• Title, Summary, Keyword: Balance

Search Result 9,526, Processing Time 0.08 seconds

Comparison of the Effectiveness of Dietary Intervention between Calorie Restriction Diet and Food Selective Method according to Yin and Yang Constitution in Obese Woman (열량제한식과 체질식에 따른 비만 여성의 체중감량 효과)

  • Sim, Seon-Ha;Hur, Bons-Soo;Hong, Kyung Hee
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
    • /
    • v.28 no.2
    • /
    • pp.302-312
    • /
    • 2015
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of constitutional diets in comparison with general low calorie diets in obese women. The subjects were 52 adult obese women that participated in a calorie restriction diet program (control group, n=16) or a constitutional diet program (experimental group, n=36) for 8 weeks. The subjects in the experimental group were classified as negative (Yin) or positive (Yang) constitution. The obesity management program focused on the calorie restriction diet (300~400 kcal reduction per day) for the control group, whereas, for a constitutional diet without calorie restrictions was allowed for the experimental group. Daily intakes of nutrient and food were assessed using a 24 hr recall method. Body measurements and blood biochemical parameters were measured at baseline and after 8 weeks. After the intervention, weight, body fat, BMI, waist circumference and hip circumference decreased significantly in both the control and experimental group. Energy intake increased from 1,679.6 kcal to 1,810.6 kcal along with significant increase in protein, carbohydrate, fiber, calcium, phosphorus, iron, zinc, vitamin A, vitamin $B_1$, vitamin $B_2$, niacin and vitamin C in the experimental group. Calcium intake increased from 54.0% to 72.4% of DRI in the experimental group. Hemoglobin concentrations were significantly decreased in the control group, but were increased in the experimental group. In addition, blood glucose, serum total cholesterol and triglyceride were significantly decreased in the experimental group. In conclusion, consumption of a constitutional diet without calorie restrictions for 8 weeks was effective for weight reduction with improvement of blood glucose, serum cholesterol and triglyceride.

A Preliminary Study on Motor Ability of Preschool Aged Children by Using Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-2 (BOT-2) Short Form (Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-2(BOT-2) 단축형을 사용한 학령전기 아동의 운동능력에 대한 연구)

  • Hong, Ki-hoon;Kim, Do-yeon;Kang, Hye-bin;Park, Tae-yeong;Yun, Eun-jeong;Lee, Ji-yeong;Jung, Hye-rim
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Sensory Integration
    • /
    • v.14 no.1
    • /
    • pp.31-40
    • /
    • 2016
  • Objective : This study aimed to provide the preliminary data as a pilot study on standardizing BOT-2 by using an assessment criteria linked to Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP) short form for the children with preschool years(4-6 year old) in South Korea. Methods : A total of 81 children aged 4-6 in Busan and Gimhae were participated in this study. They were evaluated by using BOT-2 SF. It provides the average values and standard deviations about the abilities of praxis along with descriptive statistical analyses, and has the verification of gender differences by using independent t-test and using ANOVA for discrepancies in the abilities of praxis. Results : There were significance difference in the total raw score between four and five (p=.000), the items on fine motor accuracy between five and six year olds (p=.014). Girls showed higher scores than boys in fine motor accuracy, fine motor integration and balance (p=.022, p=.006, p=.031). Also, mean raw scores of 4 and 5 year olds (p=.007, =.000), and the all age group's standard scores were higher than the age in American children who were the participants of BOT-2. Conclusion : This study suggested the average of each item with regard to the ability of motor praxis about the children of preschool ages and showed the dissimilarity in the ability of motor praxis between age and gender, also between the participants in this study and American children who were participants of BOT-2. The research could provide basic data for future studies to standardize BOT-2 SF for korean preschoolers.

