• Title, Summary, Keyword: Bacillus subtilis K-20

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Quality Characteristics and Vitamin K2 (MK-7) Productivity of Cheonggukjang fermented by Bacillus subtilis SRCM100757 with Different Inoculum Concentrations and Fermentation Time (Bacillus subtilis SRCM100757를 이용하여 접종농도와 발효기간을 달리하여 제조한 청국장의 품질 특성 및 Vitamin K2(MK-7) 생성능 평가)

  • Jeong, Min-Hong;Bang, Seon-Ok;Kim, Kum-Suk
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.341-347
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    • 2017
  • This study was carried out to investigate the characteristics and Vitamin $K_2$ (MK-7) productivity of Cheonggukjang fermented by Bacillus subtilis SRCM100757 depending on the inoculum concentration 0.5% (v/w), 1% (v/w) and 2% (v/w). The lowest moisture content and water activity were $53.7{\pm}0.6%$ and $8.39{\pm}0.09$ after fermentation for 72 hours at 2% (v/w). pH slowly became alkalized during fermentation, but there was no significant difference. Amino nitrogen content increased with time and the highest content was $580.8{\pm}1.9mg%$ after fermentation for 72 hours at 2% (v/w). Lightness (L value) and yellowness (b value) decreased with time, whereas redness (a value) hardly changed. MK-7 contents increased with time at each inoculum concentration. The highest content was $20.47{\pm}1.53$ after fermeatation for 72 hours at 2%(v/w) and there were no significant differences between 1%(v/w) and 2%(v/w) inoculum concentrations.

Molecular Characterization of a ${\beta}$-1,4-Endoglucanase Gene from Bacillus subtilis H12

  • Oh, Jin-Hwan;Cha, Jeong-Ah;Yoon, Min-Ho
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.51 no.4
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    • pp.299-304
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    • 2008
  • A ${\beta}$-1,4-endoglucanase gene from Bacillus subtilis H12 was cloned into Escherichia coli JM109 (pBC8) and sequenced. The endoglucanase gene with an insert DNA of 2.5 kb possessed an open reading frame of 1,500 bp encoding a mature protein of 499 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 55 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence showed similarity to those of the known neutral cellulase genes of B. subtilis PAP115 (99.2%) and BSE616 (97.8%), as well as the alkaline gene of Bacillus sp. N4 (55.1%). The endoglucanase activity expressed by E. coli (pBC8) was localized in the periplasmic fraction (80%) and the cytoplasmic fraction (20%). An endoglucanase was purified from the periplasmic fraction by performing gel filtration and anion exchange chromatography. The molecular weight of the purified enzyme was estimated to be 31 kDa by SDS-PAGE, and the maximum activity occurred at pH 7 and $40^{\circ}C$. The enzyme easily hydrolyzed soluble substrates such as carboxymethyl cellulose and barely ${\beta}$-glucan, whereas the sigmacell and xylan, the known insoluble substrates, were not entirely hydrolyzed.

Effect of Supplementation of Bacillus subtilis LS 1-2 Grown on Citrus-juice Waste and Corn-soybean Meal Substrate on Growth Performance, Nutrient Retention, Caecal Microbiology and Small Intestinal Morphology of Broilers

