• Title, Summary, Keyword: Bayesian analysis

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Regional Low Flow Frequency Analysis Using Bayesian Multiple Regression (Bayesian 다중회귀분석을 이용한 저수량(Low flow) 지역 빈도분석)

  • Kim, Sang-Ug;Lee, Kil-Seong
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.325-340
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    • 2008
  • This study employs Bayesian multiple regression analysis using the ordinary least squares method for regional low flow frequency analysis. The parameter estimates using the Bayesian multiple regression analysis were compared to conventional analysis using the t-distribution. In these comparisons, the mean values from the t-distribution and the Bayesian analysis at each return period are not significantly different. However, the difference between upper and lower limits is remarkably reduced using the Bayesian multiple regression. Therefore, from the point of view of uncertainty analysis, Bayesian multiple regression analysis is more attractive than the conventional method based on a t-distribution because the low flow sample size at the site of interest is typically insufficient to perform low flow frequency analysis. Also, we performed low flow prediction, including confidence interval, at two ungauged catchments in the Nakdong River basin using the developed Bayesian multiple regression model. The Bayesian prediction proves effective to infer the low flow characteristic at the ungauged catchment.

At-site Low Flow Frequency Analysis Using Bayesian MCMC: I. Theoretical Background and Construction of Prior Distribution (Bayesian MCMC를 이용한 저수량 점 빈도분석: I. 이론적 배경과 사전분포의 구축)

  • Kim, Sang-Ug;Lee, Kil-Seong
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.35-47
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    • 2008
  • The low flow analysis is an important part in water resources engineering. Also, the results of low flow frequency analysis can be used for design of reservoir storage, water supply planning and design, waste-load allocation, and maintenance of quantity and quality of water for irrigation and wild life conservation. Especially, for identification of the uncertainty in frequency analysis, the Bayesian approach is applied and compared with conventional methodologies in at-site low flow frequency analysis. In the first manuscript, the theoretical background for the Bayesian MCMC (Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo) method and Metropolis-Hasting algorithm are studied. Two types of the prior distribution, a non-data- based and a data-based prior distributions are developed and compared to perform the Bayesian MCMC method. It can be suggested that the results of a data-based prior distribution is more effective than those of a non-data-based prior distribution. The acceptance rate of the algorithm is computed to assess the effectiveness of the developed algorithm. In the second manuscript, the Bayesian MCMC method using a data-based prior distribution and MLE(Maximum Likelihood Estimation) using a quadratic approximation are performed for the at-site low flow frequency analysis.

Bayesian methods in clinical trials with applications to medical devices

  • Campbell, Gregory
    • Communications for Statistical Applications and Methods
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.561-581
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    • 2017
  • Bayesian statistics can play a key role in the design and analysis of clinical trials and this has been demonstrated for medical device trials. By 1995 Bayesian statistics had been well developed and the revolution in computing powers and Markov chain Monte Carlo development made calculation of posterior distributions within computational reach. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) initiative of Bayesian statistics in medical device clinical trials, which began almost 20 years ago, is reviewed in detail along with some of the key decisions that were made along the way. Both Bayesian hierarchical modeling using data from previous studies and Bayesian adaptive designs, usually with a non-informative prior, are discussed. The leveraging of prior study data has been accomplished through Bayesian hierarchical modeling. An enormous advantage of Bayesian adaptive designs is achieved when it is accompanied by modeling of the primary endpoint to produce the predictive posterior distribution. Simulations are crucial to providing the operating characteristics of the Bayesian design, especially for a complex adaptive design. The 2010 FDA Bayesian guidance for medical device trials addressed both approaches as well as exchangeability, Type I error, and sample size. Treatment response adaptive randomization using the famous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation example is discussed. An interesting real example of a Bayesian analysis using a failed trial with an interesting subgroup as prior information is presented. The implications of the likelihood principle are considered. A recent exciting area using Bayesian hierarchical modeling has been the pediatric extrapolation using adult data in clinical trials. Historical control information from previous trials is an underused area that lends itself easily to Bayesian methods. The future including recent trends, decision theoretic trials, Bayesian benefit-risk, virtual patients, and the appalling lack of penetration of Bayesian clinical trials in the medical literature are discussed.