Errors in Net Ecosystem Exchanges of CO2, Water Vapor, and Heat Caused by Storage Fluxes Calculated by Single-level Scalar Measurements Over a Rice Paddy (단일 높이에서 관측된 저장 플럭스를 사용할 때 발생하는 논의 이산화탄소, 수증기, 현열의 순생태계교환량 오차)

  • Moon, Minkyu;Kang, Minseok;Thakuri, Bindu Malla;Lee, Jung-Hoon
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
    • /
    • v.17 no.3
    • /
    • pp.227-235
    • /
    • 2015
  • Using eddy covariance method, net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of $CO_2$ ($F_{CO_2}$), $H_2O$ (LE), and sensible heat (H) can be approximated as the sum of eddy flux ($F_c$) and storage flux term ($F_s$). Depending on strength and distribution of sink/source of scalars and magnitude of vertical turbulence mixing, the rates of changes in scalars are different with height. In order to calculate $F_s$ accurately, the differences should be considered using scalar profile measurement. However, most of flux sites for agricultural lands in Asia do not operate profile system and estimate $F_s$ using single-level scalars from eddy covariance system under the assumption that the rates of changes in scalars are constant regardless of the height. In this study, we measured $F_c$ and $F_s$ of $CO_2$, $H_2O$, and air temperature ($T_a$) using eddy covariance and profile system (i.e., the multi-level measurement system in scalars from eddy covariance measurement height to the land surface) at the Chengmicheon farmland site in Korea (CFK) in order to quantify the differences between $F_s$ calculated by single-level measurements ($F_s_{-single}$ i.e., $F_s$ from scalars measured by profile system only at eddy covariance system measurement height) and $F_s$ calculated by profile measurements and verify the errors of NEE caused by $F_s_{-single}$. The rate of change in $CO_2$, $H_2O$, and Ta were varied with height depending on the magnitudes and distribution of sink and source and the stability in the atmospheric boundary layer. Thus, $F_s_{-single}$ underestimated or overestimated $F_s$ (especially 21% underestimation in $F_s$ of $CO_2$ around sunrise and sunset (0430-0800 h and 1630-2000 h)). For $F_{CO_2}$, the errors in $F_s_{-single}$ generated 3% and 2% underestimation of $F_{CO_2}$ during nighttime (2030-0400 h) and around sunrise and sunset, respectively. In the process of nighttime correction and partitioning of $F_{CO_2}$, these differences would cause an underestimation in carbon balance at the rice paddy. In contrast, there were little differences at the errors in LE and H caused by the error in $F_s_{-single}$, irrespective of time.

Ionic composition and pollution characteristics of precipitation in Jeju Island during 2009-2014 (2009-2014년 제주지역 강수의 이온조성 및 오염특성)

  • Bu, Jun Oh;Song, Jung Min;Shin, Su Hyun;Kim, Won Hyung;Kang, Chang Hee
    • Analytical Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.29 no.1
    • /
    • pp.19-28
    • /
    • 2016
  • The objective of this study was to determine the acidification of precipitation in the Jeju area. Precipitation samples were collected from the Jeju area from 2009-2014, and the major ionic species were analyzed. In the regression analysis, through a comparison of ion balance, electric conductivity, and acid fraction, the correlation coefficients showed a good linear relationship within the range of 0.927~0.983. The volume-weighted means of the pH and electric conductivity were 4.9 and 22.7 µS/cm, respectively. The ionic strength of precipitation was 0.27±0.38 mM, indicating about 35.9 % of total precipitation within the pure precipitation criteria. The volume-weighted mean concentrations (ìeq/L) of the ionic species in the precipitation were in the order of Na+ > Cl > nss-SO42− > NO3 > NH4+ > Mg2+ > H+ > nss-Ca2+ > PO43− > K+ > HCOO > CH3COO > NO2 > F > HCO3 > CH3SO3 . The acidification contributions by sulfuric and nitric acids were 54.5 % and 36.5 %, respectively. Meanwhile the acidification contributions by formic and acetic acids were 4.8 % and 4.2 %, respectively. Thus, it was found that the acidification of the precipitation in the Jeju area was mainly due to the inorganic acids. The neutralization factors by NH3 and CaCO3 were also 33 % and 20 %, respectively.

