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A Comparative Study on Physics Inquiry Activities in Science Textbooks for Primary School in Korea and Singapore (우리나라와 싱가포르의 초등학교 과학 교과서에 제시된 물리 영역 탐구 활동의 특징 비교)

  • Jung, Hana;Jhun, Youngseok
    • Journal of Science Education
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.139-152
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    • 2012
  • The purpose of this study is to provide some suggestions for future improvement of scientific inquiry activities in Korean elementary science textbook. The modified framework of Lee(2005) and Millar et al.(1998) was used to compare inquiry activities in the Korean and Singaporean science textbooks. The results of this study are as follows: Korean text books have more activities than Singapore's, but both countries have similar time allotment for science classes. In the area of 'inquiry process skill', Singapore is more balanced in 'Basic inquiry process skills' and 'Integrated inquiry process skills' than Korea. Singapore's integrated inquiry rate is also higher than Korea's. Next the results of comparing leaning objectives to scientific inquiry activities shows that Korean text books tend to focus on 'contents objectives', while Singapore's text books focus on balancing 'contents objectives' and 'process objectives'. Korean science textbooks encourage students to communicate the results of experiments but in most case these communication activities are actually not performed. Lastly Korea and Singapore have low degree of openness in inquiry activities. Remarkably 'Suggest questions' are totally conducted by teachers. This study implies that Korean science textbooks should have lower amounts of inquiry activities to accomodate enough time for communication about results. Next we need to make balance not only 'Basic inquiry process skills' and 'Integrated inquiry process skills' but also 'Content objectives' and 'Process objectives'. Lastly we need to make student to be the leader in science classes through encouraging them to plan procedures for experiments and to discover results by themselves.

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Effects of Oyster Shell Lime on Barley Growth and Soil Microbe in an Upland Soil (패화석이 보리생육과 토양 미생물상에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Young-Han;Sonn, Yeon-Kyu;Lee, Seong-Tae;Heo, Jae-Young;Kim, Min-Keun;Kim, Eun-Seok;Song, Won-Doo;Kim, Dae-Ho;Ok, Yong-Sik
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.610-613
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    • 2012
  • Oyster shell has a high content of $CaCO_3$ to be used as a acidic soil amendment. To enhance productivity of barley and soil microbe in an upland soil, oyster shell and calcium-magnesium carbonate were selected as a soil amendments in this study. A field experiment was treated no treatment (hereafter, control), oyster shell lime $3.09Mg\;ha^{-1}$ and $2.38Mg\;ha^{-1}$, and calcium-magnesium carbonate $2.38Mg\;ha^{-1}$ as amount of lime requirement in silt loam soil. The yield of barley from the oyster shell lime treatment was the highest. The protein content of barley was the highest of 11.1% in the calcium-magnesium carbonate, followed by 10.7% for the control, 10.6% for the oyster shell lime $3.09Mg\;ha^{-1}$, and 10.4% for the oyster shell lime $2.38Mg\;ha^{-1}$. Soil pH value was higher than that of control in harvesting stage. In addition, the population of soil bacteria was highest in oyster shell lime $2.38Mg\;ha^{-1}$, actinomycetes was highest in calcium-magnesium $2.38Mg\;ha^{-1}$. We concluded that the oyster shell lime can be effective to restore soil nutrient and microbe balance in an upland soil.

Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization Increment on Forage Crops Cultivation in Saemangum Reclaimed Land (새만금간척지 사료작물 재배시 질소증비 효과)