Development of Hierarchical Bayesian Spatial Regional Frequency Analysis Model Considering Geographical Characteristics (지형특성을 활용한 계층적 Bayesian Spatial 지역빈도해석)

  • Kim, Jin-Young;Kwon, Hyun-Han;Lim, Jeong-Yeul
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
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    • v.47 no.5
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    • pp.469-482
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    • 2014
  • This study developed a Bayesian spatial regional frequency analysis, which aimed to analyze spatial patterns of design rainfall by incorporating geographical information (e.g. latitude, longitude and altitude) and climate characteristics (e.g. annual maximum series) within a Bayesian framework. There are disadvantages to considering geographical characteristics and to increasing uncertainties associated with areal rainfall estimation on the existing regional frequency analysis. In this sense, this study estimated the parameters of Gumbel distribution which is a function of geographical and climate characteristics, and the estimated parameters were spatially interpolated to derive design rainfall over the entire Han-river watershed. The proposed Bayesian spatial regional frequency analysis model showed similar results compared to L-moment based regional frequency analysis, and even better performance in terms of quantifying uncertainty of design rainfall and considering geographical information as a predictor.

At-site Low Flow Frequency Analysis Using Bayesian MCMC: II. Application and Comparative Studies (Bayesian MCMC를 이용한 저수량 점 빈도분석: II. 적용과 비교분석)

  • Kim, Sang-Ug;Lee, Kil-Seong
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.49-63
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    • 2008
  • The Bayesian MCMC(Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo) and the MLE(Maximum Likelihood Estimation) methods using a quadratic approximation are applied to perform the at-site low flow frequency analysis at the 4 stage stations (Nakdong, Waegwan, Goryeonggyo, and Jindong). Using the results of two types of the estimation method, the frequency curves including uncertainty are plotted. Eight case studies using the synthetic flow data with a sample size of 100, generated from 2-parmeter Weibull distribution are performed to compare with the results of analysis using the MLE and the Bayesian MCMC. The Bayesian MCMC and the MLE are applied to 36 years of gauged data to validate the efficiency of the developed scheme. These examples illustrate the advantages of the Bayesian MCMC and the limitations of the MLE based on a quadratic approximation. From the point of view of uncertainty analysis, the Bayesian MCMC is more effective than the MLE using a quadratic approximation when the sample size is small. In particular, the Bayesian MCMC is a more attractive method than MLE based on a quadratic approximation because the sample size of low flow at the site of interest is mostly not enough to perform the low flow frequency analysis.

Uncertainty Analysis of Parameters of Spatial Statistical Model Using Bayesian Method for Estimating Spatial Distribution of Probability Rainfall (확률강우량의 공간분포추정에 있어서 Bayesian 기법을 이용한 공간통계모델의 매개변수 불확실성 해석)

  • Seo, Young-Min;Park, Ki-Bum;Kim, Sung-Won
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.20 no.12
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    • pp.1541-1551
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    • 2011
  • This study applied the Bayesian method for the quantification of the parameter uncertainty of spatial linear mixed model in the estimation of the spatial distribution of probability rainfall. In the application of Bayesian method, the prior sensitivity analysis was implemented by using the priors normally selected in the existing studies which applied the Bayesian method for the puppose of assessing the influence which the selection of the priors of model parameters had on posteriors. As a result, the posteriors of parameters were differently estimated which priors were selected, and then in the case of the prior combination, F-S-E, the sizes of uncertainty intervals were minimum and the modes, means and medians of the posteriors were similar to the estimates using the existing classical methods. From the comparitive analysis between Bayesian and plug-in spatial predictions, we could find that the uncertainty of plug-in prediction could be slightly underestimated than that of Bayesian prediction.

On the Bayesian Statistical Inference (베이지안 통계 추론)

  • Lee, Ho-Suk
    • Proceedings of the Korean Information Science Society Conference
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    • pp.263-266
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    • 2007
  • This paper discusses the Bayesian statistical inference. This paper discusses the Bayesian inference, MCMC (Markov Chain Monte Carlo) integration, MCMC method, Metropolis-Hastings algorithm, Gibbs sampling, Maximum likelihood estimation, Expectation Maximization algorithm, missing data processing, and BMA (Bayesian Model Averaging). The Bayesian statistical inference is used to process a large amount of data in the areas of biology, medicine, bioengineering, science and engineering, and general data analysis and processing, and provides the important method to draw the optimal inference result. Lastly, this paper discusses the method of principal component analysis. The PCA method is also used for data analysis and inference.

