• Title, Summary, Keyword: Band to band Tunnelling

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An Analytical Modeling and Simulation of Dual Material Double Gate Tunnel Field Effect Transistor for Low Power Applications

  • Arun Samuel, T.S.;Balamurugan, N.B.
    • Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.247-253
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    • 2014
  • In this paper, a new two dimensional (2D) analytical modeling and simulation for a Dual Material Double Gate tunnel field effect transistor (DMDG TFET) is proposed. The Parabolic approximation technique is used to solve the 2-D Poisson equation with suitable boundary conditions and analytical expressions for surface potential and electric field are derived. This electric field distribution is further used to calculate the tunnelling generation rate and thus we numerically extract the tunnelling current. The results show a significant improvement in on-current characteristics while short channel effects are greatly reduced. Effectiveness of the proposed model has been confirmed by comparing the analytical results with the TCAD simulation results.

Pullout Resistance of Geosynthetic Strip with Rounded Band Anchor (수동저항부가 형성된 띠형 섬유보강재의 인발저항 특성)

  • Lee, Kwang-Wu;Cho, Sam-Deok;Han, Jung-Geun;Hong, Ki-Kwon
    • Journal of the Korean Geosynthetics Society
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.43-51
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    • 2011
  • This paper describes the results of pullout tests in the laboratory, which are conducted to assess the pullout performance of recently developed geosynthetic strip reinforcement with rounded band anchor. The geosynthetic strip can be used as reinforcements in reinforced soil wall with concrete block facing. The pullout resistance of the geosynthetic strip with rounded band anchor is mobilized by the combination of the interface friction between soil-reinforcement surface and the passive soil resistance caused by the rounded band anchor. Therefore, both the friction resistance and the passive resistance have to be considered in design. From the pullout test results, when the rounded band anchor are formed in the end part of the geosynthetic strip, pullout strength increases about from 10% to 65%. The passive resistance can be evaluated based on the pullout test results.

Photodetection Mechanism in Mid/Far-Infrared Dual-Band InAs/GaSb Type-II Strained-Layer Superlattice

  • No, Sam-Gyu;Lee, Sang-Jun;Krishna, Sanjay
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.127-127
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    • 2010
  • Owing to many advantages on indirect intersubband absorption from the hole miniband to the electron miniband based on the type-II band alignment in InAs/GaSb strained-layer superlattice (SLS), InAs/GaSb SLS infrared photodetector (SLIP) has emerged as a promising system to realize high-detectivity quantum photodetector operating up to room temperature in the spectral range of mid-infrared (MIR) to far-infrared (FIR). In particular, n-barrier-n (n-B-n) structure designed for blocking the majority-carrier dark current makes it possible for MIR/FIR dual-band SLIP whose photoresponse (PR) band can be exclusively selected by the bias polarity. In this study, we present the MIR and FIR photoresponse (PR) mechanism identified by dual-band PR spectra and photoluminescence (PL) profiles taken from InAs/GaSb SLIP. In the MIR/FIR PR spectra measured by changing bias polarity, each spectrum individually shows a series of distinctive peaks related to the transitions from the hole subbands to the conduction one. The PR mechanism at each polarity is discussed in terms of diffusion current, and a superposition of MIR-PR in the FIR-PR spectrum is explained by tunnelling of electrons activated in MIR-SLS. The effective FIR-PR spectrum decomposed into three curves for HH1, LH1, and HH2 has revealed the edge energies of 120, 170, and 220 meV, respectively, and the temperature variation of the MIR-PR edge energies shows that the temperature behavior of the SLS systems can be approximately expressed by the Varshni empirical equation.

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Characteristics of Si Nano-Crystal Memory

  • Kwangseok Han;Kim, Ilgweon;Hyungcheol Shin
    • JSTS:Journal of Semiconductor Technology and Science
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.40-49
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    • 2001
  • We have developed a repeatable process of forming uniform, small-size and high-density self-assembled Si nano-crystals. The Si nano-crystals were fabricated in a conventional LPCVD (low pressure chemical vapor deposition) reactor at $620^{\circ}c$ for 15 sec. The nano-crystals were spherical shaped with about 4.5 nm in diameter and density of $5{\times}l0^{11}/$\textrm{cm}^2$. More uniform dots were fabricated on nitride film than on oxide film. To take advantage of the above-mentioned characteristics of nitride film while keeping the high interface quality between the tunneling dielectrics and the Si substrate, nitride-oxide tunneling dielectrics is proposed in n-channel device. For the first time, the single electron effect at room temperature, which shows a saturation of threshold voltage in a range of gate voltages with a periodicity of ${\Delta}V_{GS}\;{\approx}\;1.7{\;}V$, corresponding to single and multiple electron storage is reported. The feasibility of p-channel nano-crystal memory with thin oxide in direct tunneling regime is demonstrated. The programming mechanisms of p-channel nano-crystal memory were investigated by charge separation technique. For small gate programming voltage, hole tunneling component from inversion layer is dominant. However, valence band electron tunneling component from the valence band in the nano-crystal becomes dominant for large gate voltage. Finally, the comparison of retention between programmed holes and electrons shows that holes have longer retention time.