  • Yang, Chang-Hyu;Kim, Sun;Lee, Jang-Hee;Baek, Nam-Hyun;Kim, Taek-Kyum;Choi, Weon-Young;Jeong, Jae-Hyuk;Lee, Sang-Bok;Lee, Gyeong-Bo
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.235-240
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    • 2012
  • This study was conducted to find out the optimum cropping system for the stable production of forage crops in the newly reclaimed land located at Gwanghwal region of Saemangum reclaimed land in which the soil is sandy loam (Munpo series). There were two treatments of nitrogen fertilization 20% increment based on the standard fertilization of 150, $200kg\;ha^{-1}$. Whole crop barley as the winter crop sowed on 27 October. After the whole crop barley was harvested at the end of May. Corn and sorghum${\times}$sudangrass as the summer crop sowed at the early of June successively on the same field. Emergence rate the whole crop barley was high while the summer crops were low. Soil salinity was increased during cultivation of summer crops. However, corn and sorghum${\times}$sudangrass were not damaged by salt. Increase of nitrogen fertilization made the growth of cultivation crops good, stem and leaf tended to have a lot of the mineral nutrients at heading stage and silking stage. After experiment, among soil chemical properties pH, content of exchangeable sodium were decreased and content of organic matter, available phosphate were increased. Dry matter yield were showed whole crop barley $13,170kg\;ha^{-1}$ and sorghum${\times}$sudangrass $19,440kg\;ha^{-1}$ by increment of nitrogen fertilization. Therefore, to improve the product and nutrient balance of reclaimed saline land comprehensive soil management should be considered.

Effects of Fermented Soybean Paste Chungkukjang on the Immunoreactivity in Ovariectomized Mice (청국장이 난소적출 마우스의 면역 기능에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Hyunjin;Yoon, Leena;Kim, Hyun-Sook
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.42 no.12
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    • pp.1930-1939
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    • 2013
  • It has been reported that Chungkukjang, one of Korean traditional fermented soybean products, may improve hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia. In this study, we sought to investigate the immunoenhancing effects of Chungkukjang in ovariectomized mice. For the first period, female SLC ddy mice were either sham-operated (Sham; n=27) or ovariectomized (OVX; n=27). As a basal diet, ovariectomized mice were fed low-calcium diet for faster induction of osteoporosis for six weeks, and those in the Sham group were fed AIN-76 diet. For the second period, half of the OVX group (n=9) and the Sham group (n=9) were fed a Chungkukjang-based diet (CKJ); whereas the other half (OVX; n=9/ Sham; n=9) were fed a casein-based diet (CSI) for 8 weeks. After a second period, we collected the blood via heart puncture and measured the splenocytes proliferation, T lymphocyte subsets by flowcytometry, and levels of serum cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IFN-${\gamma}$ and TNF-${\alpha}$) by ELISA assay. The OVX+CKJ group showed higher splenocytes proliferation, higher ratio of CD4/CD8, and lower levels of IL-6 and TNF-${\alpha}$ cytokines compared to the OVX+CSI group. The Sham+CKJ group showed cytokine productions, such as higher levels of IL-10 and IFN-${\gamma}$, and lower levels of IL-6 and TNF-${\alpha}$ compared to the Sham+CSI group. The result of this study suggests that Chungkukjang may lower the proinflammatory cytokine levels in both the OVX and Sham groups. In addition, Chungkukjang could make a balance of T cell subset proliferations and enhance the splenocyte proliferations in the OVX group.

Fear of Falling and Related Factors in Elderly Living Alone Based on Fall Experience (독거여성노인의 낙상경험에 따른 낙상두려움과 관련요인)

  • Lee, Myungsuk;Lee, Yunbok
    • Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.243-256
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    • 2013
  • Objectives: This study was to investigate fear of falling and related factors in elderly living alone based on fall experience. Methods: Participants were 404 elderly women(faller=148, non-faller=256) over 65 years who were homebound living alone in Jeollanam-do Province. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using questionnaires from April $23^{th}$ to June $9^{th}$ 2013. The questionnaires consisted of demographic variables, fall experience, Fear of falling questionnaire(FOFQ), Falls Efficacy Scale(FES) and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression(CES-D). The collected data were analyzed using the SPSS version 14.0. Results: The fear of falling and the influential factors were different according to fall experience. Regression model for fear of falling in fallers significantly accounted for 46.1%(F=6.71, p<0.001); difficulty of performing activity, depression, fall-efficacy, static balance and assistive devices. Regression model for fear of falling in non-fallers significantly accounted for 55.2%(F=15.16, p<0.001); fall-efficacy, environmental hazards, difficulty of performing activity, risk of nutrition, housing type, dizziness and assistive devices. Conclusion: Results demonstrate that fall is an important health problem for elderly women living alone, and show fall experience for factors influencing fear of falling. These results could be used in the developing fall prevention programs.