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Identification of Uncertainty in Fitting Rating Curve with Bayesian Regression (베이지안 회귀분석을 이용한 수위-유량 관계곡선의 불확실성 분석)

  • Kim, Sang-Ug;Lee, Kil-Seong
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
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    • v.41 no.9
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    • pp.943-958
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    • 2008
  • This study employs Bayesian regression analysis for fitting discharge rating curves. The parameter estimates using the Bayesian regression analysis were compared to ordinary least square method using the t-distribution. In these comparisons, the mean values from the t-distribution and the Bayesian regression are not significantly different. However, the difference between upper and lower limits are remarkably reduced with the Bayesian regression. Therefore, from the point of view of uncertainty analysis, the Bayesian regression is more attractive than the conventional method based on a t-distribution because the data size at the site of interest is typically insufficient to estimate the parameters in rating curve. The merits and demerits of the two types of estimation methods are analyzed through the statistical simulation considering heteroscedasticity. The validation of the Bayesian regression is also performed using real stage-discharge data which were observed at 5 gauges on the Anyangcheon basin. Because the true parameters at 5 gauges are unknown, the quantitative accuracy of the Bayesian regression can not be assessed. However, it can be suggested that the uncertainty in rating curves at 5 gauges be reduced by Bayesian regression.

Bayesian pooling for contingency tables from small areas

  • Jo, Aejung;Kim, Dal Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Data and Information Science Society
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    • v.27 no.6
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    • pp.1621-1629
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    • 2016
  • This paper studies Bayesian pooling for analysis of categorical data from small areas. Many surveys consist of categorical data collected on a contingency table in each area. Statistical inference for small areas requires considerable care because the subpopulation sample sizes are usually very small. Typically we use the hierarchical Bayesian model for pooling subpopulation data. However, the customary hierarchical Bayesian models may specify more exchangeability than warranted. We, therefore, investigate the effects of pooling in hierarchical Bayesian modeling for the contingency table from small areas. In specific, this paper focuses on the methods of direct or indirect pooling of categorical data collected on a contingency table in each area through Dirichlet priors. We compare the pooling effects of hierarchical Bayesian models by fitting the simulated data. The analysis is carried out using Markov chain Monte Carlo methods.

Regional Low Flow Frequency Analysis Using Bayesian Multiple Regression (Bayesian 다중회귀분석을 이용한 저수량(Low flow) 지역빈도분석)

  • Kim, Sang-Ug;Lee, Kil-Seong;Sung, Jin-Young
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
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    • pp.169-173
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    • 2008
  • 본 연구는 저수량 지역 빈도분석(regional low flow frequency analysis)을 수행하기 위하여 일반최소자승법(ordinary least squares method)을 이용한 Bayesian 다중회귀분석을 적용하였으며, 불확실성측면에서의 효과를 탐색하기 위하여 Bayesian 다중회귀분석에 의한 추정치와 t 분포를 이용하여 산정한 일반 다중회귀분석의 추정치의 신뢰구간을 비교분석하였다. 각 재현기간별 비교결과를 보면 t 분포를 이용하여 산정된 평균 추정치와 Bayesian 다중회귀분석에 의한 평균 추정치는 크게 다르지 않았다. 그러나 불확실성 측면에서 평가해볼 때 신뢰구간의 상한추정치와 하한추정치의 차이는 Bayesian 다중회귀분석을 사용한 경우가 기존 방법을 사용한 경우보다 훨씬 작은 것으로 나타났으며, 이로부터 저수량(low flow) 지역 빈도분석을 수행하는 경우 Bayesian 다중회귀분석이 일반 회귀분석보다 불확실성을 표현하는데 있어서 우수하다는 결과를 얻을 수 있었다. 또한 낙동강 유역에 2개의 미계측 유역을 선정하고 구축된 Bayesian 다중회귀모형을 적용하여 불확실성을 포함한 미계측 유역에서의 저수량(low flow)을 추정하였으며 이와 같은 방법이 미계측 유역에서의 저수(low flow) 특성을 나타내는 데 있어서 효과적일 수 있음을 입증하였다.

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