  • Sen, Sinol;Ingale, S.L.;Kim, J.S.;Kim, K.H.;Kim, Y.W.;Khong, Chou;Lohakare, J.D.;Kim, E.K.;Kim, H.S.;Kwon, I.K.;Chae, B.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.24 no.8
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    • pp.1120-1127
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    • 2011
  • A feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of Bacillus subtilis LS 1-2 grown on citrus-juice waste and corn-soybean substrate on growth performance, nutrient retention, caecal microbial population and intestinal morphology in broilers. Three hundred twenty d-old Ross chicks were randomly allotted to 4 treatments on the basis of BW in a randomized complete block design. Each treatment had 4 replicates of 20 chicks in each. Experimental diets were fed in 2 phases, starter (d 0 to 21) and finisher (d 21 to 35). Dietary treatments were; negative control (NC: basal diet without any antimicrobial), positive control (PC: basal diet added with 20 mg/kg Avilamycin), basal diet added with 0.30% Bacillus subtilis LS 1-2 grown on corn-soybean substrate (P1), and basal diet added with 0.30% Bacillus subtilis LS 1-2 grown on citrus-juice waste substrate (P2). Overall BW gain, feed intake and FCR were better (p<0.05) in PC, P1 and P2 treatments as compared to NC. Moreover, overall BW gain and FCR in PC and P2 treatments were greater than P1. Retention of CP, GE (d 21, d 35) and DM (d 35) were increased (p<0.05) in treatments PC, P1 and P2 compared with NC. At d 35, caecal Clostridium and Coliform counts were lower (p<0.05) in treatments PC, P1 and P2 than NC. Moreover, Clostridium and Coliform counts in treatment PC was lower (p<0.05) than P1. Villus height and villus height to crypt depth ratio in both duodenum and ileum were increased (p<0.05) in treatments PC, P1, P2 as compared to NC. However, retention of nutrients, caecal microbial population and intestinal morphology remained comparable among treatments P1 and P2. It is concluded that Bacillus subtilis LS 1-2 inclusion at 0.30% level had beneficial effects on broilers' growth performance, nutrient retention, caecal microflora and intestinal morphology. Additionally, citrus-juice waste can be used as substrate for growth of probiotic Bacillus subtilis LS 1-2.

Purification of a Protease Produced by Bacillus subtilis PCA 20-3 Isolated from Korean Traditional Meju (전통 메주로부터 분리한 Bacillus subtilis PCA 20-3 유래 Protease 의 정제)

  • Lim, Seong-Il;Yoo, Jin-Young
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.31 no.6
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    • pp.1635-1641
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    • 1999
  • Bacillus subtilis PCA20-3 was isolated from meju and was found to produce a protease. The strain produced the maximum amount of enzyme in the medium containing soytone (0.2%), soluble starch (2%), $(NH_4)_2SO_4\;(0.1%),\;CaCl_2(0.1%),\;yeast\;extract\;(0.01%),\;K_2HPO_4\;(0.1%),\;and\;KH_2PO_4\;(0.1%)$. Protease was first concentrated by ammonium sulfate (80% saturation, w/v) precipitation of culture supernatant. Then the enzyme was purified by column chromatography using CM Sephadex C-50. The collected proteins were rechromatographed using Sephadex G-100 gel filtration column. The fraction with protease active from Sephadex G-100 gel chromatography was found to be pure when examined by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and YMC-pak reverse phase chromatography. Specific activity, yield and purity were 76 U/mg. 2.7%, and 7.6 fold, respectively. The molecular weight of the enzyme was estimated to be 31.5 kDa by SDS-PAGE. The number of amino acids calculated from molecular weight was evaluated about 321 residues. N-terminal sequence of the enzyme was $Val^1-Pro^2-Tyr^3-Gly^4-Val^5-Ser^6-Gln^7-Gly^8-Lys^9-Ala^{10}$.

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Protein Analysis of Bacillus subtilis MORI 3K-85 with Reference to the Biosynthesis of 1-Deoxynojirimycin (1-Deoxynojirimycin 생산 균주 Bucillus subtilis MORI 3K-85의 단백질 분석)