An Oceanic Current Map of the East Sea for Science Textbooks Based on Scientific Knowledge Acquired from Oceanic Measurements (해양관측을 통해 획득된 과학적 지식에 기반한 과학교과서 동해 해류도)

  • Park, Kyung-Ae;Park, Ji-Eun;Choi, Byoung-Ju;Byun, Do-Seong;Lee, Eun-Il
    • The Sea
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.234-265
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    • 2013
  • Oceanic current maps in the secondary school science and earth science textbooks have played an important role in piquing students's inquisitiveness and interests in the ocean. Such maps can provide students with important opportunities to learn about oceanic currents relevant to abrupt climate change and global energy balance issues. Nevertheless, serious and diverse errors in these secondary school oceanic current maps have been discovered upon comparison with up-to-date scientific knowledge concerning oceanic currents. This study presents the fundamental methods and strategies for constructing such maps error-free, through the unification of the diverse current maps currently in the textbooks. In order to do so, we analyzed the maps found in 27 different textbooks and compared them with other up-to-date maps found in scientific journals, and developed a mapping technique for extracting digitalized quantitative information on warm and cold currents in the East Sea. We devised analysis items for the current visualization in relation to the branching features of the Tsushima Warm Current (TWC) in the Korea Strait. These analysis items include: its nearshore and offshore branches, the northern limit and distance from the coast of the East Korea Warm Current, outflow features of the TWC near the Tsugaru and Soya Straits and their returning currents, and flow patterns of the Liman Cold Current and the North Korea Cold Current. The first draft of the current map was constructed based upon the scientific knowledge and input of oceanographers based on oceanic in-situ measurements, and was corrected with the help of a questionnaire survey to the members of an oceanographic society. In addition, diverse comments have been collected from a special session of the 2013 spring meeting of the Korean Oceanographic Society to assist in the construction of an accurate current map of the East Sea which has been corrected repeatedly through in-depth discussions with oceanographers. Finally, we have obtained constructive comments and evaluations of the interim version of the current map from several well-known ocean current experts and incorporated their input to complete the map's final version. To avoid errors in the production of oceanic current maps in future textbooks, we provide the geolocation information (latitude and longitude) of the currents by digitalizing the map. This study is expected to be the first step towards the completion of an oceanographic current map suitable for secondary school textbooks, and to encourage oceanographers to take more interest in oceanic education.

Review of the Radiation Risk and Clinical Efficacy Associated with Computed Tomography Cancer Screening (암의 조기발견을 위한 CT촬영에서의 임상적 효능과 방사선위해에 대한 고찰)