Comparative Volume Measuring Methods According to the Tumor Characters in PET/CT (PET/CT 검사에서 종양의 특성에 따른 체적 측정 방법 비교)

  • Choi, Yong Hoon;Ban, Yung Gak;Oh, Shin Hyun;Lim, Han Sang;Kim, Jae Sam
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
    • /
    • v.20 no.1
    • /
    • pp.52-58
    • /
    • 2016
  • Purpose Recent retrospective studies are being actively conducted to analyze the survival of patients with SUVmax, MTV, TLG, such as information from a variety of PET originating. However, there is no clear way is difficult to accurately measure the volume of the tumor may be the difference between the caster is raised. In this study, to evaluate compare the volume measuring methods according to the characteristics of the tumor. Materials and Methods 18F-saline to fill the NEMA IEC Body Phantom insert the volume of balance and imbalance in phantom were acquired to the Biograph truepoint 40 (Siemens medical system, Germany) PET/CT scanner. The ratio of the volume and Background was acquired as 3.0, 5.0, 8.0, 18, 40. Clinical patients were randomly selected 120 people in staging patients with cancer of the digestive system from the year 2010 until the year 2014. Measurement methods were used a 40% threshold, 50% threshold and gradient segmentation technique, i.e. PET EDGE. Five years of experience of the two radio-technologist and one doctor was measured by repeated three times. Analysis methods were Intraclass correlation coefficient and Pearson correlation. Results In Phantoms, the 40% threshold method gave the best concordance between measured and actual volumes (r = 0.992, 0.997). In clinical patient outcome agreement between observers EDGE it is as high as 0.999 (CI: 0.998-0.999). And there were no statistical significance of the difference between the measurements (P = 0.620). 40% threshold method showed the best correlation between the measurements (r = 0.953). Increasing the ratio of tumor to background decreased the influence of a measuring method. Conclusion How to measure volume of the tumor in the patient was clinically most useful is 50% and the lowest impact on the characteristics of the tumor. Therefore, to reduce the background of the patients in PET/CT scan, it should be required research and effort.

  • PDF

Study on the legal system alignment of Invention Promotion Act and Its Relationship with the Framework Act on Intellectual Property (발명진흥법 법체계 정비와 지식재산 기본법의 관계에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Kyung-Ho;Kim, Si-Yeol;Kim, Hwa-Rye
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
    • /
    • v.17 no.8
    • /
    • pp.280-291
    • /
    • 2016
  • The Invention Promotion act is one of the acts that have been frequently revised. Such frequent revisions have been pointed out as a major cause of the recent ongoing discussion on the alignment of the Invention Promotion Act. For proper alignment of the Act, diversified perspectives and issues have been discussed. Of them, the talk considering the effect of the 2011 Framework Act on Intellectual Property establishment on the Invention Promotion Act has received increasing attention. In this situation, this paper examined the relationship between the Framework Act and Invention Act with special focus on the relationship between the framework-formed law and an individual act that has existed prior to such a framework act. Based on this analysis, this study examined the alignment goal of the Invention Act. In addition, by studying the relationship between the recently-established framework act and the individual act along with revision case examples thereof, this paper aimed to produce a standard reflecting the legal reality. This study assumed that, although it is difficult to recognize any formal superiority in the Framework Act on Intellectual Property in the present South Korean legal regime, some practical superiority or practical supremacy is still deemed to be acknowledged. Under this assumption, it was found in this study that the Invention Promotion Act would also need to be managed in an appropriate relationship with the Framework Act within the range of such an attitude. Moreover, the structure would need to be reorganized. As discussed partially at the practical level, however, the Invention Promotion Act is an execution act of the Framework Act on Intellectual Property. Furthermore, it is inappropriate to seek to converge the full structures completely, given the limitations of the South Korean legal regime and the fairness balance with other legal cases. It is deemed that, although the provisions of the Framework Act on Intellectual property should be considered at the practical level, the Invention Promotion Act will need to be respected for its legislative purpose in itself.

A Study on the Disclosure and Exemption of the Personal Data (개인정보의 공개와 보호에 관한 연구 - 영국 사례를 중심으로 -)

  • Kim, Jung Ae
    • The Korean Journal of Archival Studies
    • /
    • no.29
    • /
    • pp.225-268
    • /
    • 2011
  • The general public are interested in the politics and form public opinion and keep in check the government for true democracy. The general public have the right to be furnished information from the government. And the government should enact the Freedom of Information Act to provide the public's right to know. At the same time, the government should enact the Data Protection Act to provide the public's right to privacy. There is a friction between the Freedom of Information Act and the Data Protection Act. It's hard to maintain the proper balance between the Freedom of information Act and the Data Protection Act, but many countries try to do so. The UK enacted the Data Protection Act 1998(DPA), which entered into force on 2000, to comply with EU Directive 1995. The Freedom of Information Act 2000(FOI), which came fully into force on 2005, was passed in 2000. The FOI imposes significant duties and responsibilities on public authorities to give access to the information they hold. The purpose of this study is to consider the provisions of the personal data in FOI and DPA. Besides this, it identifies the complaint cases on public authorities about the disclosure and exemption of the personal data in comparison with the acts. If information is the personal data of the person making the request, it will disclose under the DPA. If information is the personal data of a third party, it will disclose under the FOI. These acts interact each other to make up for the weak points in the other to make a proper application of the act on public authorities. This study may have any limitation in making a comparative study of the disclosure and exemption of the personal data in Korea. But it is expected to provide a basis for understanding the disclosure and exemption of the personal data in the UK.