  • Cho, Yong-Seok;Kang, Kyung-Don;Park, Young-Shik;Lee, Jae-Yeon;Kim, Hyun-Su;Yuk, Won-Jeong;Kamita, Shizuo George;Hwang, Kyo-Yeol;Seong, Su-Il
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.26 no.6
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    • pp.517-522
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    • 2011
  • In our previous study, we isolated and characterized a 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ)-producing bacterium, Bacillus subtilis MORI, from chungkookjang, a Korean traditional food. B. subtilis MORI was subjected to ${\gamma}$-irradiation and the resulting bacteria were screened for increased DNJ production. A mutant was identified that produced 7.6 times more DNJ and named B. subtilis MORI 3K-85. In this study, the protein profiles of both strains were compared by one-dimensional and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (1-DE and 2-DE, respectively) under both native and denaturing conditions. The 1-DE native-PAGE and 1-DE SDS-PAGE analyses identified 5 and 7 bands, respectively, that were found at higher concentrations in B. subtilis MORI 3K-85 than in B. subtilis MORI. Similarly, 2-DE analyses identified 20 protein spots which were found at higher concentrations in B. subtilis MORI 3K-85. The peptide mass profiles of these 20 proteins were analyzed by MALDI-TOF and compared with peptide sequences of B. subtilis and B. amyloliquefaciens in the MASCOT database. This screening suggested that three dehydrogenases, an aldolase, a synthetase, an isomerase, a reductase, and a peroxidase are elevated in B. subtilis MORI 3K-85. Based on this data, one or more of the elevated 8 enzymes might be related to the DNJ biosynthetic pathway.

Studies on the Microflora and Enzymes Influencing on Korea Native Kochuzang (Red Pepper Soybean Paste) Aging (재래식(在來式) 고추장 숙성(熟成)에 미치는 미생물(微生物) 및 그 효소(酵素)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Lee, Ke-Ho;Lee, Myo-Sook;Park, Sung-O
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.82-92
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    • 1976
  • The study was carried out to investigate the changes of the various chemical components and the microflora during the aging period of Korean navive Kochuzang. (Red pepper soybean paste) Korean native maeju loaves were separated into surface and inner parts. Three kinds of Korean native Kochuzang were prepared from surface part, inner part, and ordinary of maeju. The selection and the indentification of the high enzyme producing strains from the microflora and characteristics of their enzymes were studied. I. The changes of the various chemical components during the aging period of Kochuzang. 1) The changes of pH in the 3 kinds of Kochuzang displayed rapid decrease for the first 10 days after preparing and gradual curve of decrease until 60 days, but slight increase for the next 30 days. The pH of the surface part Kochuzang was lower than that of inner part or ordinary Kochuzang. 2) The total acid contents in the 3 kinds of Kochuzang showed gradual increase until the 60 days but it slowly reduced after this time. 3) The total nitrogen contents in the 3 kind of Kochuzang showed gradual inerease up to the 60 days, but slight decrease after this time. 4) The changes of trichloroacetic acid soluble nitrogen in the 3 kinds of Kochuzang showed a remarkable increase for the first 10 days, however gradual increase after this time. 5) The increase of amino nitrogen contents in the 3 kinds of Kochuzang seemed to be remarkable until the first 30 days, however to be less remarkable after this time. 6) The contents of reducing sugar in the 3 kinds of Kochuzang showed remarkable increase until the first 50 days and it slowly reduced after this time. II. The changes of microflora during the aging period of Kochuzang. 1) Aerobic, anaerobic bacteria and mold in the 3 kinds of Kochuzang were increased until the first 30 to 40 days, but they were reduced after this time. 2) No yeast in the three kinds of Kochuzang appeared until the first 20 days. Yeast were proved to grow, when the pH value was decreased below 5.4 after the 30 days. Yeasts in the surface part and ordinary Kochuzang were gradually increased and those in the inner part Kochuzang were decreased as aging. III. The selection and identification of high amylase and protease producing strains from the microflora during the aging period of Kochuzang. 1) The amylase and protease highly producing strains from microflora were identified as Bacillus subtilis-P, Bacillus subtilis-G, Bacillus licheniformis-K, Aspergillus oryzae-B. 2) Amylase activity of Aspergillus oryzae-B was highest among the strains and the strains in order of the higher activity to the lower one were Bacillus subtilis-P Bacillus licheniformis-K, Bacillus subtilis-G. Protease activities of Aspergillus oryzae-B and Bacillus subtilis-P were about the same and the strains in order of the higher activity to the lower one were Bacillus licheniformis-K, Bacillus subtilis-G. 3) Amylase activity was inhibited more than protease activity was with NaCl concentration. Amylase activity was inhibited by 45 to 65 percent and protease activity by 40 to 46 percent at the concentration of 15 percent NaCl, which was the average concentration of NaCl in Kochuzang.