  • Kim, Hyun Ja
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.214-227
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    • 2013
  • Computed tomographic scan as a screening procedures in asymptomatic individuals has seen a steady increase with the introduction of multiple-raw detector CT scanners. This report provides a brief review of the current controversy surrounding CT cancer screening, with a focus on the radiation induced cancer risks and clinical efficacy. 1. A large study of patients at high risk of lung cancer(the National Lung Screening Trial[NLST]) showed that CT screening reduced cancer deaths by 20%(1.33% in those screened compared with 1.67% in those not screened). The rate of positive screening tests was 24.2% and 96.4% of the positive screening results in the low-dose CT group were false-positive. Radiation induced lung cancer risk was estimated the most important in screening population because ERR of radiation induced lung cancer does not show the decrease with increasing age and synergistic connection between smoking and radiation risk. Therefore, the radiation risk may be on the same order of magnitude as the benefit observed in the NLST. Optimal screening strategy remain uncertain, CT lung cancer screening is not yet ready for implementation. 2. Computed tomographic colonography is as good as colonoscopy for detecting colon cancer and is almost as good as colonoscopy for detecting advanced adenomas, but significantly less sensitive and specific for smaller lesions and disadvantageous for subsequent therapeutic optical colonoscopy if polyps are detected. The average effective dose from CT colonography was estimated 8-10 $mS{\nu}$, which could be a significant dose if administered routinely within the population over many years. CT colonography should a) achieve at least 90% sensitivity and specificity in the size category from 6 and 10 mm, b) offer non-cathartic bowl preparation and c) be optimized and standardized CT parameters if it is to be used for mass screening. 3. There is little evidence that demonstrates, for whole-body scanning, the benefit outweighs the detriment. This test found large portion of patient(86~90.8%) had at least one abnormal finding, whereas only 2% were estimated to have clinically significant disease. Annual scans from ages 45 to 75 years would accrue an estimated lifetime cancer mortality risk of 1.9%. There is no group within the medical community that recommends whole-body CT. No good studies indicate the accuracy of screening CT, at this time. The benefit/risk balance for any of the commonly suggested CT screening techniques has yet to be established. These areas need further research. Therefore wild screening should be avoided.

Development of the evaluation tool for the food safety and nutrition management education projects targeting the middle class elderly: Application of the balanced score card and the structure-process-outcome concept (중산층 노인대상 식품안전·영양관리 교육 사업 평가를 위한 도구 개발: 균형성과표와 구조·과정·성과 개념 적용)

  • Chang, Hyeja;Yoo, Hyoi;Chung, Harim;Lee, Hyesang;Lee, Minjune;Lee, Kyungeun;Yoo, Changhee;Choi, Junghwa;Lee, Nayoung;Kwak, Tongkyung
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.48 no.6
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    • pp.542-557
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: The aim of this study is to develop an evaluation tool for operation of food safety and nutrition education projects for middle class elderly using the concept of the balanced score card. Methods: After the draft of the evaluation tool for the elderly training projects was completed, it was revised into the questionnaire and the validity of the indicators was tested by the Delphi group. The validity of the indicators was rated using a 5-point scale. The Delphi group consisted of 26 experts in the education sector, 16 government officials, and 24 professionals of the related area in communities. The first round test was conducted from July 9 to July 17, 2012, and 45 persons responded. The second round test was conducted from July 18 to July 25 and 32 persons responded. Results: The indicators, which were answered by more than 75 percent of the experts as 'agree' (4 points), 'strongly agree' (5 point) were included as the final indicators for the evaluation tool: 28 items out of 36 in outcome perspectives, 9 items out of 12 in process perspectives, and 17 out of 20 items in structure perspectives. The score was allocated as 50 points for outcome indicators, 20 points for process indicators, and 30 points for structure indicators. Conclusion: Completion of the evaluation tool is a prerequisite to determine whether the program is effectively implemented. The monitoring tool developed in the study could be applied for identification of the most optimal delivery path for the food safety and nutrition education program, for the spread of the food safety and nutrition education program for middle class elderly.

Limitations of National Responsibility and its Application on Marine Environmental Pollution beyond Borders -Focused on the Effects of China's Three Gorges Dam on the Marine Environment in the East China Sea- (국경을 넘는 해양환경오염에 대한 국가책임과 적용의 한계 -중국의 산샤댐 건설로 인한 동중국해 해양환경 영향을 중심으로-)

