the rated torque of engine, there is a difference from measured torque during agricultural operations. Therefore, it is necessary to consider it for optimal design.

A Comparison of Ground Reaction Force of High School Swimmers in Accordance with Starting Motions (수영 출발동작의 지면반력 차이 비교 II)

  • Kim, Kew-Wan
    • Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.69-80
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    • 2007
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference of ground reaction forces of swimming athletes during their starting motion and to find out the most effective starting motions which were used in swimming athletes. The subjects were 9 male and 8 female high school swimming athletes who were athletic career over 7 years and used three starting motions in competition. The ground reaction forces were measured from each athletes performing three starting motion each of the open grap starting motion, closed grap starting motion and track starting motion. For the measurement, the force platform of AMTI company was utilized, and the analysis on measured ground reaction forces were used of Biosoft(Ver. 1.0). The items measured were stance time, Fz max deceleration force and Fz max deceleration force time, Fz mid stance force and Fz mid stance force time, Fz max acceleration force and Fz max acceleration force time, Torque maximum and Torque maximum time, Torque average, Excursion along Y axis of center of pressure of foot, Excursion along X axis of center of pressure of foot, Length of center of pressure of foot, Average velocity of center of pressure of foot. The data measured by the closed grap starting motion, open grap starting motion and track starting motion were analyzed by one-way repeated ANOVA. The results were as follows ; 1. The Fz max deceleration force time, Fz mid stance force, Fz max acceleration force, Torque maximum and Torque maximum time, Excursion along Y axis of center of pressure of foot, Average velocity of center of pressure of foot were significantly fast and large in the closed grap starting motion then open grap starting motion and track starting motion. 2. The Excursion along Y axis of center of pressure of foot was significantly long in the closed grap starting motion then open grap starting motion and track starting motion.

Tight sportswear and physiological function - Effect on muscle strength and EMG activity -

  • Dai, Xiao-Qun;Li, Yu-Ping;Cai, Juan-Juan;Lu, A-Ming;Wang, Guo-Dong
    • The Research Journal of the Costume Culture
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.606-611
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    • 2013
  • It has been reported that tight sportswear could have complicated influence on physiological function of human body. The purpose of this present study was to investigate the effect of wearing gradient compression tights (GCT) on muscle strength and EMG activity during repeated isokinetic muscle contractions. Four healthy male undergraduate students performed maximal voluntary isokinetic concentric muscle contractions on biomechanical test and training systems with GCT and loose pants as control (Cont) respectively. During each test, the peak torque of extensor and flexor contractions and the surface electromyography (sEMG) of the rectus femoris and medial gastrocnemius was recorded simultaneously, the peak torque was recorded as an indicator of muscle strength, and the average amplitude and mean power frequency of sEMG were calculated as indicators of EMG activity. The results showed that: the peak torque decreased gradually during continuous muscle contractions both when the Cont and GCT were worn, average sEMG and mean power frequency declined along with the repetitions of muscle contractions for both wearing conditions, and the change tendency was consistence with that of peak torque. There was no obvious difference between the peak torque recorded wearing the Cont or wearing GCT, but when GCT were worn, average sEMG was lower and mean power frequency was higher than the Cont condition. In 24 samples obtained from four subjects, 80% of results showed the same trend. So we could make a conclusion that wearing GCT had no obvious effect on the improvement of muscle strength, but it would affect the EMG activity positivly.

Analysis of the PTO Torque of a Transplanter by Planting Condition

  • Kim, Wan Soo;Chung, Sun Ok;Choi, Chang Hyun;Cho, Jong Seung;Choi, Dug Soon;Kim, Young Joo;Lee, Sang Dae;Hong, Soon Jung;Kim, Yong Joo;Koo, Seung Mo
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.313-318
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: This study measured and analyzed the PTO (power take off) torque of a transplanter according to the planting conditions during field operation. Methods: A torque measurement system was constructed with torque sensors to measure the torque of a PTO shaft, a measurement device to acquire sensor signals, and a power controller to provide power for a laptop computer. The field operation was conducted at four planting distances (26, 35, 43, and 80 cm) and two planting depths using the transplanter on a field with similar soil conditions. One-way ANOVA with planting distance and Duncan's multiple range test at a significance level of 0.05 were used to analyze the PTO torque. The torque ratio was calculated based on the minimum torque using the average PTO torque measured under each planting condition. Results: The average torques on the PTO shaft for planting distances of 26, 35, 43, and 80 cm at a low planting depth were 11.05, 9.07, 7.04, and 3.75 Nm, respectively; the same for planting distances of 26, 35, 43, and 80 cm at a middle planting depth were 12.20, 9.86, 7.94, and 4.32 Nm, respectively. When the planting distance decreased by 43, 35, and 26 cm, the torque ratio at a low planting depth increased by 88, 142, and 195%, respectively. When the planting distance decreased by 43, 35, and 26 cm, the torque ratio at the middle planting depth increased by 84, 128, and 182%, respectively. Conclusions: PTO torque fluctuated by planting distance and depth. Moreover, the PTO torque increased for short planting distances. Therefore, farmers should determine the planting conditions of the transplanter by considering the load and durability of the machine. The results of this study provide useful information pertaining to the optimum PTO design of the transplanter considering the field load.