Estimation of Reference Crop Evapotranspiration Using Backpropagation Neural Network Model (역전파 신경망 모델을 이용한 기준 작물 증발산량 산정)

  • Kim, Minyoung;Choi, Yonghun;O'Shaughnessy, Susan;Colaizzi, Paul;Kim, Youngjin;Jeon, Jonggil;Lee, Sangbong
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
    • /
    • v.61 no.6
    • /
    • pp.111-121
    • /
    • 2019
  • Evapotranspiration (ET) of vegetation is one of the major components of the hydrologic cycle, and its accurate estimation is important for hydrologic water balance, irrigation management, crop yield simulation, and water resources planning and management. For agricultural crops, ET is often calculated in terms of a short or tall crop reference, such as well-watered, clipped grass (reference crop evapotranspiration, $ET_o$). The Penman-Monteith equation recommended by FAO (FAO 56-PM) has been accepted by researchers and practitioners, as the sole $ET_o$ method. However, its accuracy is contingent on high quality measurements of four meteorological variables, and its use has been limited by incomplete and/or inaccurate input data. Therefore, this study evaluated the applicability of Backpropagation Neural Network (BPNN) model for estimating $ET_o$ from less meteorological data than required by the FAO 56-PM. A total of six meteorological inputs, minimum temperature, average temperature, maximum temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and solar radiation, were divided into a series of input groups (a combination of one, two, three, four, five and six variables) and each combination of different meteorological dataset was evaluated for its level of accuracy in estimating $ET_o$. The overall findings of this study indicated that $ET_o$ could be reasonably estimated using less than all six meteorological data using BPNN. In addition, it was shown that the proper choice of neural network architecture could not only minimize the computational error, but also maximize the relationship between dependent and independent variables. The findings of this study would be of use in instances where data availability and/or accuracy are limited.

The Formation and Significance of Korean Ceramics Collections in Modern Britain (근대 영국의 한국도자 컬렉션의 형성 과정과 그 의미)

  • Kim, Yunjeong
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
    • /
    • v.52 no.4
    • /
    • pp.104-123
    • /
    • 2019
  • Various European countries were active rather early on in the formation and research of Korean ceramics, which are considered a representative genre of Korean art. Of these, England is especially noteworthy due to its relatively large volume of extant archival material related to the procurement of Korean ceramics in modern Britain. The material is important in that it contributes to our understanding of the formation and economic worth of these collections. Especially meaningful are the previously unknown documents dating to the period when institutions such as the British Museum and the Victoria & Albert Museum were most actively collecting Korean ceramics. These documents provide insight into the circumstances-process, prices, standards, perceptions, etc.-of procurement for the Korean ceramics now in British collections. The changes in the perception of Korean ceramics and the intention for forming such collections in modern Britain can be divided into three periods. The first, starting from the late 1870s and ending in the late 1880s, is categorized by the collectors' misguided ideal of Korean ceramics in the absence of a true understanding of the subject. During the late 1880s up until 1910, the Korean ceramics entering British collections were mostly ethnographic in nature and examples of implements used in Koreans' daily lives. Lastly, from 1910 to 1940, Korean ceramics were regarded as art objects to be collected, and Goryeo celadons formed the core of many of the British collections being assembled at the time. As for the matter of collecting standards and processes, the matter is examined through the study of three individuals who visited Korea and acquired Korean ceramics in the early 20th century. After 1910, the British started to make trips to the Far East via boat or the Trans-Siberian Express and purchase Korean ceramics during their travels. It has been confirmed that former bureaucrats were able to acquire 'good and old Goryeo ceramics' at reasonable prices from either tomb robbers or through direct visits to regions where such wares were being excavated. In addition, this study also focuses on the previously unfamiliar company Kavanaugh & Co, which made important sales and provided transport of various objects, including Korean ceramics, to its Western clients. The final part of this study examines the standards of appraisal for the Korean ceramics collected in modern Britain. The main criterion the balance between form and price of the piece. In other words, the best pieces were those that were of superior quality but acquired at the cheapest prices. British collectors particularly valued not only the Goryeo celadons favored by the Japanese but also Joseon ceramics for their innovative form, design, and technique. These standards of aesthetic and form were important factors that influenced the formation of diverse Korean ceramic collections in modern Britain.