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Cloning and Characterization of a Cellulase Gene from a Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacterium, Bacillus subtilis AH18 against Phytophthora Blight Disease in Red-Pepper (고추역병을 방제하는 PGPR균주 Bacillus subtilis AH18의 항진균성 Cellulase 유전자의 Cloning 및 효소 특성 조사)

  • Woo, Sang-Min;Jung, Hee-Kyoung;Kim, Sang-Dal
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.311-317
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    • 2006
  • Using PCR amplification, we cloned a cellulase gene (ce/H) from the Bacillus subtilis AH18 which has plant growth-promoting activity and antagonistic ability against pepper blight caused by Phytophthora capsici. The 1.6 kb PCR fragment contained the full sequence of the cellulase gene and the 1,582 bp gene deduced a 508 amino acid sequence. Similarity search in protein database revealed that the cellulase of B. subtilis AH18 was more than 98% homologous in the amino acid sequence to those of several major Bacillus spp. The ce/H was expressed in E. coli under an IPTG inducible lac promoter on the vector, had apparent molecular weight of about 55 kDa upon CMC-SDS-PAGE analysis. Partially purified cellulase had not only cellulolytic activity toward carboxymethyl-cellulose (CMC) but also insoluble cellulose, such as Avicel and filter paper (Whatman No. 1). In addition, the cellulase could degrade a fungal cell wall of Phytophthora capsici. The optimum pH and temperature of the ce/H coded cellulase were determined to be pH 5.0 and $50^{\circ}C$. The enzyme activity was activated by $AgNO_3$ or $CoCl_2$. However its activity was Inhibited by $HgC1_2$. The enzyme activity was activated by hydroxy urea or sodium azide and inhibited by CDTA or EDTA. The results indicate that the cellulase gene, ce/H is an antifungal mechanism of B. subtilis AH18 against phytophthora blight disease in red-pepper.

Production of Streptomyces albus KSM-35 Amylase from Bacillus subtilis LKS88 Haboring the Recombinant Plasmid pASA240 (재조합 균주 Bacillus subtilis LKS88에 의한 Streptomyces albus KSM-35 Amylase의 생산조건)

  • 최원진;유도진;이재우;소명환;김영배
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.381-387
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    • 1998
  • The effects of culture conditions on the production of amylase expressed by Bacillus subtilis LKS88 with a cloned gene from Streptomyces albus KSM-35 were investigated. The production of amylase was increased significantly by using sodium citrate and rice hull as a carbon source. In addition, the use of a mixture of sodium citrate and rice hull (1:1) resulted in increase of enzyme production by 20-fold when compared to that of soluble starch. The soybean meal as the nitrogen source could be partially replaced with yeast extract without changing the enzyme production yield. The amylase production was also increased by adjusting initial pH to 6.0 or by adding 0.01% SDS. Maximum amylase production was observed in the medium containing 1.5% sodium cirtate, 1.5% rice hull, 0.7% soybean meal, 0.3% yeast extract, 0.66% K2HPO4, 0.05% MgSO4$.$7H2O, 0.008% CaCl2$.$2H2O, 0.01% SDS with initial pH of 6.0. The maximum yield of amylase reached 56.6 U/ml when B. subtilits LKS88 (pASA 240) was cultured at 37$^{\circ}C$ for 36 hr.