Optimal Rotor Shape Design of Asymmetrical Multi-Layer IPM Motors to Improve Torque Performance Considering Irreversible Demagnetization

  • Mirazimi, M.S.;Kiyoumarsi, A.;Madani, Sayed M.
    • Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology
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    • v.12 no.5
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    • pp.1980-1990
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    • 2017
  • A study on the multi-objective optimization of Interior Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Motors (IPMSMs) with 2, 3, 4 and 5 flux barriers per magnetic pole, based on Genetic Algorithm (GA) is presented by considering the aspect of irreversible demagnetization. Applying the 2004 Toyota Prius single-layer IPMSM as the reference machine, the asymmetrical two-, three-, four- and five-layer rotor models with the same amount of Permanent-Magnets (PMs) is presented to improve the torque characteristics, i.e., reducing the torque pulsation and increasing the average torque. A reduction of the torque pulsations is achieved by adopting different and asymmetrical flux barrier geometries in each magnetic pole of the rotor topology. The demagnetization performance in the PMs is considered as well as the motor performance; and analyzed by using finite element method (FEM) for verification of the optimal solutions.

Torque measurement of Disk type Single Phase Switched Reluctance Motor (디스크형 단상 스위치드 릴럭턴스 모터의 토오크 측정)

  • Kim, Jun-Ho;Lee, Eun-Woong;Oh, Young-Woong;Kim, Sung-Jong;Woo, Sung-Bong;Lee, Min-Myung;Lee, Jong-Han
    • Proceedings of the KIEE Conference
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    • pp.678-680
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    • 2000
  • We designed and manufactured DSPSRM using the usual output power equation of rotating machine. And the sinusoidaly approximated torque characteristics are achieved by 3D finite element analysis. Also, We calculated average torque per rotation using approximated torque data, calculated by 3D finite element analysis. On this paper, We manufacture torque-meter set and measure the torque characteristic of DSPSRM.

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Performance Improvement of a Polygon Mirror Scanner Motor for Laser Beam Printer (레이저빔프린터용 폴리곤 미러 스캐너 모터의 특성개선)

  • You, Yong-min
    • Proceedings of the KIEE Conference
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    • pp.854-855
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    • 2015
  • Electric machines for office automation device such as printer and scanner have been required the low noise and vibration performance. Many researches about the low noise and vibration of polygon mirror scanner motor have been also progressed. The noise and vibration of polygon mirror scanner motor can be classified by aerodynamic, structural and electromagnetic. Electromagnetic noise and vibration can be occurred by high cogging torque and nonsinusoidal back EMF. To improve the cogging torque and back EMF characteristic, we apply unequal air-gap. To analyse characteristic of a polygon mirror scanner motor, two dimensional finite element method is used. To minimize the cogging torque of a polygon mirror motor, Kriging based on latin hypercube sampling (LHS) is utilized. As a result, the cogging torque and torque ripple improved while maintaining the back EMF and average torque.

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Application Effects of Various Solidity of Mouth Guard on Torque and Power at Isokinetic Contraction in Shoulder : A Pilot Study (다양한 경도의 마우스가드의 착용이 어깨관절의 등속성 수축 시 토크 및 파워에 미치는 영향 : 예비 실험)

  • Lee, Sang-Yeol
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Physical Medicine
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.567-571
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    • 2013
  • PURPOSE: This study find out the effect of torque and power through various solidity of mouth guard on shoulder flexion and extension. METHODS: This study was conducted with healthy adults in their 20s Korean. Cybex system was used to measure the torque and power fo shoulder joint flexion/extension during isokinetic contraction when the various solidity mouth guard was used and no mouth guard was used. RESULT: The results of this study were summarized as follows: relative torque and average power was showed significantly difference between non applying mouth guard and applying hard type mouth guard during shoulder flexion and extension at isokinetic contraction. CONCLUSION: The application of hard type mouth guard was increased torque and power in joint of body. which may be clinically useful.

Speed Sensorless Torque Monitoring During Machining on CNC Lathe (CNC 선반가공 중 속도 센서리스 토크 감시)

  • Hong, Ik-Jun;Kwon, Won-Tae
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.222-229
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    • 2004
  • In this paper, the torque of CNC spindle motor during machining is estimated without speed measuring sensor. The CNC spindle system is divided into two parts, the induction spindle motor part and mechanical part. In mechanical part, the variation of the frictional force due to the increment of the cutting torque and the effect of damping coefficient is investigated. Damping coefficient is found to be a function of spindle speed and not influenced by the weight of the load, while frictional force is a function of both the cutting torque and spindle speed. Experimental equations are drawn for damping coefficient and Coulomb friction as a function of spindle speed. Incremental frictional torque Is also obtained as a function of both cutting torque and spindle speed. Graphical programming is used to implement the suggested algorithm to monitor the torque of an induction motor in real time. Torque of the spindle induction motor is estimated well in about average 3% error range under various cutting conditions.

Evaluation of Indirect Methods of Engine Torque Measurement (엔진 토크의 간접적(間接的)인 측정(測定) 방법(方法)에 관한 연구(硏究))

  • Ryu, K.H.;Kang, S.B.
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 1991
  • This study was carried out to evaluate indirect methods of engine torque measurement. Three indirect methods based on throttle valve opening, exhaust gas temperature and inlet air pressure were compared. The indirect method based on throttle valve opening appeared to be the most satisfactory in terms of accuracy and response time. The discrepancies between the direct method and the indirect method based on throttle valve opening in measuring engine torque were 2% on t he average.

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