The Effect of Meta-Features of Multiclass Datasets on the Performance of Classification Algorithms (다중 클래스 데이터셋의 메타특징이 판별 알고리즘의 성능에 미치는 영향 연구)

  • Kim, Jeonghun;Kim, Min Yong;Kwon, Ohbyung
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
    • /
    • v.26 no.1
    • /
    • pp.23-45
    • /
    • 2020
  • Big data is creating in a wide variety of fields such as medical care, manufacturing, logistics, sales site, SNS, and the dataset characteristics are also diverse. In order to secure the competitiveness of companies, it is necessary to improve decision-making capacity using a classification algorithm. However, most of them do not have sufficient knowledge on what kind of classification algorithm is appropriate for a specific problem area. In other words, determining which classification algorithm is appropriate depending on the characteristics of the dataset was has been a task that required expertise and effort. This is because the relationship between the characteristics of datasets (called meta-features) and the performance of classification algorithms has not been fully understood. Moreover, there has been little research on meta-features reflecting the characteristics of multi-class. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to empirically analyze whether meta-features of multi-class datasets have a significant effect on the performance of classification algorithms. In this study, meta-features of multi-class datasets were identified into two factors, (the data structure and the data complexity,) and seven representative meta-features were selected. Among those, we included the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI), originally a market concentration measurement index, in the meta-features to replace IR(Imbalanced Ratio). Also, we developed a new index called Reverse ReLU Silhouette Score into the meta-feature set. Among the UCI Machine Learning Repository data, six representative datasets (Balance Scale, PageBlocks, Car Evaluation, User Knowledge-Modeling, Wine Quality(red), Contraceptive Method Choice) were selected. The class of each dataset was classified by using the classification algorithms (KNN, Logistic Regression, Nave Bayes, Random Forest, and SVM) selected in the study. For each dataset, we applied 10-fold cross validation method. 10% to 100% oversampling method is applied for each fold and meta-features of the dataset is measured. The meta-features selected are HHI, Number of Classes, Number of Features, Entropy, Reverse ReLU Silhouette Score, Nonlinearity of Linear Classifier, Hub Score. F1-score was selected as the dependent variable. As a result, the results of this study showed that the six meta-features including Reverse ReLU Silhouette Score and HHI proposed in this study have a significant effect on the classification performance. (1) The meta-features HHI proposed in this study was significant in the classification performance. (2) The number of variables has a significant effect on the classification performance, unlike the number of classes, but it has a positive effect. (3) The number of classes has a negative effect on the performance of classification. (4) Entropy has a significant effect on the performance of classification. (5) The Reverse ReLU Silhouette Score also significantly affects the classification performance at a significant level of 0.01. (6) The nonlinearity of linear classifiers has a significant negative effect on classification performance. In addition, the results of the analysis by the classification algorithms were also consistent. In the regression analysis by classification algorithm, Naïve Bayes algorithm does not have a significant effect on the number of variables unlike other classification algorithms. This study has two theoretical contributions: (1) two new meta-features (HHI, Reverse ReLU Silhouette score) was proved to be significant. (2) The effects of data characteristics on the performance of classification were investigated using meta-features. The practical contribution points (1) can be utilized in the development of classification algorithm recommendation system according to the characteristics of datasets. (2) Many data scientists are often testing by adjusting the parameters of the algorithm to find the optimal algorithm for the situation because the characteristics of the data are different. In this process, excessive waste of resources occurs due to hardware, cost, time, and manpower. This study is expected to be useful for machine learning, data mining researchers, practitioners, and machine learning-based system developers. The composition of this study consists of introduction, related research, research model, experiment, conclusion and discussion.