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Stochastic numerical study on the propagation characteristics of P-Wave in heterogeneous ground (지반의 비균질성이 탄성파 전파 특성에 미치는 영향에 대한 추계론적 수치해석 연구)

  • Song, Ki-Il
    • Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.13-24
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    • 2013
  • Various elastic wave-based site investigation methods have been used to characterize subsurface ground because the dynamic properties can be correlated with various geotechnical parameters. Although the inherent spatial variability of the geotechnical parameters affects the P-wave propagation characteristics, ground heterogeneity has not been considered as an influential factor. Thus, the effect of heterogeneous ground on the travel-time shift and wavefront characteristics of elastic waves through stochastic numerical analyses is investigated in this study. The effects of the relative correlation lengths and relative propagation distances on the travel-time shift of P-waves considering various intensities of ground heterogeneity were investigated. Heterogeneous ground fields of stiffness (e.g., the coefficient of variation = 10 ~ 40%) were repeatedly realized in numerical finite difference grids using the turning band method. Monte Carlo simulations were undertaken to simulate P-wave propagation in heterogeneous ground using a finite difference method-based numerical approach. The results show that the disturbance of the wavefront becomes more significant with stronger heterogeneity and induces travel-time delays. The relative correlation lengths and propagation distances are systematically related to the travel-time shift.

The Prediction for Ground Movement of Urban NATM Tunnels using the Strain-softening Model (도시 NATM 터널의 변형율 연화모델을 이용한 지반거동예측)

  • Kim, Young Su;Jeong, Woo Seob;Lee, Sung Yun;Seok, Tae-Ryong
    • Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.21-30
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    • 2006
  • In case of an urban tunnel, the displacement of ground base controls the tunnel design because it is built on shallow and unconsolidated ground many times. There are more insufficiency to describe the ground movement which coincides in the measured result of the situ because the design of an urban tunnel is dependent on the method of numerical analysis used to the existing elastic and elasto-plastic models. We studied about the predict ion for the ground movement of a shallow tunnel in unconsolidated ground, mechanism of collapse, and settlement. Also this paper shows comparison with the existing elastic and elasto-plastic model using the unlinear analysis of the strain-softening model. We can model the real ground movement as the increasement of ground surface inclination or occurrence of shear band by using strain-softening model for the result of ground movement of an urban NATM tunnel.

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Reinforcing Effect of Pre-Tensioned Rock Bolts in the Jointed Rocks Condition (록볼트 긴장에 의한 수평절리암반의 보강효과)

  • An, Joung-Hwan;Lee, Sang-Duk
    • Tunnel and Underground Space
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.388-396
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    • 2009
  • Rock bolt is one of the most important supports for tunnelling to prevent excessive ground relaxation at the primary tunnel excavation stage. It forms a ground arch band by confining the ground around a tunnel. Rock bolt has various effects, such as support or hanging effect, internal pressure effect, arching effect, ground improvement effect etc. Most studies on rock bolt focused on the concept of support, but only a few researches on the ground reinforcing effect by pre-tensioning a rock bolts. In this study, large scale model tests are performed to investigate the ground reinforcing effect of rock bolts for regularly jointed rocks. Simple beam model was built to find out the reinforcing effect of jointed rocks, which was reinforced by pre-tensioned rock bolts. Settlement of model beam was analyzed through measuring its sagging for various installation intervals.

High Performance of SWIR HgCdTe Photovoltaic Detector Passivated by ZnS

  • Lanh, Ngoc-Tu;An, Se-Young;Suh, Sang-Hee;Kim, Jin-Sang
    • Journal of Sensor Science and Technology
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.128-132
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    • 2004
  • Short wave infrared (SWIR) photovoltaic devices have been fabricated from metal organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) grown n- on p- HgCdTe films on GaAs substrates. The MOVPE grown films were processed into mesa type discrete devices with wet chemical etching employed for meas delineation and ZnS surface passivatlon. ZnS was thermally evaporated from effusion cell in an ultra high vacuum (UHV) chamber. The main features of the ZnS deposited from effusion cell in UHV chamber are low fixed surface charge density, and small hysteresis. It was found that a negative flat band voltage with -0.6 V has been obtained for Metal Insulator Semiconductor (MIS) capacitor which was evaporated at $910^{\circ}C$ for 90 min. Current-Voltage (I-V) and temperature dependence of the I-V characteristics were measured in the temperature range 80 - 300 K. The Zero bias dynamic resistance-area product ($R_{0}A$) was about $7500{\Omega}-cm^{2}$ at room temperature. The physical mechanisms that dominate dark current properties in the HgCdTe photodiodes are examined by the dependence of the $R_{0}A$ product upon reciprocal temperature. From theoretical considerations and known current expressions for thermal and tunnelling process, the device is shown to be diffusion limited up to 180 K and g-r limited at temperature below this.

Capacitance-Voltage Characterization of Ge-Nanocrystal-Embedded MOS Capacitors (Ge 나노입자가 형성된 MOS 캐패시터의 캐패시턴스와 전압 특성)

  • Park, Byoung-Jun;Choi, Sam-Jong;Cho, Kyoung-Ah;Kim, Sang-Sig
    • Journal of IKEEE
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.156-160
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    • 2006
  • Capacitance versus voltage (C-V) curves of Ge-nanocrystal (NC)-embedded MOS capacitors with and without a single capping Al2O3 layer are characterized in this work. C-V curves of the Ge-NC-embedded MOS capacitor with the A12O3 layer are counterclockwise in the voltage sweeps, which indicates tile presence of charge storages in the Ge NCs by the tunnelling of charge carriers between the Si substrate and the Ge NCs. In the Ge-NC-embedded MOS capacitor without Al2O3 layer, clockwise hysteresis of the C-V curves and leftward shifts of the flat band voltages are observed for the embedded MOS capacitor without the Al2O3 layer. It is suggested that the characteristics of the C-V curves are due to the charge trapping at oxygen vacancies within a SiO2 layer. In addition, the illumination of the white light enhances the lower capacitance part of the C-V hysteresis. The origin for the enhancement is discussed in this paper.

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