• Title, Summary, Keyword: Battery swapping station

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Provision of Two-area Automatic Generation Control by Demand-side Electric Vehicle Battery Swapping Stations

  • Xie, Pingping;Shi, Dongyuan;Li, Yinhong
    • Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.300-308
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    • 2016
  • Application of demand-side resources to automatic generation control (AGC) has a great significance for improving the dynamic control performance of power system frequency regulation. This paper investigates the possibility of providing regulation services by demand-side energy storage in electric vehicle battery swapping stations (BSS). An interaction framework, namely station-to-grid (S2G), is presented to integrate BSS energy storage into power grid for giving benefits to frequency regulation. The BSS can be regarded as a lumped battery energy storage station through S2G framework. A supplementary AGC method using demand-side BSS energy storage is developed considering the vehicle user demand of battery swapping. The effects to the AGC performance are evaluated through simulations by using a two-area interconnected power grid model with step and random load disturbance. The results show that the demand-side BSS can significantly suppress the frequency deviation and tie-line power fluctuations.

Active Distribution System Planning Considering Battery Swapping Station for Low-carbon Objective using Immune Binary Firefly Algorithm

  • Shi, Ji-Ying;Li, Ya-Jing;Xue, Fei;Ling, Le-Tao;Liu, Wen-An;Yuan, Da-Ling;Yang, Ting
    • Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.580-590
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    • 2018
  • Active distribution system (ADS) considering distributed generation (DG) and electric vehicle (EV) is an effective way to cut carbon emission and improve system benefits. ADS is an evolving, complex and uncertain system, thus comprehensive model and effective optimization algorithms are needed. Battery swapping station (BSS) for EV service is an essential type of flexible load (FL). This paper establishes ADS planning model considering BSS firstly for the minimization of total cost including feeder investment, operation and maintenance, net loss and carbon tax. Meanwhile, immune binary firefly algorithm (IBFA) is proposed to optimize ADS planning. Firefly algorithm (FA) is a novel intelligent algorithm with simple structure and good convergence. By involving biological immune system into FA, IBFA adjusts antibody population scale to increase diversity and global search capability. To validate proposed algorithm, IBFA is compared with particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm on IEEE 39-bus system. The results prove that IBFA performs better than PSO in global search and convergence in ADS planning.

A Study on Battery Charging and Supply System of Electric Vehicle Using Photovoltaic Generation (태양광 발전을 이용한 전기자동차 배터리 충전 및 공급시스템에 관한 연구)

  • Choi, Hoi-Kyun
    • Journal of Climate Change Research
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.265-273
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    • 2017
  • Recently the Paris Climate Change Accord has been officially put into effect, making global efforts to implement Greenhouse Gas (GHG) reductions, and also International environmental regulations in the automotive sector will be further strengthened. The electric vehicle, which minimizes the particulate matter generated by existing internal combustion engine automobiles, is evaluated as a representative eco-friendly automobile. However, charging the battery of an electric vehicle is not fully environment-friendly if it is fueled by electricity that is being generated by fossil fuels as an energy source. The energy generated by the photovoltaic power generation system, which is an infinite clean energy, can be used to charge an electric vehicle's battery. Currently, shortage of charging facilities, time of charging, and high battery prices are the problem of activating the supply of electric vehicles. This study is to build a conjunction between the EVBSS (Electric Vehicle Battery Supply System) and ESS (Energy Storage System), which can quickly supply the photovoltaic charged battery to the required demand. If the charged battery in the Battery Swapping Station (BSS) is swapped swiftly, it will dramatically shorten the waiting time for charging the battery. As a result, if the battery is rented when it is needed, electric vehicles can be sold without the cost of a battery, which accounts for a large portion of the total cost, then the supply of electric vehicles are expected to expand. Furthermore, it will be an important alternative to maneuver climate change by minimizing GHG emissions from internal combustion engine vehicles.

A Study on the Economic Analysis of Introducing Battery-Based Eco Bus: Case Study of Daegu City, South Korea (친환경 버스 도입에 따른 경제성 분석에 관한 연구 (대구광역시 중심으로))

  • Bak, Jae Seok;Kim, Sung-Yul;Kim, Dong-Min
    • The Transactions of The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers
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    • v.67 no.3
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    • pp.343-351
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    • 2018
  • Renewable energy sources has drawn considerable attention as clean energy sources because of changing public attitudes regarding greenhouse gas and fine dust. Recently, in this respect, the government provides the drivers of electric vehicles with various benefits such as tax reduction, financial incentives and free parking from the public to the private sector. Plug-in electric vehicles are the most common in the private sector. Otherwise, different types of battery-based buses in the public sector are being developed, and there are three main types of charging: plug-in, battery swapping and wireless. Therefore, economic assessment of charging types in each bus route is required in order to facilitate the use of battery-based buses instead of the existing CNG buses. In this paper, net present value(NPV) and B/C ratio of charging types are evaluated in consideration of the bus schedule, the cost of charging station, and the life cycle of battery, etc. per each bus route. In case study, main bus routes in Daegu City are simulated with the proposed evaluation method to validate the eco-bus project.

A case study on optimal location modeling of battery swapping & charging facility for the electric bus system (전기버스를 위한 배터리 자동 교환-충전인프라 배치 최적화 모형개발 및 적용 사례 분석)

  • Kim, Seung-Ji;Kim, Wonkyu;Kim, Byung Jong;Im, Hyun Seop
    • The Journal of The Korea Institute of Intelligent Transport Systems
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.121-135
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    • 2013
  • This paper propose an efficient algorithm for selecting electric bus charging facility location. In nature, the optimal charging facility location problem is similar to Set Covering Problem. Set Covering Problem is the problem of covering all the rows of an $m{\times}n$ matrix of ones and zeros by a subset of columns with a minimal cost. It has many practical applications of modeling of real world problems. The Set Covering Problem has been proven to be NP-Complete. In order to overcome the computational complexity involved in seeking optimal solutions, this paper present an enhanced greedy algorithm and simulated annealing algorithm. In this paper, we apply the developed algorithm to Seoul's public bus system.