  • Yang, Hee Cheol
    • Ocean and Polar Research
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.341-356
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    • 2015
  • A nation has a sovereign right to develop and use its natural resources according to its policies with regard to development and the relevant environment. A nation also has an obligation not to harm other countries or damage environments of neighboring countries as consequences of such actions of developments or use of natural resources. However, international precedents induce a nation to take additional actions not to cause more damages from the specific acts causing environmental damages beyond national borders, when such acts have economic and social importance. That is to say that there is a tendency to resolve such issues in a way to promote the balance between the mutual interests by allowing such actions to continue. A solution to China's Three Gorges Dam dilemma based on a soft law approach is more credible than relying on a good faith approach of national responsibilities and international legal proceedings since the construction and operation of the dam falls within the category of exercising national sovereign rights. If a large scale construction project such as the Three Gorges Dam or operation of a nuclear power plant causes or may cause environmental damage beyond the border of a nation engaged in such an undertaking, countries affected by this undertaking should jointly monitor the environmental effects in a spirit of cooperation rather than trying to stop the construction and should seek cooperative solutions of mutual understanding to establish measures to prevent further damages. If China's Three Gorges Dam construction and operation cause or contain the possibility of causing serious damages to marine environment, China cannot set aside its national responsibility to meet international obligations if China is aware of or knows about the damage that has occurred or may occur but fail to prevent, minimize, reverse or eliminate additional chances of such damages, or fails to put in place measures in order to prevent the recurrence of such damages. However, Korea must be able to prove a causal relationship between the relevant actions and resulting damages if it is to raise objections to the construction or request certain damage-prevention actions against crucial adverse effects on the marine environment out of respect for China's right to develop resources and acts of use thereof. Therefore, it is essential to cumulate continuous monitoring and evaluations information pertaining to marine environmental changes and impacts or responses of affected waters as well as acquisition of scientific baseline data with observed changes in such baseline. As China has adopted a somewhat nonchalant attitude toward taking adequate actions to protect against marine pollution risks or adverse effects caused by the construction and operation of China's Three Gorges Dam, there is a need to persuade China to adopt a more active stance and become involved in the monitoring and co-investigation of the Yellow Sea in order to protect the marine environment. Moreover, there is a need to build a regular environmental monitoring system that includes the evaluation of environmental effects beyond borders. The Espoo Convention can serve as a mechanism to ease potential conflicts of national interest in the Northeast Asian waters where political and historical sensitivities are acute. Especially, the recent diplomatic policy advanced by Korea and China can be implemented as an important example of gentle cooperation as the policy tool of choice is based on regional cooperation or cooperation between different regions.

The Budget of Nutrients in the Estuaries Near Mokpo Harbor (목포항 주변 하구역의 영양염 수지)

  • Kim, Yeong-Tae;Choi, Yoon-Seok;Cho, Yoon-Sik;Oh, Hyun-Taik;Jeon, Seung-Ryul;Choi, Yong Hyeon;Han, Hyoung-Kyun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.708-722
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    • 2016
  • Land-Ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone (LOICZ) models for nutrient budgets were used to estimate the seasonal capacity of the Youngsan Estuary and Youngam-Geumho Estuary to sink and/or supply nutrients such as dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) and nitrogen (DIN) to provide an understanding of the behavior of the coupled biogeochemical cycles of phosphorus and nitrogen in the estuaries (Youngsan Estuary, Youngam-Geumho Estuary) near Mokpo Harbor. During non-stratified periods (May, September, and November, 2008), simple three-box models were applied in each sub-region of the system, while a two-layer box model was applied during on-site observation of stratification development (July, 2008). The resulting mass-balance calculation indicated that even after large discharges from artificial lakes (in May and July), DIP influxes due to a mixing exchange ($V_{X-3}$, or $V_{deep}$) were more than terrigenous loads, indicating the backward transportation of nutrients from a marine source. The model results also indicated that for nutrient loads (DIP and DIN fluxes) in September, an extreme congestion of nutrients occurred around the mouths (sub-region III of the model) of the estuaries, possibly due to an imbalance in physical circulations between the estuaries and offshore locations. In November, the Youngam-Geumho Estuary, into which freshwater was discharged from artificial lakes (Youngam and Geumho Lake), showed nutrient enrichment in the water column, but the Youngsan Estuary showed nutrient depletion. In conclusion, to efficiently control water quality in the estuaries near Mokpo Harbor, integrated environmental management programs should be implemented. I.e., the reduction of nutrient loads from land basins as well as the deposit of nutrient loads into adjacent coastal lines.