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Protoplast Formation and Regeneration of Bacillus strains producing biopolymer (Biopolymer 생산성 Bacillus속 균주의 원형질체 형성과 재생)

  • Yim, Moo-Hyun;Kim, Seong-Ho
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.20-28
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    • 1999
  • To improve Bacillus strains producing biopolymer, conditions for protoplast formation and regeneration were investigated in biopolymer producing Bacillus subtilis K-1 and lactose utilizing Bacillus coagulans. Bacillus subtilis K-1 mutant (SM-2) and Bacillus coagulans mutants (CM-12) were marked auxotrophic and antibiotics-resistant (SM-2) and an antibiotics-resistant mutants, respectively. To formate protoplasts derived from the mutants, conditions were established as follows. For B. subtilis mutant SM-2, its culture in mid-logarithmic phase was added with penicillin G (1.0 unit/ml) and further reacted for 1.5 hr. Cells were collected and then treated in lysis fluid (pH 7.0) containing 0.4 M sucrose and lysozyme $25\;{\mu}g/ml$ for 40 min at $37^{\circ}$. Protoplast formation was very successful (99.6%) and the ratio of cell wall regeneration was 2.4%. For Bacillus coagulans mutant CM-12, its mid-logarithmic phase culture was treated with penicillin G (0.3 unit/ml) and glycine (0.5%) for 1hr. Cells were collected and then resuspended in lysis buffer (pH 7.0) containing 0.6 M lactose and lysozyme $(300\;{\mu}g/ml)$ for 30 min at $37^{\circ}$. Protoplast formation was also successful (90.8%) and cell wall regeneration ratio was similar to SM-2 (2.2%). To improve regeneration frequency, regeneration medium was obtained as followed condition,. Cell wall regeneration was improved 2-4 folds with 5.1% for B. subtilis SM-2 and 10.3% for B. coagulans CM-12 when protoplasts mixed with soft top agar(0.4%) was overlaid onto trypticase soy broth medium containing 0.4 M sucrose, 0.7% casamino acid, 1% PVP, 25 mM $MgCl_2,\;25\;mM\;CaCl_₂$ and 1.5% agar.

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Decolorization of Acid Green 25 by Surface Display of CotA laccase on Bacillus subtilis Spores

  • Park, Jong-Hwa;Kim, Wooil;Lee, Yong-Suk;Kim, June-Hyung
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.29 no.9
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    • pp.1383-1390
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    • 2019
  • In this study, we expressed cotA laccase from Bacillus subtilis on the surface of B. subtilis spores for efficient decolorization of synthetic dyes. The cotE, cotG, and cotY genes were used as anchoring motifs for efficient spore surface display of cotA laccase. Moreover, a $His_6$ tag was inserted at the C-terminal end of cotA for the immunological detection of the expressed fusion protein. Appropriate expression of the CotE-CotA (74 kDa), CotG-CotA (76 kDa), and CotY-CotA (73 kDa) fusion proteins was confirmed by western blot. We verified the surface expression of each fusion protein on B. subtilis spore by flow cytometry. The decoloration rates of Acid Green 25 (anthraquinone dye) for the recombinant DB104 (pSDJH-EA), DB104 (pSDJH-GA), DB104 (pSDJH-YA), and the control DB104 spores were 48.75%, 16.12%, 21.10%, and 9.96%, respectively. DB104 (pSDJH-EA) showed the highest decolorization of Acid Green 25 and was subsequently tested on other synthetic dyes with different structures. The decolorization rates of the DB104 (pSDJH-EA) spore for Acid Red 18 (azo dye) and indigo carmine (indigo dye) were 18.58% and 43.20%, respectively. The optimum temperature for the decolorization of Acid Green 25 by the DB104 (pSDJH-EA) spore was found to be $50^{\circ}C$. Upon treatment with known laccase inhibitors, including EDTA, SDS, and $NaN_3$, the decolorization rate of Acid Green 25 by the DB104 (pSDJH-EA) spore decreased by 23%, 80%, and 36%, respectively.